Andros


Andros

Infobox Greek Isles
name = Andros
native_name = Άνδρος
skyline = Andros Beach.jpg
sky_caption = Vitali beach


coordinates = coord|37|50|N|24|56|E
chain = Cyclades
isles =
area = 380.041
highest_mount = Mt. Kouvara
elevation = 995
periph = South Aegean
prefect = Cyclades
capital = Andros (town)
population = 10009
pop_as_of = 2001
postal = 845 00
telephone = 22820
license = EM
website = [http://www.androsweb.gr www.androsweb.gr]

Andros, or Andro ( _el. Άνδρος), an island of the Greek archipelago, the most northerly of the Cyclades, approximately 10 km (6 miles) south east of Euboea, and about convert|3|km|mi|0|abbr=on north of Tinos. It is nearly convert|40|km|mi|0|abbr=on long, and its greatest breadth is convert|16|km|mi|0|abbr=on. Its surface is for the most part mountainous, with many fruitful and well-watered valleys. Andros, the capital, on the east coast, contained about 2000 inhabitants in 1900. The island had about 18,000 inhabitants in (1900). The 1991 census read 8,781. According to the latest Greek census of 2001, the town of Andros still contained 1,508 inhabitants, and the island's total was 10,009. The island is comprised of the municipalities of Andros (pop. 4,107), Korthio (pop. 2,547), and Ydrousa (pop. 3,355). Their combined land area is 380.041 km². The largest towns are Ándros, Gávrio, Bátsi, and Órmos Korthíou.

History

The island in ancient times contained an Ionian population. Though originally dependent on Eretria, by the 7th century BC it had become sufficiently prosperous to send out several colonies, to Chalcidice (Acanthus, Stageira, Argilus, Sane). The ruins of Palaeopolis, the ancient capital, are on the west coast; the town possessed a famous temple, dedicated to Dionysus.In 480 BC it supplied ships to Xerxes and was subsequently harried by the Greek fleet. Though enrolled in the Delian League it remained disaffected towards Athens, and in 477 had to be coerced by the establishment of a cleruchy on the island; nevertheless, in 411 Andros proclaimed its freedom, and in 408 withstood an Athenian attack. As a member of the second Delian League it was again controlled by a garrison and an archon. In the Hellenistic period Andros was contended for as a frontier-post by the two naval powers of the Aegean Sea, Macedon and Ptolemaic Egypt. In 333 it received a Macedonian garrison from Antipater; in 308 it was freed by Ptolemy I of Egypt. In the Chremonidean War (266-263) it passed again to Macedon after a battle fought off its shores. In 200 it was captured by a combined Roman, Pergamene and Rhodian fleet, and remained a possession of Pergamum until the dissolution of that kingdom in 133 BC. Before falling under Turkish rule, Andros was from A.D. 1207 till 1566 governed by the families Zeno and Sommariva under Venetian protection. After a few centuries, Cyclades joined the rest of Greece in 1821.

On May 10 1821, Theophilos Kairis, one of the leading intellectuals of the Greek Revolution, declared the War of Independence by raising the Greek flag at the picturesque cliffside church of St George: at this time, a famous heartfelt speech, or "rhetoras", inspired shipowners and merchants to contribute funds to build a Greek Navy to combat the Ottomans.

Andros City

Andros (Chora or Hora, pop. 1,508), the capital of the island, is on a headland between two beaches. It has a mix of post-World War I neoclassical mansions with vernacular Cycladic houses. The town squares are paved with marble. At the end of the headland are two islands, the first linked to the mainland by a brick bridge a ruined Venetian castle and the second a lighthouse. There are four museums: the extensive Archaeological Museum, Museum of Modern Art, a Nautical Museum and a Folklore Museum. The island is famous for its Sariza spring at Apoikia where the water comes out of a lionhead.

The north of Andros has a small Arvanite community, and an Arbëresh village in Sicily called Piana degli Albanesi is named 'Hora' in Arbëresh, possibly after the capital of Andros, also called Hora (Χώρα).

Palaeopolis, the ancient capital, built into a steep hillside, and its harbor's breakwater can still be seen underwater.

Municipalities

Communities and settlements

*Aladinon
*Apoikia
*Ammolochos
*Andros (Chora)
*Ano Aprovato
*Ano Gavrio
*Arnas, Andros
*Batsi
*Epano Fellos
*Gavrio
*Kalyvari
*Kaparia
*Katakilo
*Kipri
*Kochylos
*Lamira
*Livadia
*Makrotantalo
*Mermingies
*Mesaria
*Ormos Korthiou
*Palaiokastro
*Palaiopolis
*Piso Meria
*Pitrofos
*Sineti
*Stenies
*Varidio
*Vitalio
*Vouni
*Vourkoti
*Ypsilou
*Zaganiaris

Notable people

*Theophilos Kairis (1784-1853) priest and revolutionary
*Nikitas Kaklamanis (1946-present) doctor and politician, Mayor of Athens
*Yiannis Tridimas (1945-present) Established UK Long distance runner

Notes

* "Large Bronze Age Town Unearthed On Andros." New York, N.Y.: "Hellenic Times". Sep 2- 30, 2005. Vol. XXXII, Iss. 11; pg. 2. ISSN 1059-2121 [http://proquest.umi.com.proxy.lib.ohio-state.edu/pqdweb?did=931076351&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=3959&RQT=309&VName=PQD (link)]
*1911| article= Andros| url= http://www.gutenberg.org/files/13600/13600-h/13600-h.htm

References

External links

* [http://www.andros.gr/ind_en.htm Official website of Municipality of Ándros] en el icon
* [http://www.korthi.gr/ Official website of Municipality of Korthío] en el icon
* [http://www.andros-ydrousa.gr/ Official website of Municipality of Ydroúsa] en el icon
* [http://icarus.umkc.edu/sandbox/perseus/pecs/page.284.a.php Richard Stillwell, ed. "Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites", 1976:] "Andros, one of the Cyclades, Greece"


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