Object-oriented analysis and design


Object-oriented analysis and design

Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) is a software engineering approach that models a system as a group of interacting objects. Each object represents some entity of interest in the system being modeled, and is characterised by its class, its state (data elements), and its behavior. Various models can be created to show the static structure, dynamic behavior, and run-time deployment of these collaborating objects. There are a number of different notations for representing these models, such as the Unified Modeling Language (UML).

Object-oriented analysis (OOA) applies object-modeling techniques to analyze the functional requirements for a system. Object-oriented design (OOD) elaborates the analysis models to produce implementation specifications. OOA focuses on what the system does, OOD on how the system does it.

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Object-oriented systems

An object-oriented system is composed of objects. The behavior of the system results from the collaboration of those objects. Collaboration between objects involves them sending messages to each other. Sending a message differs from calling a function in that when a target object receives a message, it decides on its own what function to carry out to service that message. The same message may be implemented by many different functions, the one selected depending on the state of the target object.

The implementation of "message sending" varies depending on the architecture of the system being modeled, and the location of the objects being communicated with.

Object-oriented analysis

Object-oriented analysis (OOA) is the process of analyzing a task (also known as a problem domain), to develop a conceptual model that can then be used to complete the task. A typical OOA model would describe computer software that could be used to satisfy a set of customer-defined requirements. During the analysis phase of problem-solving, a programmer might consider a written requirements statement, a formal vision document, or interviews with stakeholders or other interested parties. The task to be addressed might be divided into several subtasks (or domains), each representing a different business, technological, or other areas of interest. Each subtask would be analyzed separately. Implementation constraints, (e.g., concurrency, distribution, persistence, or how the system is to be built) are not considered during the analysis phase; rather, they are addressed during object-oriented design (OOD).

The conceptual model that results from OOA will typically consist of a set of use cases, one or more UML class diagrams, and a number of interaction diagrams. It may also include some kind of user interface mock-up.

Object-oriented design

During object-oriented design (OOD), a developer applies implementation constraints to the conceptual model produced in object-oriented analysis. Such constraints could include not only constraints imposed by the chosen architecture but also any non-functional – technological or environmental – constraints, such as transaction throughput, response time, run-time platform, development environment, or those inherent in the programming language. Concepts in the analysis model are mapped onto implementation classes and interfaces resulting in a model of the solution domain, i.e., a detailed description of how the system is to be built.

Literature

  • Grady Booch. "Object-oriented Analysis and Design with Applications, 3rd edition":http://www.informit.com/store/product.aspx?isbn=020189551X Addison-Wesley 2007.
  • Rebecca Wirfs-Brock, Brian Wilkerson, Lauren Wiener. Designing Object Oriented Software. Prentice Hall, 1990. [A down-to-earth introduction to the object-oriented programming and design.]
  • A Theory of Object-Oriented Design: The building-blocks of OOD and notations for representing them (with focus on design patterns.)
  • Martin Fowler. Analysis Patterns: Reusable Object Models. Addison-Wesley, 1997. [An introduction to object-oriented analysis with conceptual models]
  • Bertrand Meyer. Object-oriented software construction. Prentice Hall, 1997
  • Brett McLaughlin, Gary Pollice, David West. Head First Object-Oriented Analysis and Design. O'Reilly, 2006.
  • Craig Larman. Applying UML and Patterns - Introduction to OOA/D & Iterative Development. Prentice Hall PTR, 3rd ed. 2005.
  • Setrag Khoshafian. Object Orientation. Wiley, 1995.

See also

References

This article was originally based on material from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, which is licensed under the GFDL.

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