MPEG-2

MPEG-2 is used in Digital Video Broadcast and Digital Versatile Discs. The MPEG transport stream, TS, and MPEG program stream, PS, are container formats.

MPEG-2 is a standard for "the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information".[1] It describes a combination of lossy video compression and lossy audio data compression methods which permit storage and transmission of movies using currently available storage media and transmission bandwidth.

Contents

Main characteristics

MPEG-2 is widely used as the format of digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. It also specifies the format of movies and other programs that are distributed on DVD and similar discs. As such, TV stations, TV receivers, DVD players, and other equipment are often designed to this standard. MPEG-2 was the second of several standards developed by the Moving Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) and is an international standard (ISO/IEC 13818). Parts 1 and 2 of MPEG-2 were developed in a joint collaborative team with ITU-T, and they have a respective catalog number in the ITU-T Recommendation Series.

While MPEG-2 is the core of most digital television and DVD formats, it does not completely specify them. Regional institutions can adapt it to their needs by restricting and augmenting aspects of the standard. See Video profiles and levels.

Systems

MPEG-2 includes a Systems section, part 1, that defines two distinct, but related, container formats. One is the MPEG transport stream, designed to carry digital video and audio over possibly lossy media, where the beginning and the end of the stream may not be identified, such as broadcasting or magnetic tape, examples of which include ATSC, DVB, SBTVD and HDV. MPEG-2 Systems also defines the MPEG program stream, a container format designed for file-based media such as hard disk drives, optical discs and flash memory.

MPEG-2 Systems is formally known as ISO/IEC 13818-1 and as ITU-T Rec. H.222.0.[2][3] ISO authorized the "SMPTE Registration Authority, LLC" as the registration authority for MPEG-2 format identifiers. The registration descriptor of MPEG-2 transport is provided by ISO 13818-1 in order to enable users of the standard to unambiguously carry data when its format is not necessarily a recognized international standard. This provision will permit the MPEG-2 transport standard to carry all types of data while providing for a method of unambiguous identification of the characteristics of the underlying private data.[4]

Video

The Video section, part 2 of MPEG-2, is similar to the previous MPEG-1 standard, but also provides support for interlaced video, the format used by analog broadcast TV systems. MPEG-2 video is not optimized for low bit-rates, especially less than 1 Mbit/s at standard definition resolutions. All standards-compliant MPEG-2 Video decoders are fully capable of playing back MPEG-1 Video streams conforming to the Constrained Parameters Bitstream syntax. MPEG-2/Video is formally known as ISO/IEC 13818-2 and as ITU-T Rec. H.262.[5]

With some enhancements, MPEG-2 Video and Systems are also used in some HDTV transmission systems.

Audio

MPEG-2 introduces new audio encoding methods compared to MPEG-1:[6]

MPEG-2 Part 3

The MPEG-2 Audio section, defined in Part 3 (ISO/IEC 13818-3) of the standard, enhances MPEG-1's audio by allowing the coding of audio programs with more than two channels, up to 5.1 multichannel. This method is backwards-compatible (also known as MPEG-2 BC[7][8][9][10]), allowing MPEG-1 audio decoders to decode the two main stereo components of the presentation.[11] MPEG-2 part 3 also defined additional bit rates and sample rates for MPEG-1 Audio Layer I, II and III.[12]

MPEG-2 BC (backward compatible with MPEG-1 audio formats)[7][8][11]

  • low bitrate encoding with halved sampling rate (MPEG-1 Layer 1/2/3 LSF - a.k.a. MPEG-2 LSF - "Low Sampling Frequencies")
  • multichannel encoding with up to 5.1 channels, a.k.a. MPEG Multichannel
MPEG-2 Part 7

Part 7 (ISO/IEC 13818-7) of the MPEG-2 standard specifies a rather different, non-backwards-compatible audio format[9] (also known as MPEG-2 NBC[7][8][13]). Part 7 is referred to as MPEG-2 AAC. AAC is more efficient than the previous MPEG audio standards, and is in some ways less complicated than its predecessor, MPEG-1 Audio, Layer 3, in that it does not have the hybrid filter bank. It supports from 1 to 48 channels at sampling rates of 8 to 96 kHz, with multichannel, multilingual, and multiprogram capabilities.[6] Advanced Audio is also defined in Part 3 of the MPEG-4 standard.

