Gentile


Gentile

The term Gentile (from Latin gentilis, by the French "gentil", female: "gentille", meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe) refers to non-Israelite peoples or nations in English translations of the Bible.

Latin and subsequently English translators selectively used the term gentiles when the context for the base term "peoples" or "nations", Hebrew, גוי (goy) and נכרי (nokhri) in the Hebrew Bible and the Greek word ἔθνη (éthnē) in the New Testament, indicated non-Israelite peoples or nations. The term gentiles is derived from Latin, used for contextual translation, and not an original Hebrew or Greek word from the Bible.

Following Christianization of the Roman Empire, the general implication of the word gentile became "non-Jew".

Contents

Latin etymology

Gentile derives from Latin gens (from which, together with forms of the cognate Greek word genos, also derive gene, general, genus and genesis). The original meaning of "clan" or "family" was extended in post-Augustan Latin to acquire the wider meaning of belonging to a distinct nation or ethnicity. Later still the word came to refer to other nations, 'not a Roman citizen'. After the Christianization of the empire it could also be used of pagan or barbarian cultures.

In the Bible

In Saint Jerome's Latin version of the Bible, the Vulgate, gentilis was used in this wider sense, along with gentes, to translate Greek and Hebrew words with similar meanings when the text referred to the non-Hebrew peoples.

The most important of such Hebrew words was goyim (singular, goy), a term with the broad meaning of "peoples" or "nations" which was sometimes used to refer to Israelites, but most commonly as a generic label for peoples. Strong's Concordance defines goy as "nation, people, usually of non-Hebrew people, or of descendants of Abraham, or of Israel, or of a swarm of locusts or other animals (fig.) Goyim = 'nations'." Strongs #1471[1]

In the King James Version, Gentile is only one of several words used to translate goy or goyim. It is translated as "nation" 374 times, "heathen" 143 times, "Gentiles" 30 times, and "people" 11 times. Some of these verses, such as Genesis 12:2 ("I will make of thee a great nation") and Genesis 25:23 ("Two nations are in thy womb") refer to Israelites or descendants of Abraham. Other verses, such as Isaiah 2:4 and Deuteronomy 11:23 are generic references to any nation. Typically the KJV restricts the translation to "Gentile" when the text is specifically referring to non-Hebrew people. For example, the only use of the word in Genesis is in chapter 10, verse 5, referring to the peopling of the world by descendants of Japheth, "By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations."[2]

In the New Testament, the Greek word "ethnos" is used for peoples or nations in general, and is typically translated by the word "people", as in John 11:50 ("Nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not."). The translation "gentiles" is used in some instances, as in Matthew 10:5–6 to indicate non-Israelite peoples:

These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded them, saying, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not: But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.[3]

In that instance, Gentiles becomes a reference to pagan cultures of the period.

Altogether, the word is used 123 times in the King James Version of the Bible,[4] and 168 times in the New Revised Standard Version.[5]

Early Christianity

The Greek ethnos where translated as Gentile in the context of Early Christianity implied non-Israelite. There was a question among the disciples whether receiving the Holy Spirit through proselytization would be restricted to Israelites or whether it would include the gentiles (the Greco-Roman population of the Roman Empire), as in Acts 10:34–47:

And they of the circumcision which believed were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because that on the Gentiles also was poured out the gift of the Holy Ghost. For they heard them speak with tongues, and magnify God. Then answered Peter, Can any man forbid water, that these should not be baptized, which have received the Holy Ghost as well as we?"[6]

Attached to this question was the circumcision controversy in early Christianity, i.e., does a Gentile need to follow all of the Mosaic Laws. The position of the Judaizers was that this was a necessity, taking Christianity to remain fully within Judaism, including obedience to the Torah Laws. The opposite position was proposed by Paul of Tarsus who argued against the Judaizers, such as the Incident at Antioch. The Council of Jerusalem decided in favour of a liberal compromise, allowing converts to forgo circumcision, but requiring that they follow a minimal portion of the Law, called the Apostolic Decree (Acts 15:19–29), which may parallel Jewish Noahide Law.

Modern usage

As in the King James Bible, from the 17th century onward Gentile was most commonly used to refer to non-Jews. This was in the context of European Christian societies with a Jewish minority. For this reason Gentile commonly meant persons brought up in the Christian faith, as opposed to the adherents of Judaism, and was not typically used to refer to non-Jews in non-Western cultures.

