Ningxia


Ningxia
Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region
Chinese : 宁夏回族自治区
Níngxià Huízú Zìzhìqū
Chinese Xiao'erjing : نٍ شيَا خُوِ ذُوْ ذِ جِ ثُوْ
Abbreviations: 宁/寧  (pinyin: Níng)
Ningxia is highlighted on this map
Origin of name 宁 níng—tranquil
夏 xià—Western Xia
"Tranquil Xia"
Administration type Autonomous region
Capital
(and largest city)
Yinchuan
CPC Ctte Secretary Chen Jianguo
Chairman Wang Zhengwei
Area 66,000 km2 (25,000 sq mi) (27th)
 - Latitude 35° 14' to 39° 23' N
 - Longitude 104° 18' to 107° 39' E
Population (2010)
 - Density
6,301,350 (29th)
89.1 /km2 (231 /sq mi) (25th)
GDP (2010)
 - per capita
CNY 164.3 billion (US$24.3 billion) (29th)
CNY 21,470 (18th)
HDI (2008) 0.766 (medium) (23rd)
Ethnic composition Han: 62%
Hui: 34%
Manchu: 0.4%
Spoken dialects {{{Dialects}}}
Prefectural level 5 divisions
County level 21 divisions
Township level* 219 divisions
ISO 3166-2 CN-64
Official website
http://www.nx.gov.cn/
Source for population and GDP data:
《中国统计年鉴—2005》 China Statistical Yearbook 2005
ISBN 7503747382
Source for nationalities data:
《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》 Tabulation on nationalities of 2000 population census of China
ISBN 7105054255
*As at December 31, 2004
Template ■ Discussion ■ WikiProject China
Ningxia
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese
Xiao'erjing نٍ شيَا
Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region
Simplified Chinese 宁夏回族自治区
Traditional Chinese 寧夏回族自治區

Ningxia, formerly transliterated as Ningsia, is an autonomous region (Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region) of the People's Republic of China. Located in Northwest China, on the Loess Plateau, the Yellow River flows through this vast area of land. The Great Wall of China runs along its northeastern boundary. The region is the home of the Hui people, one of the 56 officially recognised Nationalities of China. The capital is Yinchuan.

Ningxia is bounded by Shaanxi (to the east) and Gansu (in all directions but the north) provinces and Inner Mongolia (to the north) Autonomous Region and has an area of around 66,400 square kilometres (25,600 sq mi). Formerly a province, Ningxia was incorporated into Gansu in 1954 but was detached and reconstituted as an autonomous region for the Hui people in 1958. This sparsely settled mostly desert region lies in the vast plain of the Yellow River in the north which has been irrigated for centuries. Over the years an extensive system of canals has been built. Extensive land reclamation and irrigation projects have made increased cultivation possible.

Contents

History

Ningxia and its surrounding areas were incorporated into the Qin Dynasty as early as the 3rd century BCE. Throughout the Han Dynasty and the Tang Dynasty there were several large cities established in the region, and by the 11th century the Tangut tribe had established the Western Xia Dynasty on the outskirts of the then Song Dynasty.

It then came under Mongol domination after Genghis Khan conquered Yinchuan in the early 13th century. After the Mongols departed and its influences faded, some Turkic-speaking Muslims also began moving into Ningxia from the west. The Muslim Rebellion of the 19th century occurred here.

In 1914, Ningxia was merged with the province of Gansu; in 1928, however, it was detached and became a province. Between 1914 and 1928, the Xibei San Ma (literally "three Mas of the northwest") ruled the provinces of Qinghai, Ningxia and Gansu. Muslim Kuomintang General Ma Hongkui was the military Governor of Ningxia and had absolute authority in the province. In 1958, Ningxia formally became an autonomous region of China. In 1969, Ningxia received a part of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, but this area was returned in 1979. It is nearly coextensive with the ancient kingdom of the Tangut people, whose capital was captured by Genghis Khan in the early 13th century.

A number of Chinese artifacts dating from the Tang dynasty and Song dynasty, some of which had been owned by Emperor Zhenzong were excavated and then came into the hands of Ma Hongkui, who refused to publicize the findings. Among the artifacts were a white marble tablet from the Tang dynasty, gold nails, and bands made out of metal. It was not until after Ma passed away, that his wife went to Taiwan in 1971 from America to bring the artifacts to Chiang Kai-shek, who turned them over to the Taipei National Palace Museum.[1]

Geography

Ningxia borders the provinces of Shaanxi and Gansu, and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

The Yellow River flows through Ningxia. The Ningxia ecosystem is one of the least studied regions in the world. Some plant genera in Ningxia have been estimated at over 40,000 years old.

