The Morrígan ("terror" or "phantom queen") or Mórrígan ("great queen") (also known as Morrígu, Morríghan, Mor-Ríoghain, sometimes given in the plural as Morrígna) is a figure from
Irish mythologywho appears to have once been a goddess, although she is not explicitly referred to as such in the texts.
She is associated with sovereignty, prophecy,
warand death on the battlefield. She sometimes appears in the form of a carrion crow, flying above the warriors, and in the Ulster cycleshe also takes the form of an eel, a wolfand a cow. She is generally considered a war deity comparable with the Germanic Valkyries, although her association with cattle also suggests a role connected with fertility, wealth and the land.
She is often interpreted as a
triple goddess, although membership of the triad varies: the most common combination is the Morrígan, the Badband Macha, but sometimes includes Nemain, Fea, Anannand others.
There is some disagreement over the meaning of the Morrígan's name. It can be straightforwardly interpreted as "great queen" (Old Irish "mór", great; ["
Dictionary of the Irish Language" (DIL), Compact Edition, Royal Irish Academy, 1990, pp. 467-468] "rígan", queen, [DIL pp. 507] deriving from a hypothetical Proto-Celtic *"Māra Rīganī-s". [Alexander McBain, "An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language", 1911: " [http://www.ceantar.org/Dicts/MB2/mb27.html#mór mór] ", " [http://www.ceantar.org/Dicts/MB2/mb30.html#rìbhinn ribhinn] "] However it often lacks the diacriticover the "o" in the texts. Alternatively, "mor" (without diacritic) may derive from an Indo-European root connoting terror or monstrousness, cognatewith the Old English "maere" (which survives in the modern English word "nightmare") and the Scandinavian "mara". [DIL pp. 468] This can be reconstructed in Proto-Celtic as *"Moro-rīganī-s". [ [http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/institutes/sassi/spns/ProtoCelt.pdf Proto-Celtic – English wordlist] ; [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=nightmare EtymologyOnline: "nightmare"] ] Current scholarship mostly holds to Morrígan, often translated as "Phantom Queen" being the older, more accurate form. [Rosalind Clark (1990) "The Great Queens: Irish Goddesses from the Morrígan to Cathleen Ní Houlihan" (Irish Literary Studies, Book 34) ISBN 0-389-20928-7]
Glosses and glossaries
The earliest sources for the Morrígan are
glosses in Latin manuscripts, and glossaries (collections of glosses). In a 9th century manuscript containing the Latin Vulgatetranslation of the Book of Isaiah, the word "Lamia" is used to translate the Hebrew " Lilith". [Isaiah 34:14 "And wild beasts shall meet with hyenas, the satyr shall cry to his fellow; yea, there shall the "night hag" alight, and find for herself a resting place." (Revised Standard Version, emphasis added)] A gloss explains this as "a monster in female form, that is, a "morrígan".Angelique Gulermovich Epstein, "War Goddess: The Morrígan and her Germano-Celtic Counterparts", electronic version, #148, (September, 1998), pp. 45-51.] "Cormac's Glossary" (also 9th century), and a gloss in the later manuscript H.3.18, both explain the plural word "gudemain" ("spectres") [DIL p. 372] with the plural form "morrígna". The 8th century "O'Mulconry's Glossary" says that Machais one of the three "morrígna". It therefore appears that at this time the name "Morrígan" was seen as referring to a class of beings rather than an individual.
