Bureau of Construction and Repair
The Bureau of Construction and Repair was the part of the
United States Navywhich from 1862 to 1940 was responsible for supervising the design, construction, conversion, procurement, maintenance, and repair of ships and other craft for the Navy. The bureau also managed shipyards, repair facilities, laboratories, and shore stations.
On June 20, 1940, Congress passed a law which consolidated the Bureau's functions with those of the
Bureau of Engineering, creating the Bureau of Ships(BuShips).
The Bureau was staffed by officers of the Construction Corps (called constructors) with advanced degrees in naval architecture. Six civilian constructors were hired by the Navy in 1794 to supervise construction of the frigates authorized by Congress that year.Snyder, Philip W., RADM USN "Bring Back the Corps" "United States Naval Institute Proceedings" February 1979 p.49] The Bureau of Construction, Equipment, and Repairs was established in 1842 as one of the five original material bureaus replacing the former
Board of Navy Commissioners. In 1862, Congress decided to replace the Bureau into three new organizations: the Bureau of Construction and Repair, the Bureau of Steam Engineering(later called the Bureau of Engineering), and the Bureau of Equipment. The Bureau of Construction and Repair was established by Congress by an act of July 5, 1862 (12 Stat. 510). The new organization, headed by a Chief of the Bureau, was responsible for all aspects of ship construction, except for propulsion systems, which were the responsibility of the Bureau of Engineering; and equipage, which fell under the Bureau of Equipment.
The Construction Corps was created in 1866 to be staffed by constructors graduated from the
United States Naval Academycadet-engineer curriculum implemented in 1864.Snyder, Philip W., RADM USN "Bring Back the Corps" "United States Naval Institute Proceedings" February 1979 pp.50-51] The Construction Corps provided permanent naval status for personnel who had formerly been employed in a civilian capacity on an as-needed basis.Snyder, Philip W., RADM USN "Bring Back the Corps" "United States Naval Institute Proceedings" February 1979 p.51] Naval constructors gained the rank and recognition previously available to doctors of the Medical Corps and pursers of the Supply Corps. Two cadet-engineers of the Naval Academy class of 1879, Frances Bowles and Richard Gatewood, set the standard for postgraduate education of Construction Corps officers. Bowles and Gatewood completed postgraduate work in Englandin the developing science of naval architecture. The postgraduate program shifted to the Massachusetts Institute of Technologyin 1901. The Bureau of Equipment was discontinued in 1910, and formally abolished in 1914. Its functions were divided between the Bureau of Construction and Repair and the Bureau of Steam Engineering. These two bureaus were placed under the supervision of the Coordinator of Shipbuilding in 1939, and were superseded by the Bureau of Ships in 1940. The "engineering duty only" (EDO) designation of Bureau of Engineering officers expanded to include naval architects of the Construction Corps when the Bureau of Ships was formed in 1940.
Chiefs of the Bureau
Individuals who served as Chief of the Bureau include:
* Rear Admiral
William Shubrick, early 1850s?
* Rear Admiral
Washington L. Capps, served 1903-1910
* Rear Admiral
David W. Taylor, served during World War I
* Rear Admiral
Emory S. "Jerry" Land, served 1932-1937
* Rear Admiral
Alexander H. Van Keuren, -July, 1940 (Last Chief of BuC&R. Thereafter, also July, 1940, became Vice-Chief of new Bureau of Ships [BuShips] which supplanted BuC&R)
* [http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/019.html National Archives - Records of the U.S. Navy Bureau of Ships] (the successor organization of the Bureau of Construction and Repair)
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