Ningxia is a relatively dry, desert-like region. Significant irrigation supports the growing of wolfberries, a commonly consumed fruit throughout the region.

Ningxia's deserts include the Tengger desert in Shapotou.

The northern section, through which the Yellow River flows, supports the best agricultural land. A railroad, linking Lanzhou with Baotou, crosses the region. A highway has been built across the Yellow River at Yinchuan.

On 16 December 1920, the Haiyuan earthquake, 8.6 magnitude, at 36°36′N 105°19′E / 36.6°N 105.32°E / 36.6; 105.32, initiated a series of landslides that killed an estimated 200,000 people. Over 600 large loess landslides created more than 40 new lakes.[2][3]

In 2006, satellite images indicated that a 700 by 200-meter fenced area within Ningxia—5 km southwest of Yinchuan, near the remote village of Huangyangtan—is a near-exact 1:500 scale terrain model reproduction of a 450 by 350-kilometer area of Aksai Chin bordering India, complete with mountains, valleys, lakes and hills. Its purpose is as yet unknown.[4][5]

Climate

The region is 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) from the sea and has a continental climate with average summer temperatures rising to 17 to 24 °C (63 to 75 °F) in July and average winter temperatures dropping to between −7 to −10 °C (19 to 14 °F) in January. Seasonal extreme temperatures can reach 39 °C (102 °F) in summer and −30 °C (−22 °F) in winter. The diurnal temperature variation can reach above 17 °C (30.6 °F), especially in spring. Annual rainfall averages from 190 to 700 millimetres (7.5 to 27.6 in), with more rain falling in the south of the region.

Environment

Governance

The politics of Ningxia is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Chairman of the Autonomous Region is the highest ranking official in the People's Government of Ningxia. However, in the Autonomous Region's dual party-government governing system, the Chairman has less power than the Communist Party of China Ningxia Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Ningxia CPC Party Chief".

Ningxia has a friendship agreement with Sogn og Fjordane county of Norway.[6]

Administrative divisions

Ningxia is divided into five prefecture-level cities:

Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Xiao'erjing Administrative Seat
Ningxia prf map.png
Prefecture-level city
1 Yinchuan 银川市 Yínchuān Shì ىٍ ﭼُﻮًا شِ Xingqing District
2 Shizuishan 石嘴山市 Shízuǐshān Shì شِ ذُﻮِ شً شِ Dawukou District
3 Wuzhong 吴忠市 Wúzhōng Shì ءُ ﺟْﻮ شِ Litong District
4 Zhongwei 中卫市 Zhōngwèi Shì ﺟْﻮ وِ شِ Shapotou District
5 Guyuan 固原市 Gùyuán Shì ﻗُﻮْ ﻳُﻮًا شِ Yuanzhou District

Economy

Ningxia is the province with the third smallest GDP (Tibet being the last) in China, even though its neighbors, Inner Mongolia and Shaanxi, are among the strongest emerging provincial economies in the country.[7] Its nominal GDP in 2008 was just 133.46 billion yuan (US$19.5 billion) and a per capita GDP of 21,470 yuan (US$3,143). It contributes 0.3% of the national economy.[8]

Unlike several other underdeveloped provinces, labor costs in Ningxia are among the highest in China (ranking in the top third percentile), making it unattractive as a manufacturing center. Furthermore, Ningxia has yet to become a hub for consumption due to it's low population.[9]

Ningxia is the principal region of China where wolfberries are grown.

Yinchuan Economic and Technological Development Zone:[10] established in 1992 spanning 32 km2, annual economic output Rmb23.7 billion (25.1% up) (US$3.5 billion) Major investors: Mainly local enterprises such as Kocel Steel Foundry, FAG Railway Bearing (Ningxia), Ningxia Little Giant Machine Tools, etc. Major industries: Machinery and equipment manufacturing, new materials, fine chemicals and the animation industry

Desheng Industrial Park (in Helan County), is a base for about 400 enterprises. The industrial park has industrial chains from Muslim food and commodities to trade and logistics, new materials and bio-pharmaceuticals that has 80 billion yuan in fixed assets. Desheng is looking to be the most promising industrial park in the city. It achieved a total output value of 4.85 billion in 2008, up 40 percent year-on-year. The local government plans to cut taxes and other fees to reduce the burden on local enterprises. The industrial output value reached 2.68 billion yuan in 2008, an increase of 48 percent from a year earlier.