The Morrígan's earliest narrative appearances, in which she is depicted as an individual, are in stories of the
Ulster Cycle, where she has an ambiguous relationship with the hero Cúchulainn. In "Táin Bó Regamna" (the Cattle Raid of Regamain), Cúchulainn encounters the Morrígan as she drives a heiferfrom his territory. He challenges and insults her, not realising who she is. By this he earns her enmity. She makes a series of threats, and foretells a coming battle in which he will be killed. She tells him, enigmatically, "I guard your death". [" [http://www.maryjones.us/ctexts/regamna.html The Cattle Raid of Regamna] ", translated by A. H. Leahy, from "Heroic Romances of Ireland" Vol II, 1906]
In the "
Táin Bó Cuailnge" queen Medbof Connachtlaunches an invasion of Ulster to steal the bull Donn Cuailnge; the Morrígan, glossed as equivalent to Alectoof the Greek Furies, appears to the bull in the form of a crow and warns him to flee. [ Cecile O'Rahilly(ed & trans), [http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T301012/index.html "Táin Bó Cuailnge" Recension 1] , 1976, p. 152] Cúchulainn defends Ulster by fighting a series of single combats at fords against Medb's champions. In between combats the Morrígan appears to him as a young woman and offers him her love, and her aid in the battle, but he spurns her. In response she intervenes in his next combat, first in the form of an eelwho trips him, then as a wolfwho stampedes cattle across the ford, and finally as a red heifer leading the stampede, just as she had threatened in their previous encounter. However Cúchulainn wounds her in each form and defeats his opponent despite her interference. Later she appears to him as an old woman bearing the same three wounds that her animal forms sustained, milking a cow. She gives Cúchulainn three drinks of milk. He blesses her with each drink, and her wounds are healed. [Cecile O'Rahilly (ed & trans), "Táin Bó Cuailnge" Recension 1, 1976, pp. 176-177, 180-182; Cecile O'Rahilly (ed & trans), [http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T301035/index.html "Táin Bó Cualnge" from the Book of Leinster] , 1967, pp. 193-197] As the armies gather for the final battle, she prophesies the bloodshed to come. [Cecile O'Rahilly (ed & trans), "Táin Bó Cuailnge" Recension 1, 1976, pp. 229-230]
In one version of Cúchulainn's death-tale, as the hero rides to meet his enemies, he encounters the Morrígan as a
hagwashing his bloody armour in a ford, an omenof his death. Later in the story, mortally wounded, Cúchulainn ties himself to a standing stone with his own entrails so he can die upright, and it is only when a crow lands on his shoulder that his enemies believe he is dead. [" [http://www.maryjones.us/ctexts/cuchulain3.html The Death of Cú Chulainn] "]
The Morrígan also appears in texts of the
Mythological Cycle. In the 12th century pseudohistorical compilation " Lebor Gabála Érenn" she is listed among the Tuatha Dé Danannas one of the daughters of Ernmas, granddaughter of Nuada. [ [http://members.aol.com/lochlan2/lebor.htm "Lebor Gabála Érenn"] ]
The first three daughters of Ernmas are given as
Ériu, Banbaand Fódla. Their names are synonyms for Ireland, and they were married to Mac Cuill, Mac Cécht and Mac Gréine, the last three Tuatha Dé Danann kings of Ireland. Associated with the land and kingship, they probably represent a triple goddess of sovereignty. Next come Ernmas's other three daughters: the Badb, Machaand the Morrígan. A quatrain describes the three as wealthy, "springs of craftiness" and "sources of bitter fighting". The Morrígan's name is said to be Anann, and she had three sons, Glon, Gaim and Coscar. According to Geoffrey Keating's 17th century "History of Ireland", Ériu, Banba and Fódla worshipped the Badb, Macha and the Morrígan respectively, suggesting that the two triads of goddesses may be seen as equivalent. [Geoffrey Keating, "The History of Ireland" [http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100054/text021.html Book 2 Section 11] ]
The Morrígan also appears in "
Cath Maige Tuireadh" (the Battle of Mag Tuired). [ [http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G300011/index.html 'The Second Battle of Moytura"] , translated by Whitley Stokes] On Samhainshe keeps a tryst with the Dagdabefore the battle against the Fomorians. When he meets her she is washing herself, standing with one foot on either side of the river Unius. In some sources she is believed to have created the river. After they have sex, the Morrígan promises to summon the magicians of Ireland to cast spells on behalf of the Tuatha Dé, and to destroy Indech, the Fomorian king, taking from him "the blood of his heart and the kidneys of his valour". Later, we are told, she would bring two handfuls of his blood and deposit them in the same river (however, we are also told later in the text that Indech was killed by Ogma).
As battle is about to be joined, the Tuatha Dé leader, Lug, asks each what power they bring to the battle. The Morrígan's reply is difficult to interpret, but involves pursuing, destroying and subduing. When she comes to the battlefield she chants a poem, and immediately the battle breaks and the Fomorians are driven into the sea. After the battle she chants another poem celebrating the victory and prophesying the end of the world.
In another story she lures away the bull of a woman called
Odras, who follows her to the otherworld via the cave of Cruachan. When she falls asleep, the Morrígan turns her into a pool of water. [ [http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T106500D/text050.html "Odras"] , from "The Metrical Dindshenchas" [http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T106500D/index.html Vol 4] , translated by E. Gwynn]
Nature and functions
The Morrígan is often considered a
triple goddess, but her supposed triple nature is ambiguous and inconsistent. Sometimes she appears as one of three sisters, the daughters of Ernmas: the Morrígan, the Badband Macha. Sometimes the trinity consists of the Badb, Macha and Nemain, collectively known as the Morrígan, or in the plural as the Morrígna. Occasionally Fea or Anu also appear in various combinations. However the Morrígan also frequently appears alone, and her name is sometimes used interchangeably with the Badb, with no third "aspect" mentioned.
