Alexander romance is any of several collections of legends concerning the mythical exploits of
Alexander the Great. The earliest version is in Greek, dating to the 3rd century. Several late manuscripts attribute the work to Alexander's court historian Callisthenes, but the historical figure died before Alexander and couldn't have written a full account of his life. The unknown author is still sometimes called Pseudo-Callisthenes.
The text was recast into various versions between the 4th and the 16th century, in
Middle Greek, Latin, Armenian, Syriac, and most medieval European vernaculars.
Versions of the romance
Alexander was a legend in his own time. In a now-lost history of the king, the historical Callisthenes portrayed the sea in
Ciliciaas drawing back from him in proskynesis. Writing after Alexander's death, another participant, Onesicritus, went so far as to invent a tryst between Alexander and Thalestris, queen of the mythical Amazons. (According to Plutarch, when Onesicritus read this passage to his patron Lysimachus, one of Alexander's generals who went on to become a king himself, Lysimachus quipped "I wonder where I was at the time." [Plutarch, "Life of Alexander", XLVI.] )
Throughout Antiquity and the
Middle Ages, the "Romance" underwent numerous expansions and revisions exhibiting a plasticity unseen in "higher" literary forms. Latin, Armenian, Georgian and Syriactranslations were made in Late Antiquity(4th to 6th centuries).
The Latin "
Alexandreis" of Walter of Châtillonwas one of the most popular medieval romances. A 10th century Latin version by one Leo the Archpriestis the basis of the later medieval vernacular translations in all the major languages of Europe, including French (12th century), English, Scots (" The Buik of Alexander") (13th century), Italian, Spanish (the " Libro de Alexandre"), German (the " Alexanderlied" and a 15th century version by Johannes Hartlieb), Slavonic,Fact|date=September 2007 Romanian,Fact|date=September 2007 and Hungarian.
The Syriac version gave rise to
Middle Eastern recensions, including Arabic, Persian (the " Iskandarnamah"), Ethiopic, Hebrew,Fact|date=September 2007, Turkish,Fact|date=September 2007 and Mongol (13th century).
The story of
Dhul-Qarnaynin the Qur'an( Sura"The Cave" 18:83-98) matches the Gog and Magogepisode in the "Romance", which has caused some controversy among Islamic scholars. Alexander was identified in Persian and Arabic-language sources as "Dhû-'l Qarnayn", Arabic for the "Horned One", likely a reference to the ram horns Alexander wears on coins minted during his rule to indicate his descent from the Egyptian god Amun. Islamic accounts of the Alexander legend, particularly in Persia, combined the Pseudo-Callisthenes material with indigenous Sassanid Middle Persianideas about Alexander. The "Alexander Romance" is the source of many incidents in Ferdowsi's " Shahnama".
The oldest version of the Greek text, the "
Historia Alexandri Magni" (Recensio α), can be dated to the 3rd century. It was subjected to various revisions during the Byzantine period, some of them recasting it into poetical form in Middle Greekvernacular. Recensio α is the source of a Latinversion by Julius Valerus(4th century), and an Armenian version (5th century). Most of the content of the Romance is fantastical, including many miraculous tales and encounters with mythical creatures such as Sirensor Centaurs.
*Recensio α sive Recensio vetusta: W. Kroll, Historia Alexandri Magni, vol. 1. Berlin: Weidmann, 1926
*Recensio β: L. Bergson, Der griechische Alexanderroman. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1965
*Recensio β (e cod. Leidensi Vulc. 93) L. Bergson, Der griechische Alexanderroman. Rezension β. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1965
*Recensio β (e cod. Paris. gr. 1685 et cod. Messinensi 62): L. Bergson, Der griechische Alexanderroman. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1965
*Recensio γ (lib. 1): U. von Lauenstein, Der griechische Alexanderroman. [Beiträge zur klassischen Philologie 4. Meisenheim am Glan: Hain, 1962]
*Recensio γ (lib. 2): H. Engelmann, Der griechische Alexanderroman. [Beiträge zur klassischen Philologie 12. Meisenheim am Glan: Hain, 1963]
*Recensio γ (lib. 3): F. Parthe, Der griechische Alexanderroman. [Beiträge zur klassischen Philologie 33. Meisenheim am Glan: Hain, 1969]
