Republic of Korea Air Force
Republic of Korea Air Force
대한민국 공군 (Daehanminguk Gong-gun)
Mark of the Republic of Korea Air Force
Active October 1, 1949 – present Country Republic of Korea Type Air Force Size 65,000 (2010) Part of Ministry of National Defense Garrison/HQ Gyeryong Mascot Haneuli / Purumae Aircraft 760 (2010) Engagements Korean War
War on Terrorism
Commanders Air Force Chief of Staff General Park, Jong-heon (2010.9.30~) Insignia Roundel Low-visibility Roundel
The Republic of Korea Air Force (ROK Air Force, ROKAF, Hangul: 대한민국 공군, Hanja: 大韓民國 空軍, Revised Romanization: Daehanminguk Gong-gun) is the air force of South Korea. It operates under the Ministry of National Defense.
The ROKAF has about 500 combat aircraft of American design, plus a few Russian, European, and indigenously designed aircraft.
- 1 History
- 2 Order of battle
- 3 Current projects
- 4 Main equipment
- 5 Former equipment
- 6 Military ranks
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Shortly after the end of World War II, the Korean Air Construction Association was founded on August 10, 1946 to publicize the importance of air power. Despite the then-scanty status of Korean armed forces, the first air unit was formed on May 5, 1948 under the direction of Dong Wi-bu, the forerunner to the modern Korean Ministry of National Defence. On September 13, 1949, the United States contributed 10 L-4 Grasshopper observation aircraft to the Korean air unit. An Army Air Academy was founded on January, 1949, and the ROKAF was officially founded on October, 1949.
The outbreak of the Korean War and the 1950s
The 1950s were a critical time for the ROKAF as it expanded tremendously during the Korean War. At the outbreak of the war, the ROKAF consisted of 1,800 personnel but was equipped with only 20 trainer and liaison aircraft, including 10 T-6 Texan (Korean:건국기, Hanja: 建國機, Geongukgi) advanced trainers purchased from Canada. The North Korean air force had acquired a considerable number of Yak-9 and La-7 fighters from the Soviet Union, dwarfing the ROKAF in terms of size and strength. However, during the course of the war, the ROKAF acquired 110 aircraft: 79 fighter-bombers, three fighter squadrons, and one fighter wing. The first combat aircraft received were F-51D Mustangs, along with a contingent of US Air Force instructor pilots under the command of Major Dean Hess. The ROKAF participated in bombing operations and flew independent sorties. After the war, the ROKAF Headquarters was moved to Daebangdong, Seoul. Air Force University was also founded in 1956.
To counter the threat of possible North Korean aggression, the ROKAF underwent a substantial capability enhancement. The ROKAF acquired T-28 trainers, F-86D night- and all-weather interceptors, F-5 fighters and F-4D fighter bombers. Air Force Operations Command was established in 1961 to secure efficient command and control facilities. Air Force logistics Command was established in 1966, and emergency runways were constructed for emergency use during wartime. Eunma Unit was founded in 1966 to aid the United States during the Vietnam War.
The ROKAF was posed with a security risk, with an increasingly belligerent North Korea throughout the 1970s. The South Korean government increased its expenditure on the ROKAF, resulting in purchase of F-5E fighters in August 1974 and F-4E fighter bombers. Support aircraft, such as C-123s and S-2s were also purchased at the time. Great emphasis was placed in the flight training program; new trainer aircraft (T-41 and T-37) were purchased, and the Air Force Education & Training Command was also founded in 1973 to consolidate and enhance the quality of personnel training.
The 1980s and 1990s
The ROKAF concentrated on qualitative expansion of aircraft to catch up to the strength of North Korean Air Force. In 1982, Korean variants of the F-5E, the Jegong-ho (hangul:제공호, hanja:制空號) were first produced. The ROKAF gathered a good deal of information on the North Korean Air Force when Captain Lee Woong-pyeong, a North Korean pilot, defected to South Korea. The Korean Combat Operations Information center was soon formed and the Air Defence System was automated to attain air superiority against North Korea. When the 1988 Seoul Olympics was held in South Korea, the ROKAF contributed to the success of this event by helping to oversee the entire security system. The ROKAF also moved its headquarters and the Air Force Education & Training Command to other locations. Forty F-16 Fighting Falcon fighters were obtained by South Korea in 1989.
