# Vehicle dynamics

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Vehicle dynamics

Vehicle dynamics refers to the dynamics of vehicles, here assumed to be ground vehicles.

For two-wheeled vehicles see Bicycle and motorcycle dynamics.For the dynamics of air vehicles see Aerodynamics.

Vehicle dynamics is a part of engineering primarily based on classical mechanics but it may also involve chemistry, solid state physics, electrical engineering, communications, psychology etc.

Components

Components, attributes or aspects of vehicle dynamics include:
* Ackermann steering geometry
* Camber angle
* Caster angle
* Circle of forces
* Electronic Stability Control (ESP)
* Live axle
* Oversteer
* Roll center
* Slip angle
* Toe
* Understeer
* Unsprung weight
* Weight transfer

Driving techniques

Driving techniques which relate to, or improve the stability of vehicle dynamics include:
*Threshold braking
*Double declutching
*Drifting (motorsport)
*Handbrake turn
*Heel-and-Toe
*Left-foot braking
*Opposite lock
*Scandinavian flick

Analysis and simulation

The dynamic behavior of vehicles can be analysed in several different ways. This can be a straightforward as a simple spring mass system, through a 3 degree of freedom (DoF) bicycle model [http://www.me.umn.edu/education/courses/me5286/vehicle_dyn/Vehicle%20Dynamics%20Lecture05.pdf] , which can be solved by hand by a keen mathematician, or can be simulated in any degree of complexity on a computer, using MBS packages such as VeDyna, Modelica or MSC ADAMS. Typically these will have between twenty and several hundred DoFs, although the upper limit is increasing. The tire and driver models are usually the biggest headaches in this process. The tire is typically modelled by a Pacejka Magic Formula model, or a similar concept. Racing car games or simulators are also a form of vehicle dynamics simulation, although many simplifications are necessary in order to get real time performance with reasonable graphics.

References

* Automotive suspension design
* Important publications in vehicle dynamics
* Suspension (vehicle)
* Vehicle metrics
* 7 post shaker

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