MPEG-2 NBC (Non-Backward Compatible)[7][8]

  • MPEG-2 AAC
  • multichannel encoding with up to 48 channels

ISO/IEC 13818

MPEG-2 standards were published as parts of ISO/IEC 13818. Each part covers a certain aspect of the whole specification.

Part 1
Systems – describes synchronization and multiplexing of video and audio. (It is also known as ITU-T Rec. H.222.0.[2]) See MPEG transport stream and MPEG program stream.
Part 2
Video – compression codec for interlaced and non-interlaced video signals (Also known as ITU-T Rec. H.262).
Part 3
Audio – compression codec for perceptual coding of audio signals. A multichannel-enabled extension and extension of bit rates and sample rates for MPEG-1 Audio Layer I, II and III of MPEG-1 audio.
Part 4
Describes procedures for testing compliance.
Part 5
Describes systems for Software simulation.
Part 6
Describes extensions for DSM-CC (Digital Storage Media Command and Control).
Part 7
Advanced Audio Coding (AAC).
Part 9
Extension for real time interfaces.
Part 10
Conformance extensions for DSM-CC.
Part 11
Intellectual property management (IPMP)

(Part 8: 10-bit video extension. Primary application was studio video. Part 8 has been withdrawn due to lack of interest by industry.)

MPEG-2 Parts[14][15]
Part Number First public release date (First edition) Latest public release date (edition) Latest amend- ment Identical ITU-T Rec. Title Description
Part 1 ISO/IEC 13818-1 1996 2007 2009[16] (2011 or 2012[17][18][19][20]) H.222.0 Systems
Part 2 ISO/IEC 13818-2 1996 2000 2010[5][21](2011[22]) H.262 Video
Part 3 ISO/IEC 13818-3 1995 1998 Audio MPEG-2 BC - backwards compatible with MPEG-1 Audio
Part 4 ISO/IEC 13818-4 1998 2004 2009[23] Conformance testing
Part 5 ISO/IEC TR 13818-5 1997 2005 Software simulation
Part 6 ISO/IEC 13818-6 1998 1998 2001[24] Extensions for DSM-CC extensions for Digital Storage Media Command and Control[25][26]
Part 7 ISO/IEC 13818-7 1997 2006 2007[27] Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) MPEG-2 NBC Audio - Non-Backwards Compatible with MPEG-1 Audio
Part 8 dropped 10-Bit Video The work was terminated because of low industry's interest.[28][29] It was started in recognition of the need to support studio-quality video signals quantized with 10 bits per component.
Part 9 ISO/IEC 13818-9 1996 1996 Extension for real time interface for systems decoders
Part 10 ISO/IEC 13818-10 1999 1999 Conformance extensions for Digital Storage Media Command and Control (DSM-CC)
Part 11 ISO/IEC 13818-11 2004 2004 IPMP on MPEG-2 systems Intellectual Property Management and Protection on the MPEG-2 system[30][31] (XML IPMP messages are also defined in ISO/IEC 23001-3[32])

History

MPEG-2 evolved out of the shortcomings of MPEG-1.

MPEG-1's known weaknesses:

  • an audio compression system limited to two channels (stereo.)
  • no standardized support for interlaced video with poor compression when used for interlaced video
  • only one standardized "profile" (Constrained Parameters Bitstream) which was unsuited for higher resolution video. MPEG-1 could support 4k video but there was no easy way to encode video for higher resolutions, and identify hardware capable of supporting it, as the limitations of such hardware were not defined.
  • Support for only one color space, 4:2:0.

Filename extensions

.mpg, .mpeg, m2v, .mp2, mp3 are some of a number of filename extensions used for MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 audio and video file formats.