South Korea committed its support for the coalition force during the Persian Gulf War. The Bima Unit was formed to participate in Operation Desert Storm. The ROKAF also provided airlift support for peacekeeping operations in Somalia in 1993. The increased participation in international operations depicted the ROKAF's elevated international position. Over 180 KF-16 fighters of F-16 Block 52 specifications were introduced as part of the Peace Bridge II & III program from 1994. In 1997, for the first time in Korean aviation history, female cadets were accepted into the Korean Air Force Academy.
South Korea maintains the modern South Korean Air Force in order to defend itself from various threats, including that of the North Korean Army and North Korean Air Force, which fields about twice as many aircraft (mostly older and obsolescent Soviet-designed fighters). As of 2008, the South Korean Air Force flew more than 180 KF-16, 174 F-5E/F, 130 F-4D/E, 39 F-15K (with 21 additional F-15Ks expected to be delivered between 2010 and 2012), and a number of South Korean-made T-50 among its combat aircraft. The last of the old South Korean 60 F-5A/B fighters were all retired in August 2007, and they are being replaced with the F-15K and F/A-50. The South Korean variant the of F-15E were named the F-15K Slam Eagle due to their capability to launch the SLAM-ER missiles and Harpoon Missiles. South Korea became one of the world's few aircraft exporters when it sold 19 KT-1B trainer aircraft to Indonesia in 2003. Korean Aerospace Industries, the South Korean national aerospace company, has plans to export more KT-1 and T-50 Golden Eagle supersonic trainer aircraft to other countries. In addition, the Ilyushin Il-103 prop-driven trainer has replaced the T-41 in the primary training role.
The Republic of Korea Air Force also expressed interests in acquiring the RQ-4 Global Hawk remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) and a number of Joint Direct Attack Munition conversion kits to further improve its intelligence and offensive capabilities.
On 20 October 2009, Bruce S. Lemkin, deputy undersecretary of the U.S. Air Force said that the ROKAF's limited intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities increased the risk of instability on the Korean Peninsula and suggested the purchase of American systems such as the F-35 Lightning II to close this gap.
Order of battle
- Republic of Korea Air Force Headquarters (대한민국 공군본부)
- Air Force Operations Command (공군작전사령부)
- 5th Tactical Airlift Wing (제5전술공수비행단), based at Busan-Gimhae (ICAO RKPK/IATA PUS)
- 251st Tactical Air Support Squadron flying C-130H and C-130H-30
- 256th Tactical Air Support Squadron flying CN235-100M
- 258th Tactical Support Squadron flying CN235-100M and CN235-220M
- 259th Tactical Air Support Squadron flying UH-60P
- 15th Composite Wing (제15혼성비행단), based at Seongnam (ICAO RKSM/IATA SSN)
- 237th Tactical Control Squadron flying 20 KA-1
- 255th Special Operations Squadron flying C-130H
- 257th Tactical Air Transport Squadron flying C-130H
- 35th Combined Group
- 296th Special Transport Squadron flying the HS-748 (2 aircraft tail numbers 1713 and 1718), CN235-220M (2 aircraft tail numbers 02-050 and 02-051), Boeing 737-3Z6 (1 aircraft tail number 85-101), Sikorsky VH-60P and the new Sikorsky S-92 (3 helicopters tail numbers 05-035, 05-050 and 05-055)
- 6th Combat Control Team/Combat Search And Rescue Group (제6탐색구조비행전대)
- Air Force Northern Combat Command (공군북부전투사령부)
- 10th Fighter Wing (제10전투비행단), based at Suwon (ICAO RKSW/IATA SWU)
- 101st Fighter Squadron flying KF-5E/KF-5F/F-5F
- 201st Fighter Squadron flying KF-5E/KF-5F/F-5F
- 39th Tactical Reconnaissance Group
- 131st Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron flying 17 RF-4C Phantom
- 17th Fighter Wing (제17전투비행단), based at Cheongju (ICAO RKTU/IATA CJJ)
- 152nd Fighter Squadron flying F-4E
- 153rd Fighter Squadron flying F-4E
- 156th Fighter Squadron flying F-4E
- 29th Tactical Development & Training Group
