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# Supersymmetric gauge theory

= $mathcal\left\{N\right\}=1$ SUSY in 4D (with 4 real generators) =

In theoretical physics, one often analyzes theories with supersymmetry which also haveinternal gauge symmetries. So, it is important to come up with a supersymmetric generalizationof gauge theories.In four dimensions, the minimal N=1 supersymmetry may be written using a superspace. This superspace involves four extra fermionic coordinates , transforming as a two-component spinor and its conjugate.

Every superfield, i.e. a field that depends on all coordinates of the superspace, may be expanded with respect to the new fermionic coordinates. There exists a special kind of superfields, the so-called chiral superfields, that only depend on the variables $heta$ but not their conjugates (more precisely, $overline\left\{D\right\}f=0$). However, a vector superfield depends on all coordinates. It describes a gauge field and its superpartner, namely a Weyl fermion that obeys a Dirac equation.

:

V is the vector superfield (prepotential) and is real ($overline\left\{V\right\}=V$). The fields on the right hand side are component fields.

The gauge transformations act as:$V o V + Lambda + overline\left\{Lambda\right\}$where Λ is any chiral superfield.

It's easy to check that the chiral superfield:$W_alpha equiv -frac\left\{1\right\}\left\{4\right\}overline\left\{D\right\}^2 D_alpha V$is gauge invariant. So is its complex conjugate $overline\left\{W\right\}_\left\{dot\left\{alpha$.

A nonSUSY covariant gauge which is often used is the Wess-Zumino gauge. Here, C, &chi;, M and N areall set to zero. The residual gauge symmetries are gauge transformations of the traditional bosonictype.

A chiral superfield X with a charge of q transforms as:$X o e^\left\{qLambda\right\}X$:$overline\left\{X\right\} o e^\left\{qoverline\left\{LambdaX$The following term is therefore gauge invariant:$overline\left\{X\right\}e^\left\{-qV\right\}X$

$e^\left\{-qV\right\}$ is called a bridge since it "bridges" a field which transforms under &Lambda; only with a field which transforms under $overline\left\{Lambda\right\}$ only.

More generally, if we have a real gauge group G that we wish to supersymmetrize, we first have to complexify it to Gc. e-qV then acts a compensator for the complex gauge transformations in effect absorbing them leaving only the real parts. This is what's being done in the Wess-Zumino gauge.

Differential superforms

Let's rephrase everything to look more like a conventional Yang-Mill gauge theory. We have a U(1) gauge symmetry acting upon full superspace with a 1-superform gauge connection A. In the analytic basis for the tangent space, the covariant derivative is given by $D_M=d_M+iqA_M$. Integrability conditions for chiral superfields with the chiral constraint $overline\left\{D\right\}_\left\{dot\left\{alphaX=0$ leave us with . A similar constraint for antichiral superfields leaves us with . This means that we can either gauge fix $A_\left\{dot\left\{alpha=0$ or $A_\left\{alpha\right\}=0$ but not both simultaneously. Call the two different gauge fixing schemes I and II respectively. In gauge I, $overline\left\{d\right\}_\left\{dot\left\{alphaX=0$ and in gauge II, $d_alpha overline\left\{X\right\}=0$. Now, the trick is to use two different gauges simultaneously; gauge I for chiral superfields and gauge II for antichiral superfields. In order to bridge between the two different gauges, we need a gauge transformation. Call it e-V (by convention). If we were using one gauge for all fields, $overline\left\{X\right\}X$ would be gauge invariant. However, we need to convert gauge I to gauge II, transforming X to (e-V)qX. So, the gauge invariant quantity is $overline\left\{X\right\}e^\left\{-qV\right\}X$.

In gauge I, we still have the residual gauge $e^Lambda$ where $overline\left\{d\right\}_\left\{dot\left\{alphaLambda=0$ and in gauge II, we have the residual gauge $e^\left\{overline\left\{Lambda$ satisfying $d_alpha overline\left\{Lambda\right\}=0$. Under the residual gauges, the bridge transforms as $e^\left\{-V\right\} o e^\left\{-overline\left\{Lambda\right\}-V-Lambda\right\}$. Without any additional constraints, the bridge $e^\left\{-V\right\}$ wouldn't give all the information about the gauge field. However, with the additional constraint , there's only one unique gauge field which is compatible with the bridge modulo gauge transformations. Now, the bridge gives exactly the same information content as the gauge field.

Theories with 8 or more SUSY generators

In theories with higher supersymmetry (and perhaps higher dimension), a vector superfield typically describes not only a gauge field and a Weyl fermion but also at least one complex scalar field.

* superpotential
* D-term
* F-term
* current superfield.

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