Applications

DVD-Video

The DVD-Video standard uses MPEG-2 video, but imposes some restrictions:

  • Allowed Dimensions
    • 720 × 480, 704 × 480, 352 × 480, 352 × 240 pixel (NTSC)
    • 720 × 576, 704 × 576, 352 × 576, 352 × 288 pixel (PAL)
  • Allowed Aspect ratios (Display AR)
    • 4:3
    • 16:9 (1.85:1 and 2.35:1, among others, are often listed as valid DVD aspect ratios, but are actually a "letterboxed" 16:9 image)
  • Allowed Frame rates
    • 29.97 frame/s (NTSC)
    • 25 frame/s (PAL)
Note: By using a pattern of REPEAT_FIRST_FIELD flags on the headers of encoded pictures, pictures can be displayed for either two or three fields and almost any picture display rate (minimum ⅔ of the frame rate) can be achieved. This is most often used to display 23.976 (approximately film rate) video on NTSC.
  • Audio+video bitrate
    • Video peak 9.8 Mbit/s
    • Total peak 10.08 Mbit/s
    • Minimum 300 kbit/s
  • YUV 4:2:0
  • Additional subtitles possible
  • Closed captioning (NTSC only)
  • Audio
    • Linear Pulse Code Modulation (LPCM): 48 kHz or 96 kHz; 16- or 24-bit; up to six channels (not all combinations possible due to bitrate constraints)
    • MPEG Layer 2 (MP2): 48 kHz, up to 5.1 channels (required in PAL players only)
    • Dolby Digital (DD, also known as AC-3): 48 kHz, 32–448 kbit/s, up to 5.1 channels
    • Digital Theater Systems (DTS): 754 kbit/s or 1510 kbit/s (not required for DVD player compliance)
    • NTSC DVDs must contain at least one LPCM or Dolby Digital audio track.
    • PAL DVDs must contain at least one MPEG Layer 2, LPCM, or Dolby Digital audio track.
    • Players are not required to play back audio with more than two channels, but must be able to downmix multichannel audio to two channels.
  • GOP structure (Group Of Pictures)
    • Sequence header must be present at the beginning of every GOP
    • Maximum frames per GOP: 18 (NTSC) / 15 (PAL), i.e. 0.6 seconds both
    • Closed GOP required for multi-angle DVDs

HDV

HDV is a format for recording and playback of high-definition MPEG-2 video on a DV cassette tape.

MOD and TOD

MOD and TOD are recording formats for use in consumer digital file-based camcorders.

XDCAM

XDCAM is a professional file-based video recording format.

DVB

Application-specific restrictions on MPEG-2 video in the DVB standard:

Allowed resolutions for SDTV:

  • 720, 640, 544, 528, 480 or 352 × 480 pixel, 24/1.001, 24, 30/1.001 or 30 frame/s
  • 352 × 240 pixel, 24/1.001, 24, 30/1.001 or 30 frame/s
  • 720, 704, 544, 528, 480 or 352 × 576 pixel, 25 frame/s
  • 352 × 288 pixel, 25 frame/s

For HDTV:

  • 720 x 576 x 50 frame/s progressive (576p50)
  • 1280 x 720 x 25 or 50 frame/s progressive (720p50)
  • 1440 or 1920 x 1080 x 25 frame/s progressive (1080p25 = film mode)
  • 1440 or 1920 x 1080 x 25 frame/s interlace (1080i50)

ATSC

The ATSC A/53 standard used in the United States, uses MPEG-2 video at the Main Profile @ High Level, with additional restrictions such as the maximum bitrate of 19.4 Mbit/s for broadcast television and 38.8 Mbit/s for cable television, 4:2:0 chroma subsampling format, and mandatory colorimetry information.

ATSC allows the following video resolutions, aspect ratios, and frame/field rates:

  • 1920 × 1080 pixel (16:9, square pixels), at 30p, 29.97p, 24p, 23.976p, 60i, 59.94i.
  • 1280 × 720 pixel (16:9, square pixels), at 60p, 59.94p, 30p, 29.97p, 24p, or 23.976p
  • 704 × 480 pixel (4:3 or 16:9, non-square pixels), at 60p, 59.94p, 30p, 29.97p, 24p, 23.976p, 60i, or 59.94i
  • 640 × 480 pixel (4:3, square pixels), at 60p, 59.94p, 30p, 29.97p, 24p, 23.976p, 60i, or 59.94i

ATSC standard A/63 defines additional resolutions and aspect rates for 50 Hz (PAL) signal.