- 191st Tactical Development & Training Squadron flying F-16C/D and KF-16C/D
- 192nd Tactical Development & Training Squadron flying F-5E/F and KF-5E/F
- 6th Search & Rescue Group
- 233rd Combat Search & Rescue Squadron flying Bell 412, Eurocopter AS532L/L2 Cougar and Sikorsky HH-60P helicopters
- 235th Combat Search & Rescue Squadron flying Kamov HH-32 (KA-32T) and Boeing Vertol HH-47D Chinook helicopters
- 18th Fighter Wing (제18전투비행단), based at Gangneung (ICAO RKNN/IATA KAG)
- 19th Fighter Wing (제19전투비행단), based at Chungju (ICAO RKTU/IATA CJJ)
- 161st Fighter Squadron flying F-16C/D (Block32)
- 162nd Fighter Squadron flying F-16C/D (Block32)
- 155th Fighter Squadron flying KF-16C/D (Block52)
- 159th Fighter Squadron flying KF-16C/D (Block52)
- 20th Fighter Wing (제20전투비행단), based at Seosan (ICAO RKTP)
- 120th Fighter Squadron flying KF-16C/D (Block52)
- 121st Fighter Squadron flying KF-16C/D (Block52)
- 123rd Fighter Squadron flying KF-16C/D (Block52)
- 157th Fighter Squadron flying KF-16C/D (Block52)
- Air Force Southern Combat Command (공군남부전투사령부)
- 1st Fighter Wing (제1전투비행단), based at Gwangju (ICAO RKJJ/IATA KWJ)
- 11th Fighter Wing (제11전투비행단), based at Daegu (ICAO RKTN/IATA TAE)
- 102nd Fighter Squadron flying F-15K
- 122nd Fighter Squadron flying F-15K
- 151st Fighter Squadron flying F-4D
- 16th Fighter Wing (제16전투비행단), based at Yecheon (ICAO RKTY/IATA YEC)
- 202nd Fighter Squadron flying F-5E/F-5F/KF-5F
- 216th Flying Training Squadron flying 16 T-59 (BAe Hawk Mk.67)
- 38th Fighter Group (제38전투비행전대), based at Gunsan
- 111th Fighter Squadron flying KF-16
- Air Defence Artillery Command (방공포병사령부)
- 1st Air Defence Artillery Brigade (제1방공포병여단)
- 2nd Air Defence Artillery Brigade (제2방공포병여단)
- 3rd Air Defence Artillery Brigade (제3방공포병여단)
- 30th Air Defense and Control Wing (제30방공관제단), based at Osan (ICAO RKSO/IATA OSN)
- Air Force Logistics Command (공군군수사령부)
- Maintenance Depots (정비창)
- Supply Depots (보급창)
- Transportation Groups (수송단)
- Air Force Education & Training Command (공군교육사령부)
- Air Force University (공군대학)
- Basic Military Training Wing (기본군사훈련단)
- 3rd Flying Training Wing (제3훈련비행단)
- Air Force Aviation Science High School (공군항공과학고등학교)
- Technical Schools (병과학교)
- Aerospace Projects Group
- Aerial Combat Development Group (공군전투발전단)
- Air Force Academy (공군사관학교)
F-X fighter program
F-X Phase 1
One of the most recent additions to the ROKAF is F-15K Slam Eagle (Korean: F-15K 슬램 이글), an advanced derivative of the F-15E Strike Eagle which fulfilled the requirements of the "F-X" next generation fighter program in 2002. The F-15K was chosen over the Dassault Rafale, the Eurofighter Typhoon, and the Russian Sukhoi Su-35. Although the Rafale fighter received more favorable reviews from the senior military officials, the F-15K was chosen at the end due to the easier process of integration into the ROKAF since the Air Force already has supplies of American-designed and made weapons that can be installed on the F-15K more readily than on the Rafale.
F-15K crash controversy
On June 7, 2006, an F-15K crashed off the coast of South Korea, during a nighttime intercept training mission, killing both pilots on board. The ROKAF commissioned a full investigation, lasting several months. The Republic of Korea Air Force later issued a public statement saying that the accident was apparently caused by both crew members entering a state of g-force Loss-of-Consciousness that lasted 16 seconds and resulted in loss of control of the aircraft. Various discussions included 1. the blackbox (ECSMU) was not recovered, due to the great depth (1200 ft) of the crash site. 2. F-15Ks are NOT equipped with automatic GLC (g-force Loss-of-Consciousness?) systems, and 3. the pilots were both seasoned Air Force veterans. Other factors considered in the investigation were the cloudy weather conditions, a night mission with the use of night vision goggles. Flight control engine parts that were found and analyzed as part of the investigation which ruled out mechanical problems with the aircraft.