LDS Church usage

In the terminology of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints ("LDS Church"; see also Mormon) the word Gentile takes on different meanings in different contexts which may confuse some and alienate others. Members of the LDS church regard themselves as regathered Israelites, and so sometimes use the word Gentile to refer to all non-members. According to John L. Needham of Utah State University, "Mormons in the American West applied gentile, as an adjective as much as a slur, to nearly everyone and everything that did not adhere to their faith or desert kingdom." Because they had suffered persecution, the word gentile was "a call to circle the wagons socially and politically around the fold".[7] In such usage Jews may be colloquially referred to as "Gentiles" because they are not members of the LDS Church. However, the traditional meaning is also to be found in the introduction to the Book of Mormon, in the statement that it is written to both "Jew" (literal descendants of the House of Israel) and "Gentile" (those not descended from the House of Israel or those of the tribe of Ephraim scattered among the "Gentiles" throughout the earth). Needham writes that Mormons have "outgrown the term."[7]

In order to avoid confrontation and pejorative connotations, Latter-day Saints in the 21st century avoid using the word Gentile in everyday matters, preferring "non-member". Gentile is usually reserved for discussions of scriptural passages.

British Israelism

In British Israelism, which claims that the Anglo-Saxon nations are direct descendants of the lost tribes of ancient Israel, the word gentiles is used to refer to all nations which are non-Jewish. Some schools of British Israelism consider that most nations of western and Northern Europe are tribes of Israel.[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ Searched [1] for goy.
  2. ^ Genesis 10:5
  3. ^ Matthew chapter 10:5–6
  4. ^ Did a search for "Gentile" in KJV. Used BibleGateway.com. It returned 123 results of the word "Gentile". Accessed 11-Feb-2007.
  5. ^ Kohlenberger, John. The NRSV Concordance Unabridged. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1991.
  6. ^ Acts chapter 10:34–45, King James Version
  7. ^ a b John L. Needham, "The Mormon-Gentile Dichotomy in PMLA", PMLA, Vol. 114, No. 5 (Oct., 1999), pp. 1109–1110

External links



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Look at other dictionaries:

  • GENTILE — GENTILE, non Jew. It was only during the later Second Temple period that a sharp distinction and a barrier of separation was erected between the Jew and the gentile. The prohibition of marriage, which in the Bible was limited to the seven… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Gentile — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Bartolomeo di Gentile ( 1465– 1534), italienischer Maler Claudio Gentile (* 1953), italienischer Fußballspieler und trainer Emilio Gentile (* 1946), italienischer Historiker und Faschismusforscher… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • GENTILE (G.) — GENTILE GIOVANNI (1875 1944) Ancien élève de l’École normale supérieure de Pise, Gentile enseigne dès 1903 la philosophie aux universités de Naples, de Palerme et de Rome. Il est, après Benedetto Croce, le représentant le plus éminent de la… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • gentilé — [ ʒɑ̃tile ] n. m. • 1752; lat. gentile nomen « nom de gens », de gens, gentis « race, famille » ♦ Didact. Dénomination des habitants d un lieu, relativement à ce lieu. ● gentilé nom masculin (latin gentile nomen, nom de famille) Ethnonyme.… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • gentile (1) — {{hw}}{{gentile (1)}{{/hw}}agg. 1 Che ha maniere garbate e affabili nei rapporti con gli altri: una persona gentile con tutti | Che mostra garbo e cortesia: invito, pensiero –g; SIN. Affabile, cortese, delicato, garbato. 2 Dotato di aspetto… …   Enciclopedia di italiano

  • Gentile — Gentile, Giovanni * * * (as used in expressions) Gentile da Fabriano Gentile di Niccolò di Massio Gentile, Giovanni …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • gentile — [jen′tīl΄] n. [< Fr & L; Fr gentil < L gentilis, of the same gens, clan, or race, also, foreigner (in opposition to Roman), in LL(Ec), pagan, heathen (in opposition to Jew and Christian): see GENTLE] [also G ] 1. any person not a Jew; often …   English World dictionary

  • Gentile — Gen tile, a. 1. Belonging to the nations at large, as distinguished from the Jews; ethnic; of pagan or heathen people. [1913 Webster] 2. (Gram.) Denoting a race or country; as, a gentile noun or adjective. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Gentile — Gen tile (j[e^]n t[imac]l), n. [L. gentilis belonging to the same clan, stock, race, people, or nation; in opposition to {Roman}, a foreigner; in opposition to {Jew} or {Christian}, a heathen: cf. F. gentil. See {Gentle}, a.] 1. One neither a Jew …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Gentile —   [dʒɛn ], Giovanni, italienischer Philosoph und Politiker, * Castelvetrano 30. 5. 1875, ✝ (durch antifaschistische Partisanen ermordet) Florenz 15. 4. 1944; war Professor in Palermo, Pisa und Rom (ab 1917), 1922 24 Unterrichtsminister im… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Gentile — Gentile, 1) Maler, s. Fabriano; 2) mehrere Dogen von Genua im 16., 17. u. 18. Jahrh., s. Genua (Gesch.) …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon


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