The ATSC specification and MPEG-2 allow the use of progressive frames, even within an interlaced video sequence. For example, a station that transmits 1080i60 video sequence can use a coding method where those 60 fields are coded with 24 progressive frames and metadata instructs the decoder to interlace them and perform 3:2 pulldown before display. This allows broadcasters to switch between 60 Hz interlaced (news, soap operas) and 24 Hz progressive (prime-time) content without ending the MPEG-2 sequence and introducing a several seconds of delay as the TV switches formats. This is the reason why 1080p30 and 1080p24 sequences allowed by the ATSC specification are not used in practice.

The 1080-line formats are encoded with 1920 × 1088 pixel luma matrices and 960 × 540 chroma matrices, but the last 8 lines are discarded by the MPEG-2 decoding and display process.

ATSC A/72 is the newest revision of ATSC standards for digital television which allows the use of H.264/AVC codec and 1080p60 signal.

MPEG-2 audio was a contender for the ATSC standard during the DTV "Grand Alliance" shootout, but lost out to Dolby AC-3.

ISDB-T

Technical features of MPEG-2 in ATSC are also valid for ISDB-T, except that in the main TS has aggregated a second program for mobile devices compressed in MPEG-4 H.264 AVC for video and AAC-LC for audio, mainly known as 1seg.

Patent holders

MPEG Licensing Authority, a private patent licensing organization, has acquired rights from over 20 corporations and one university to license a patent pool of approximately 640 worldwide patents, which it claims are the "essential" to use of MPEG-2 technology, although many of the patents have since expired.[33][34] Where software patentability is upheld, the use of MPEG-2 requires the payment of licensing fees to the patent holders. Other patents are licensed by Audio MPEG, Inc.[35] The development of the standard itself took less time than the patent negotiations.[36][37] Patent pooling between essential and peripheral patent holders in the MPEG-2 pool is the subject of a study by the University of Wisconsin.[38]

MPEG-2 patents (U.S. only)

According to the MPEG-LA Licensing Agreement MPEG-LA, any use of MPEG-2 technology is subject to royalties.

  • Encoders are subject to a royalty of $2.00 per unit.
  • Decoders are subject to a royalty of $2.00 per unit.[39]
  • Royalty-based sales of encoders and decoders are subject to different rules and $2.50 per unit.[39]
  • Also, any packaged medium (DVDs/Data Streams) is subject to licence fees according to length of recording/broadcast.