F-X Phase 2
For the second phase of the F-X program, ROKAF has purchased 21 additional F-15K to compensate for the retirement of their F-5A/B in August 2007. The avionics configuration for the Phase 1 and 2 F-15K remains largely identical, and the only differences are that the weapon compatibility has been increased (AGM-158 JASSM, Bunker Busters, etc.) and that the engines have been switched from the F110-STW-129A to the F100-PW-229EEP, an improved version of the F100-PW-229. The new engines have commonality with the F100-PW-229 engines on the KF-16 and are compatible with each other, allowing ROKAF the option to interchange the engines among the KF-16 and Phase 2 F-15K. This allows the F-15K to be equipped with a KF-16's F100-PW-229 if necessary.
F-X Phase 3
The third phase of the F-X project is a bid for an advanced multi-role strike fighter aircraft by 2014, intended to replace the aging F-4 Phantom II and F-5. The rumored purchase number is 40-60 aircraft (9 billion dollar project). The Korean Ministry of Defense has shown interest in the F-22 Raptor, but the United States Department of Defense is unlikely to permit the export of this advanced stealth fighter. The only candidates remaining are the F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter, the Eurofighter, the Sukhoi PAK FA, and the Boeing F-15SE Silent Eagle. The contract is expected to be awarded in October 2012.
E-X Early warning aircraft program
The E-X Airborne Early Warning (AEW) airplane program was a project undertaken by ROKAF to purchase early warning aircraft to strengthen ROKAF's ability to detect and distinguish between both friendly and hostile aircraft. The two candidates for this program are the Boeing Wedgetail, military version of the Boeing 737, and the Gulfstream G500/G550, developed by the General Dynamics company of the U.S.
The AEW version of Boeing 737 was offered by the United States, whereas the variant of Gulfstream of G500/G550 was offered by Israel. Originally, ROKAF expressed interest in the Gulfstream as it was cheaper than the Boeing counterpart. The Gulfstream was, in turn, less capable than the 737. However, the fact that almost no other nations, barring Japan, has advanced AWACS gave the Koreans the impression that the Gulfstream would be adequate enough to handle the given task of the E-X project.
In response to ROKAF's favor of the Israeli version of Gulfstream's lower cost, the United States issued a warning to the Israelis that several of the AWACS technologies employed aboard the Israeli Gulfstream were developed by the United States, such as the IFF system, TADIL A/B (link 11) and J (link 16), satellite communications and AN/ARC-164 Have Quick II radios, and thus that Israel was obliged not to resell any of these technologies to another country without the permission of the United States.
The winner of the AEW plane competition was chosen as the Boeing E-737 in November, 2006.
KF-X future fighter program
The KF-X program is a early-stage project to develop an indigenous fighter aircraft. The current proposal is to develop an F-16 Block 50 class aircraft with basic stealth capabilities to replace the F-4D/E Phantom II and F-5E/F Tiger II aircraft. South Korea is reportedly seeking technological assistance from Saab, Boeing and Lockheed Martin for the production of the KF-X. On 15 July 2010, the Indonesia government agreed to fund 20% of KF-X project cost in return of around 50 planes built for Indonesian Air Force after project completion. In September 2010, Indonesia sent a team of legal and aviation experts to South Korea to discuss copyright issues of the aircraft. In December 2010 the program shifted from a F-16 class fighter to a stealth aircraft in order to respond to North Korean pressure.
Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service Notes Fighter Aircraft Boeing F-15K Slam Eagle United States fighter-bomber F-15K Slam Eagle 52 (60) 8 more under delivery until 2012; one crashed airplane is being replaced free of charge
ROKAF will receive a total of 61 F-15K
KAI FA-50 Golden Eagle Republic of Korea attacker FA-50 0 (60) 60 to be produced starting from 2013 to replace F-5E/F Lockheed F-16 Fighting Falcon United States fighter
KF-16 built by KAI under license
ROKAF received a total of 30 F-16C-32, 10 F-16D-32, 94 KF-16C-52, and 46 KF-16D-52)
McDonnell-Douglas F-4 Phantom II United States fighter-bomber F-4E 68 to be replaced by 40 to 60 "F-X Phase 3" fighters between 2014-2018 Northrop F-5E/F Tiger II United States fighter
170 ROKAF received a total of 126 F-5E, 20 F-5F, 48 KF-5E, and 20 KF-5F
F-5E/F to be replaced by FA-50
KF-5 built by Korean Air under license between 1982 and 1986
Transport Aircraft Avro 748 United Kingdom VIP transport HS.748 2 Tail numbers 1713 and 1718 Boeing 737-300 United States VIP transport 737-3Z8 1 Boeing 747-400 United States VIP transport 747-4B5 1 Leased from Korean Air CASA CN-235 Spain European Union
tactical transport CN-235-100
built by CASA
built by Indonesian Aerospace (IPTN) 6 transport and 2 VVIP airplanes in the Indonesian batch
Lockheed C-130 Hercules United States tactical transport C-130H
Reconnaissance Aircraft BAe 125 Hawker 800 United Kingdom European Union reconnaissance
McDonnell-Douglas F-4 Phantom II United States reconnaissance RF-4C 16 ROKAF received a total of 27 RF-4C KAI KA-1 Woongbi South Korea forward air control & liaison KA-1 20 Boeing 737 AEW&C United States AEW&C 737-700IGW 1 (4) 4 to be delivered until 2012 under Peace Eye program Trainer Aircraft BAE Hawk United Kingdom trainer T-59 Hawk 67 16 Ilyushin Il-103 Russia trainer T-103 22 ROKAF received a total of 23 Il-103 by Brown Bear Project KAI KT-1 Woongbi South Korea trainer KT-1 84 ROKAF received a total of 85 KT-1 KAI T-50 Golden Eagle South Korea advanced trainer
Helicopters Bell UH-1H Iroquis United States utility helicopter UH-1H 13 Bell UH-1N Twin Huey United States transport helicopter 212
Boeing CH-47 Chinook United States rescue helicopter HH-47D 7 Sikorsky HH-60 Pave Hawk United States VIP transport
10 Sikorsky S-92A Superhawk United States VIP transport helicopter S-92A 3 Kamov Ka-32 Helix-C Russia rescue helicopter Ka-32T 7 Eurocopter AS 532 Cougar Indonesia VIP transport helicopter AS 532 3 built by Indonesian Aerospace (IPTN)
Air Defense Artillery Origin Type Versions In service Notes Raytheon MIM-104 Patriot United States surface-to-air missile PAC-2 GEM/T 6 batteries former German Bundeswehr equipment; 48 fire units and 192 missiles Raytheon MIM-23 Hawk United States surface-to-air missile HAWK-XXI 24 batteries 600 MIM-23K missiles; Integrated with AN/MPQ-64 Sentinel MBDA Mistral France MANPADS To be replaced by KP-SAM
Aircraft Introduction Origin Type Versions Notes Fixed-wing Aircraft Piper J-3 Cub 1948 United States Trainer L-4 Grasshopper First aircraft operated by Republic of Korea Air Force
ROKAF received a total of 20 L-4
North American T-6 Texan 1950 United States Trainer T-6 Texan ROKAF received a total of 10 T-6 North American P-51 Mustang 1950 United States Fighter F-51D Mustang ROKAF received a total of 203 F-51D Curtiss-Wright C-46 Commando 1955 United States Transport ROKAF received a total of 28 C-46 Douglas C-47 Skytrain 1955 United States Transport ROKAF received a total of 15 C-47 North American F-86 Sabre 1955 United States Fighter
ROKAF received a total of 112 F-86F and 10 RF-86F
All F-86F retired by 1990
Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star 1955 United States Trainer
T-33A Shooting Star
RT-33A Shooting Star
ROKAF received a total of 9 T-33A and 4 RT-33A
All T-33A retired by 1992
North American T-28 Trojan 1960 United States Trainer T-28A Trojan ROKAF received a total of 33 T-28A