*Recensio δ (e cod. Vat. gr. 1700, 88v‑89r): G. Ballaira, "Frammenti inediti della perduta recensione δ del romanzo di Alessandro in un codice Vaticano," Bollettino del comitato per la preparazione dell'edizione nazionale dei classici greci e latini 13 (1965)
*Recensio ε: J. Trumpf, Anonymi Byzantini vita Alexandri regis Macedonum. Stuttgart: Teubner, 1974
*Recensio λ (lib. 3): H. van Thiel, Die Rezension λ des Pseudo-Kallisthenes Bonn: Habelt 1959
*Recensio λ (
Pseudo-Methodiusredactio 1) H. van Thiel, Die Rezension λ des Pseudo-Callisthenes Bonn: Habelt 1959
*Recensio λ (Pseudo-Methodius redactio 2) H. van Thiel, Die Rezension λ des Pseudo-Kallisthenes Bonn: Habelt 1959
*Recensio F (cod. Flor. Laurentianus Ashburn 1444), vernacular: V.L. Konstantinopulos and A.C. Lolos, Ps.-Kallisthenes‑ Zwei mittelgriechische Prosa-Fassungen des Alexanderromans, 2 vols [Beiträge zur klassischen Philologie 141 & 150, Meisenheim am Glan: Hain 1983]
*Recensio φ: G. Veloudis, _gr. Ἡ φυλλάδα τοῦ Μεγαλέξαντρου. Διήγησις Ἀλεξάνδρου τοῦ Μακεδόνος [ _gr. Νέα Ἑλληνικὴ Βιβλιοθήκη 39. Athens: Hermes, 1977]
*Recensio Byzantina poetica (cod. Marcianus 408): S. Reichmann, Das byzantinische Alexandergedicht nach dem codex Marcianus 408 herausgegeben [Beiträge zur klassischen Philologie 13. Meisenheim am Glan: Hain, 1963]
*Recensio E (cod. Eton College 163), vernacular: V.L. Konstantinopulos and A.C. Lolos, Ps.-Kallisthenes, Zwei mittelgriechische Prosa.Fassungen des Alexanderromans, 2 vols [Beiträge zur klassischen Philologie 141 & 150‑ Meisenheim am Glan: Hain 1983]
*Recensio V (cod. Vind. theol. gr. 244): K. Mitsakis, Der byzantinische Alexanderroman nach dem Codex Vind. Theol. gr. 244 [Miscellanea Byzantina Monacensia 7. Munich: Institut für Byzantinistik und neugriechische Philologie der Universität, 1967]
*Recensio K (cod. 236 Kutlumussiu,
Athos), vernacular: K. Mitsakis, " _gr. Διήγησις περὶ τοῦ Ἀλεξάνδρου καὶ τῶν μεγάλων πολέμων," Byzantinisch-neugriechische Jahrbücher 20 (1970)
*Recensio poetica (recensio R), vernacular: D. Holton, _gr. Διήγησις τοῦ Ἀλεξάνδρου. The tale of Alexander. The rhymed version [ _gr. Βυζαντινὴ καὶ Νεοελληνικὴ βιβλιοθήκη. Thessalonica, 1974]
There are several Old and
Middle Frenchand one Anglo-Norman Alexander romances:
#The "Alexandre" of
Albéric de Briançonwas composed around 1120.
Fuerre de Gadres" by a certain Eustache, later used by Alexandre de Bernay and Thomas de Kent
Decasyllabic Alexander", anonymous from 1160–70.
Mort Alixandre", an anonymous fragment of 159 lines.
Li romans d'Alixandre" (c.1170), attributed to clergyman Alexandre de Bernay(also known as Alexandre de Pâris), is based on the translations of various episodes of the conqueror's life as composed by previous poets (Lambert de Tort, Eustache and more importantly Albéric of Besancon). Unlike other authors of the era who undertook the Alexander saga, he did not base his work on the Pseudo-Callisthenes or on the various translations of Julius Valerius' work. As is common in medieval literature, the project stems from the desire to improve on the work of others and to offer the complete life of the hero to the public, a theme that is also very present in the cyclical turn that the " chansons de geste" took at the time. It should be noted that Thomas de Kent also penned (probably) the very same decade a version of the saga, "Le roman de toute chevalerie", which is independent of Alexandre de Bernay's poem: Alexander's influence on the medieval imagination is thus shown as being as great, if not greater, than that of other pagan figures such as Herculesor Aeneas.
Thomas de Kent(or Eustache), around 1175, wrote the Anglo-Norman " Roman de toute chevalerie", which became the basis for the Middle English "King Alysaunder".
La Venjance Alixandre" by Jehan le Nevelon.
Alixandre en Orient" of Lambert de Tortwas composed around 1170.
Le Vengement Alixandre" by Gui de Cambrai, before 1191.
Old French Prose Alexandre" was the most popular Old French version. Anonymous.
Prise de Defur", from Picardyc. 1250.
Voyage d'Alexandre au Paradis terrestre" is a French adaptation (c. 1260) of the Latin " Iter ad paradisum"
Vow Cycleof Alexander romances includes the " Voeux du paon" by Jacques de Longuyon, " Restor du Paon" by Jean le Court, and " Parfait du paon" by Jean de Le Mote.
Faicts et les Conquestes d'Alexandre le Grand" by Jean Wauquelinc. 1448.
Fais et concquestes du noble roy Alexandre" is a late medieval prose version.
Faits du grand Alexandre" by Vasque de Lucèneis a prose translation (1468) of Quintus Curtius Rufus' "Historiae Alexandri Magni".