The Morrígan is usually interpreted as a "war goddess": W. M. Hennessey's "The Ancient Irish Goddess of War," written in 1870, was influential in establishing this interpretation. [W. M. Hennessy, [http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/aigw/index.htm "The Ancient Irish Goddess of War"] , "
Revue Celtique" 1, 1870-72, pp. 32-37] Her role often involves premonitions of a particular warrior's violent death, suggesting a link with the Bansheeof later folklore. This connection is further noted by Patricia Lysaght: "In certain areas of Ireland this supernatural being is, in addition to the name banshee, also called the "badhb". [Patricia Lysaght, "The Banshee: The Irish Death Messenger", 1986, ISBN 1-57098-138-8, p. 15]
It has also been suggested that she was closely tied to Irish "
männerbund" groups [Angelique Gulermovich Epstein, "War Goddess: The Morrígan and herGermano-Celtic Counterparts", electronic version, #148 (September, 1998)] (described as "bands of youthful warrior-hunters, living on the borders of civilized society and indulging in lawless activities for a time before inheriting property and taking their places as members of settled, landed communities") [Maire West, "Aspects of "díberg" in the tale "Togail Bruidne Da Derga", "Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie" vol. 49-50, p. 950] and that these groups may have been in some way dedicated to her. If true, her worship may have resembled that of Perchtagroups in Germanic areas. [Carlo Ginzburg, "Ecstasies: Deciphering the Witches' Sabbath", New York, Pantheon Books, 1991, ISBN 0-394-58163-6, pp. 6-7, 91, 101-2, 115 (note 47), 146 (note 62), 193, 182-204, 262, as well as numerous related references throughout Parts Two and Three]
However, Máire Herbert [Máire Herbert, "Transmutations of an Irish Goddess", in Miranda Green & Sandra Billington (ed.), "The Concept of the Goddess", 1996] has argued that "war "per se" is not a primary aspect of the role of the goddess", and that her association with cattle suggests her role was connected to the earth, fertility and sovereignty; she suggests that her association with war is a result of a confusion between her and the Badb, who she argues was originally a separate figure. She can be interpreted as providing political or military aid, or protection to the king - acting as a goddess of sovereignty, not necessarily a war goddess.
There is a
burnt moundsite in County Tipperaryknown as "Fulacht na Mór Ríoghna" - "the cooking pit of the Mórrígan". The fulachta sites are found in wild areas, and usually associated with outsiders such as the Fiannaand the above-mentioned "männerbund" groups, as well as with the hunting of deer. The cooking connection also suggests to some a connection with the three mythical hags who cook the meal of dogflesh that brings the hero Cúchulainnto his doom. The "Dá Chich na Morrigna" or two breasts of the Mórrígan, a pair of hills in County Meath, suggest to some a role as a tutelary goddess, comparable to Danu or Anu, who has her own hills in County Kerry. Other goddesses known to have similar hills are Áineand Grian of County Limerickwho, in addition to a tutelary function, also have solar attributes.
There have been attempts by some modern authors of fiction to link the Arthurian character
Morgan le Faywith the Morrígan. Morgan first appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's "Vita Merlini" ("The Life of Merlin") in the 12th century. However, while the creators of the literary character of Morgan may have been somewhat inspired by the much older tales of the goddess, the relationship ends there. Scholars such as Rosalind Clark hold that the names are unrelated, the Welsh "Morgan" being derived from root words associated with the sea, while the Irish "Morrígan" has its roots either in a word for "terror" or a word for "greatness". [Clark (1990) pp. 21-23, 208n.5]
Bean Nighe(The Gaelic Washer-at-the-ford)
The Hounds of the Morriganby Pat O'Shea
Morrigan Aensland, inspired by the Morrígan myth, a fighting gamecharacter from the Darkstalkersseries by Capcom.
The Weirdstone of Brisingamen" and " The Moon of Gomrath" by Alan Garnerin which The Morrígan appears as the leader of the Morthbrood.
*Christopher Moore, "
A Dirty Job" (Morrow, 2006). The Morrigan, in her triple form, plays a major role in this macabre comic novel.
* Rosalind Clark, "The Great Queens: Irish Goddesses from the Morrígan to Cathleen Ní Houlihan" (Irish Literary Studies, Book 34)
Barry Cunliffe, "The Ancient Celts"
* Miriam Robbins Dexter, "Whence the Goddess: A Source Book"
* Miranda Green, "Celtic Goddesses"
* Miranda Green, "Dictionary of Celtic Mythology"
* Miranda Green & Sandra Billington (ed.), "The Concept of the Goddess"
* James MacKillop, "Dictionary of Celtic Mythology"
* Anne Ross, "Pagan Celtic Britain: Studies in Iconography"
* Anne Ross , "The Divine Hag of the Pagan Celts", in V. Newall (ed.), "The Witch Figure".
* [http://snlemons.iweb.bsu.edu/docs/Celtic/Morrigan%20Thesis.ZIP War Goddess: the Morrígan and her Germano-Celtic Counterparts] thesis by Angelique Gulermovich Epstein (
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