Transport

Airports

Highways

Bridge

  • Taole Yellow River Expressway Bridge (陶乐黄河大桥)

Rail

  • Baotou-Lanzhou Railway (包兰铁路)
  • Baozhong Railway (宝中铁路)

Universities

See List of universities and colleges in Ningxia

Religion

Ningxia has a major Muslim and a minor Christian population. Church leaders from Ningxia have been detained in 2011. [11] The Diary of Ma Yan is a diary by a female Muslim from Ningxia. The Dungan revolt (1862–1877), Liang Province Rebellion, Kuomintang Islamic insurgency in China (1950–1958) and Muslim Conflict in Gansu (1927–1930) took place in the province. Outside Qingtongxia, there are 108 well-known Dagobas.

Hospitals

  • People's Hospital of Ningxia
  • Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Ningxia
  • Ningxia Medical College affiliated Hospital
  • Yinchuan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine
  • Yinchuan People's Hospital
  • Yinchuan Stomatological Hospital
  • Yinchuan Women and Children's Healthcare Center
  • Women and Children's Healthcare Center of Ningixa
  • Yinchuan No.1 People's Hospital
  • Yinchuan No.2 People's Hospital
  • Yinchuan No.3 People's Hospital
  • Shizuishan No.2 People's Hospital
  • Guyuan Hospital of Ningxia

Tourism

One of Ningxia's main tourist spots is the famous Xixia Tombs site located 30 km west of Yinchuan. The remnants of nine Western Xia emperors' tombs and two hundred other tombs lie within a 50-km² area. Other famous sites in Ningxia include Helan Shan, the mysterious 108 dagobas, the twin pagodas of Baisikou and the desert research outpost at Shapatou.

Museums

  • Ningxia Museum, opened in 1988
  • Ningxia Transportation Museum, opened in August 2008

Gallery

Notes

References

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Ningxia — Carte indiquant la localisation du Ningxia (en rouge) à l intérieur de la Chine Administration Pays …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ningxia — 宁夏回族自治区 Níngxià Huízú Zìzhìqū Abkürzung: 宁 (Pinyin: Níng) Hauptstadt Yinchuan Fläche   Gesamt   Anteil an der VR China Rang 27 von 33 66.461 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ningxia — 宁夏回族自治区 (Níngxià Huí Zú Zìzhìqū) Región Autónoma Hui de Ningxia Región Autónoma de China …   Wikipedia Español

  • Ningxia — Región Autónoma Hui de Ningxia (chino simplificado: 宁夏回族自治区, chino tradicional: 寧夏回族自治區, pinyin: Níngxià Huí Zú Zìzhì Qū, Forma tradicional: Ningsia), región autónoma de la República Popular China cuya capital es Yinchuan. Limita al norte con la… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Ningxia — /ning shyah /, n. Pinyin. a former province in NW China, now part of Inner Mongolia. Also, Wade Giles, Ninghsia; Older Spelling, Ningsia. * * * or Ningsia in full Hui Autonomous Region of Ningxia Autonomous region (pop., 2000 est.: 5,620,000),… …   Universalium

  • Ningxia — noun /nɪŋˈʃjɑː/ an (Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region) of China …   Wiktionary

  • Ningxia — /ning shyah /, n. Pinyin. a former province in NW China, now part of Inner Mongolia. Also, Wade Giles, Ninghsia; Older Spelling, Ningsia …   Useful english dictionary

  • Ningxia University — Motto 尚德勤学 求是创新 Motto in English Truth and innovation through virtuous and diligent study Established 2002 Type Public …   Wikipedia

  • Ningxia Campaign — Part of the Chinese Civil War Date September 5, 1949 September 24, 1949 Location Ningxia, China …   Wikipedia

  • NINGXIA (RÉGION AUTONOME DU) — NINGXIA [NING HIA] RÉGION AUTONOME DU La région autonome Hui du Ningxia, créée en 1958, est une des cinq régions autonomes de la république populaire de Chine. Elle couvre 66 400 kilomètres carrés et compte 4 800 000 habitants selon les… …   Encyclopédie Universelle


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.