Englandthe "Alexander Romance" experienced a remarkable popularity. It is even referred to in Chaucer's " Canterbury Tales", where the monk apologizes to the pilgrimage group for treating a material so well known. However, unlike the indigenous legend of King Arthurand the related romances dealing with the Matter of Britain, the "Alexander Romance" neither confines itself to the history and culture of Western Europe, nor is it a story situated in the Middle Ages. There are five major romances in Middle Englishwhich have been passed down to us and most remain only in fragments. There are also two versions from Scotland, one which has sometimes been ascribed to the Early Scotspoet John Barbourwhich exists only in a sixteenth-century printing, and a Middle Scotsversion from 1499:
King Alisaunder" from c. 1275. In medieval orthography, "king" could be "kyng" and "Alisaunder" could be "Alysaunder".
Romance of Alisaunder" (or "Alexander of Macedon"), sometimes referred to as Alexander A, is a fragment of 1247 lines and written in alliterative verse. It was probably written between 1340 and 1370, shortly before the beginning of the alliterative revival, of which it is believed to be one of the oldest remaining poems. It has been preserved in a school notebook dating from 1600. In the broad strokes Alexander A deals with the begetting of Alexander by Nectanebus, his birth and early years and breaks off in the midst of the account of Philip's siege of Byzantium. It is likely that the source for this fragment has been the I²-recension of the " Historia de Preliis". Beside that it has been expanded with additional material taken from Paulus Orosius' Historiae adversum paganos, the adverse remarks, which are typical of Orosius, however have been omitted by the poet, whose main concern is Alexander's heroic conduct.
Alexander and Dindimus", sometimes referred to as Alexander B, is also written in alliterative verse. This fragment is found in the MS Bodley and consists of five letters which are passed between Alexander and Dindimus, who is the king of the Brahmins, a people of philosophers who shun all worldly lusts, ambitions and entertainments. In this respect their way of life resembles the ideal of an aescetic life, which was also preached by medieval monastic orders, such as the Franciscans. The source of Alexander B again is the I²-recension of the "Historia de Preliis".
Wars of Alexander", sometimes referred to as Alexander C, is the longest of the alliterative versions of the Middle English Alexander Romances. It goes back to the I³-recension of the "Historia de Preliis" and can be found in the MS Ashmole 44 and in the Dublin Trinity College MS 213. Although both manuscripts are incomplete they supplement each other fairly well. In this version much space is given to letters and prophecies, which often bear a moralizing and philosophical tenor. The letters are an integral part of the Pseudo-Callisthenes tradition. The dominant theme is pride, which inevitably leads to the downfall of kings. In "The Wars of Alexander" the hero is endowed with superhuman qualities, which shows in the romance insofar as his enemies fall to him by the dozens and he is always at the center of action.
Prose Life of Alexander" by Robert Thornton, c. 1440.
The Buik of Alexander", anonymous, attributed to John Barbour, dates to 1438 according to its first printed edition from 1580.
The Buik of King Alexander the Conquerour" by Gilbert Hay, 1499. This work is in Middle Scots.
*Harf-Lancner, Laurence (translator and commentator, edited by Armstrong and al.) (1994). "Le roman d'Alexandre", Livre de poche. ISBN 2-253-06655-9.
*Southgate, Minoo (translator) (1978). "Iskandarnamah : a Persian medieval Alexander-romance". New York: Columbia Univ. Press. ISBN 0-231-04416-x.
*Stoneman, Richard (editor and translator) (1991). "The Greek Alexander Romance". New York: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-044560-9.
*Wolohojian, A. H., "The Romance of Alexander the Great by Pseudo-Callisthenes" (from the Armenian), Columbia University Press (1969).
*Boyle, J. A., "The Alexander Romance In The East And West", Bulletin Of The John Rylands University Library Of Manchester, 1977, Volume 60, pp. 19-20.
*Budge, E. A. W., "The History Of Alexander The Great Being The Syriac Version Of The Pseudo-Callisthenes", ,Cambridge University Press (1889).
*Gero, S., "The Legend Of Alexander The Great In The Christian Orient", Bulletin Of The John Rylands University Library Of Manchester, 1993, Volume 75.
*Gosman, Martin (1988). "Le roman de toute chevalerie et le public visé: la légende au service de la royauté". In "Neophilologus" 72, 335-343.
*Gosman, Martin (1982). "Le roman d'Alexandre et les "juvenes": une approche socio-historique". In "Neophilologus" 66, 328-339.
*Gosman, Martin (1997). "La légende d'Alexandre le Grand dans la littérature française du douzième siècle". Rodopi. ISBN 90-420-0213-1.
* [http://www.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/Alexander/alexhomepage.htm The Medieval Alexander Project] at the
University of Rochester
* [http://www.ancientlibrary.com/wcd/Alexander_Romance Wiki Classical Dictionary]
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