In the case of free software such as VLC media player (which uses the ffmpeg library) and in which the software is not sold, the end-user bears the royalty.[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ ISO/IEC 13818 MPEG-2 at the ISO Store.
  2. ^ a b ITU-T. "H.222.0 : Information technology - Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: Systems". http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-H.222.0. Retrieved 2010-06-03. 
  3. ^ ITU-T (2006-05). "H.222.0 Summary". http://www.itu.int/dms_pubrec/itu-t/rec/h/T-REC-H.222.0-200605-I!!SUM-HTM-E.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-03. 
  4. ^ SMPTE Registration Authority, LLC - registration authority for MPEG-2 format identifiers Retrieved on 2009-07-06
  5. ^ a b "H.262 : Information technology - Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: Video". ITU-T Website. International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T). February 2000. http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-H.262. Retrieved 2009-08-13. 
  6. ^ a b D. Thom, H. Purnhagen, and the MPEG Audio Subgroup (1998-10). "MPEG Audio FAQ Version 9 - MPEG Audio". http://mpeg.chiariglione.org/faq/audio.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-31. 
  7. ^ a b c d ISO (1998-10). "MPEG Audio FAQ Version 9 - MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 BC". ISO. http://mpeg.chiariglione.org/faq/mp1-aud/mp1-aud.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  8. ^ a b c d MPEG.ORG. "AAC". http://www.mpeg.org/MPEG/audio/aac.html. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  9. ^ a b ISO (2006-01-15) (PDF), ISO/IEC 13818-7, Fourth edition, Part 7 - Advanced Audio Coding (AAC), http://webstore.iec.ch/preview/info_isoiec13818-7%7Bed4.0%7Den.pdf, retrieved 2009-10-28 
  10. ^ ISO (2004-10-15) (PDF), ISO/IEC 13818-7, Third edition, Part 7 - Advanced Audio Coding (AAC), http://jongyeob.com/moniwiki/pds/upload/13818-7.pdf, retrieved 2009-10-19 
  11. ^ a b Werner Oomen, Leon van de Kerkhof. "MPEG-2 Audio Layer I/II". chiariglione.org. http://mpeg.chiariglione.org/technologies/mpeg-2/mp02-aud/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-29. 
  12. ^ Predrag Supurovic, MPEG Audio Frame Header, Retrieved on 2009-07-11
  13. ^ ISO (1996-03). "Florence Press Release". ISO. http://mpeg.chiariglione.org/meetings/firenze/prfloren.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  14. ^ MPEG. "MPEG standards - Full list of standards developed or under development". chiariglione.org. http://mpeg.chiariglione.org/standards.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-31. 
  15. ^ ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 (2009-11-09). "MPEG-2 (Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information)". http://www.itscj.ipsj.or.jp/sc29/29w42911.htm#MPEG-2. Retrieved 2009-11-10. 
  16. ^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/Amd 3:2009, Transport of Scalable Video". http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=50876. Retrieved 2009-10-29. 
  17. ^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/DAM 5 - Transport of JPEG 2000 Part 1 (ITU-T Rec T.800 - ISO/IEC 15444-1) video over ITU-T Rec H.222.0 - ISO/IEC 13818-1". http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=55694. Retrieved 2011-01-28. 
  18. ^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/DAM 6 - Extension to AVC video descriptor and signaling of operation points for MVC". http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=55694. Retrieved 2011-01-28. 
  19. ^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/PDAM 7 - Signalling of stereoscopic video in MPEG-2 systems". http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=59741. Retrieved 2011-07-18. 
  20. ^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/PDAM 8 - Extensions for simplified carriage of MPEG-4 over MPEG-2". http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=59691. Retrieved 2011-07-18. 
  21. ^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 13818-2:2000/Amd 3:2010 - New level for 1080@50p/60p". http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=51746. Retrieved 2011-01-28. 
  22. ^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 13818-2:2000/PDAM 4 - Frame packing arrangement signalling for 3D content". http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=57624. Retrieved 2011-01-28. 
  23. ^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 13818-4:2004/Amd 3:2009". http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=51747. Retrieved 2009-10-29. 
  24. ^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 13818-6:1998/Amd 3:2001". http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=34609. Retrieved 2009-10-29. 
  25. ^ MPEG (1997-02-21). "DSM-CC FAQ Version 1.0". MPEG. http://mpeg.chiariglione.org/faq/mp2-dsm/mp2-dsm.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-01. 
  26. ^ IEEE (1996). "An Introduction to Digital Storage Media - Command and Control (DSM-CC)". MPEG. http://mpeg.chiariglione.org/technologies/mpeg-2/mp02-dsm/dsmcc/dsmcc.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-01. 
  27. ^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 13818-7:2006/Amd 1:2007, Transport of MPEG Surround in AAC". http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=45507. Retrieved 2009-10-29. 
  28. ^ chiariglione.org (2010-02-04). "Riding the Media Bits, The development of MPEG-2 - Part A". http://ride.chiariglione.org/development_of_MPEG-2_part_A.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-09. 
  29. ^ chiariglione.org (2000-10). "Short MPEG-2 description". http://mpeg.chiariglione.org/standards/mpeg-2/mpeg-2.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-31. 
  30. ^ "MPEG Intellectual Property Management and Protection". MPEG. April 2009. http://mpeg.chiariglione.org/technologies/general/mp-drm/index.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-01. 
  31. ^ (PPT) IPMP in MPEG – W3C DRM workshop 22/23 January 2001, http://www.w3.org/2000/12/drm-ws/pp/mpeg-koenen.ppt, retrieved 2010-08-01 
  32. ^ ISO. "ISO/IEC 23001-3:2008, Information technology -- MPEG systems technologies -- Part 3: XML IPMP messages". http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=46387. Retrieved 2009-10-29. 
  33. ^ Mpeg La
  34. ^ audioMPEG.com - - - US Patents
  35. ^ audioMPEG.com - - - patent management and licensing company specializing in the licensing of audio technology
  36. ^ Richard M Stallman, Patents - Barriers to development Theora Video and Vorbis Audio
  37. ^ [1]
  38. ^ Quint, Dan; Amit Gandhi. "Economics of Patent Pools When Some (but not all) Patents are Essential". Working Paper. http://siepr.stanford.edu/publicationsprofile/163. Retrieved 2009-10-11. 
  39. ^ a b MPEG-2 License Agreement

External links


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