All T-28 retired by 1989
North American F-86D Sabre 1961 United States Fighter F-86D Sabre ROKAF received a total of 50 F-86D
All F-86D retired by 1972
Northrop F-5 Freedom Fighter 1965 United States Fighter
F-5A Freedom Fighter
F-5B Freedom Fighter
RF-5A Freedom Fighter
ROKAF received a total of 88 F-5A, 30 F-5B, and 8 RF-5A
36 F-5A and 8 RF-5A were donated to Republic of Vietnam
5 RF-5A were brought back from Republic of Vietnam after its fall
All F-5A/B retired by 2005
Douglas C-54 Skymaster 1966 United States Transport ROKAF received a total of 17 C-54
All C-54 retired by 1992
McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II 1969 United States Fighter-bomber F-4D Phantom II ROKAF received a total of 92 F-4D
All F-4D retired by 2010
Grumman S-2 Tracker 1970 United States ASW aircraft S-2A Tracker ROKAF transferred the aircrafts to ROKN in 1976
ROKAF and ROKN received a total of 26 S-2A
Cessna T-41 Mescalero 1972 United States Trainer T-41B Mescalero ROKAF received a total of 27 T-41B
All T-41B retired by 2006
15 T-41B were donated to Philippines
Cessna T-37 Tweet 1973 United States Trainer T-37C Tweet ROKAF received a total of 55 (30 ex-Brazil) T-37C
All T-37C retired by 2004
Fairchild C-123 Provider 1973 United States Transport C-123K Provider ROKAF received a total of 22 C-123
All C-123K retired by 1994
Cessna O-2 Skymaster 1974 United States FAC aircraft O-2A Skymater All O-2A retired by 2006 Cessna A-37 Dragonfly 1976 United States Light attacker A-37B Dragonfly ROKAF received a total of 20 A-37B
All A-37B retired by 2007
8 A-37B were donated to Peru
Northrop T-38 Talon 1999 United States Trainer T-38A Talon ROKAF leased a total of 30 T-38A from the United States
All T-38A were returned to the United States by 2009
Officer ranks can be learned fairly easily if one sees the pattern. "So" equals small; "Jung" equals medium; "Dae" equals large. "Jun" equals the prefix sub-.. Each of these is coupled with "wi" equals company grade, "ryeong" equals field grade, and "jang" equals general. This system is due to the hanja or Sino-Korean origin of the names.
ROK Air Force rank ROK Air Force insignia Dae-jang
ROK Air Force rank ROK Air Force insignia Jun-wi
ROK Air Force rank ROK Air Force insignia Won-sa
(Chief Master Sergeant)
(Senior Master Sergeant)
ROK Air Force rank ROK Air Force insignia Byeong-jang
(Airman First Class)
¹: No one held the rank of Won-su in the history of the ROK Armed Forces yet.
²: The Jun-wi (Warrant Officer)'s insignia is in brass color while the ones of Second Lieutenant and higher are in silver color.
- Military of South Korea
- Korean People's Army Air Force
- Korea Air Defense Identification Zone (KADIZ)
- List of Korean Military Aircraft
- ^ "국방백서 2010". 2010-12-30. http://www.mnd.go.kr/cms_file/info/mndpaper/2010/2010WhitePaperAll.zip.
- ^ Korea Urged to Secure Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Systems
- ^ http://news.naver.com/news/read.php?mode=LSD&office_id=047&article_id=0000085633§ion_id=100&menu_id=100
- ^ "S. Korea seeking early purchase of stealth jets: sources." Yonhap, 30 January 2011.
- ^ "Four candidates short-listed in Korea's stealth jet project." Korea Herald, 20 July 2011.
- ^ South Korean military aviation OrBat
- ^ http://www.koreaherald.com/national/Detail.jsp?newsMLId=20100908000668
- ^ http://pds18.egloos.com/pds/201007/01/63/f0025563_4c2c5026d4f7d.jpg
- ^ "한국군 ‘북 탄도미사일’ 방어시스템은 - 아시아경제". Asiae.co.kr. http://www.asiae.co.kr/news/view.htm?idxno=2009092018175282355. Retrieved 2010-06-01.
- ^ http://www.koreadefence.net/wys2/file_attach/2009/10/11/1255272637-60.jpg
- ROK Air Force official website (Korean / English)
- Korea Aerospace Industries(KAI) official website (Korean / English)
- Foxmouse Airbase (Korean)
Republic of Korea Armed Forces
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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