Television in Ireland


Television in Ireland

Digital terrestrial television within the Republic of Ireland, known as Saorview, was launched on 27 May 2011. This service will effectively replace the current analogue terrestrial television system, which uses System I with 625 lines and the PAL colour standard, with NICAM digital stereo sound where applicable. This analogue television system will close in the fourth quarter of 2012; the switch off takes place on October 24, 2012.[1]

The satellite fill-in service (Saorsat) is via Ka-Sat using the Irish ka-Band spot and should be available from June 2011.[2][dated info] See the Saorview article for details of the new digital service.

In the Republic of Ireland, both VHF and UHF are used. VHF for TV transmission is slowly being phased out in Ireland – only RTÉ One and RTÉ Two are on VHF band III in some areas, and the more recently established stations (TV3 and TG4) have only been broadcast on UHF. VHF Band I terrestrial transmissions stopped in 1999 when RTÉ One from the Maghera (Co. Clare) transmitter moved from Channel B to E. Band I use on cable networks is decreasing due to bandwidth allocation for cable broadband and the phasing out of analogue cable TV services.

While many people still receive their television via the over-the-air networks, run by RTÉ Network Limited more than half [3][4] subscribe to multichannel television networks. The biggest single multichannel television network in Ireland is Sky, owned and operated by BSkyB, which broadcasts digital satellite television services. UPC Ireland, Magnet Networks and Smart Vision, among others, provide similar digital television services to Republic of Ireland viewers..

Contents

History

Television on the island of Ireland began with the launch of BBC in Northern Ireland (BBC Northern Ireland) when it began broadcasting television programmes in 1953, followed in 1959 with the launch of Ulster Television (now known as UTV).

Throughout the 1950s the Governments of the Republic of Ireland were worried about the influences of British television and the popularity of the medium. By the end of the 1950s 60% of the population could receive BBC 1 and the UK's Channel 3 franchise from spillover from Northern Ireland, Wales and the west of England. Throughout the 1950s the Irish government would discuss the provision of an Irish television service, this was headed up by Leon O'Broin, the secretary at the Department of Post and Telegraphs. The Department of Post and Telegraphs had responsibility for Radio Éireann, Ireland's Radio service. In 1950 O'Broin established his own committee on Irish Television and bought a television set to receive broadcasts from the BBC. The Department of Finance at this time were worried of the cost of setting up a new television service and dismissed the possibility on several occasions during the 1950s. By March 1951 O'Broin would press for the inevitable establishment of an Irish television service in the Republic. In a Memorandum to Government the Department set out four possibilities for the ownership and control of a new service:

  1. Owned by the state directly
  2. Owned by a public corporation (similar to that of the then Radio Éireann)
  3. Owned by private enterprise
  4. Having a combination where transmitters would be owned by the state and content would be provided by private enterprises

The Department of Finance were incensed with this and asked the government to tell O'Broin to resubmit the proposals through the Department of Finance according to the formal procedures of the Civil Service, John A. Costello, the Taoiseach, did so and returned the memo to the Department of Post and Telegraphs. The Minister for Finance refused to look at TV calling it a "luxury service". However, through this means O'Broin was able to get funding for the research he had asked for.

In the Republic of Ireland television first became available in 1959. The public service broadcaster, RTÉ Television, opened in 1961, followed by an additional channel RTÉ Two in November 1978. TG4 launched on 31 October 1996 as a free-to-air public service broadcaster that targets Irish language viewers.

On 20 September 1998, TV3 launched as the first independent commercial broadcaster in the Republic of Ireland. Since the 2000s television in the Republic of Ireland has expanded with the launch of Setanta Ireland (in difficulty), Bubble Hits (now defunct) and 3e (originally C6 on Cable, later added to Sky), which are available through PayTV cable and satellite services. TV3 purchased C6 and rebranded it 3e. Only with Launch of Saorview (FTA DTT)is 3e available Free to Air.

The Republic of Ireland will commence its switch over to its free-to-air digital terrestrial television (DTT) from October 2010.[5][6] This will provide viewers with greater viewing opportunities with an increase in public service channels, i.e. of commercial services with the possibility of more public service channels from existing public service broadcaster and possibly two new channels, the Houses of the Oireachtas Channel and the Irish Film Channel, subject to finance from the government for the last two. The current Minister for Communications Pat Rabbitte aspires to have a complete DTT service rolled out by 31 December 2011.[5]

Regulation In Ireland

In the Republic of Ireland Commission for Communications Regulation regulate radio wave spectrum licensing and the Broadcasting Authority of Ireland since 1 October 2009 regulate both public service broadcasters such as RTÉ, TG4 and commercial broadcasters. For more on regulation see Commission for Communications Regulation and Broadcasting Authority of Ireland articles.

Digital terrestrial television

  • As of 17 March 2011 a public advertising campaign has launched to highlight the integration of digital terrestrial television within the Republic of Ireland.[7] Saorview Ireland's national free-to-air digital terrestrial television (DTT) service will launch officially to the public from May 2011. The service will initially air services provided only by RTE, TG4 and TV3.[8] Additional services such as a commercial DTT service will launch at a later date. The BAI have begun another round of negotiations to find a suitable service provider for such content.[9]
  • Previously, service providers for the commercial DTT varied between 2008 and 2010. Negotiations between the three key players which included Boxer, OneVision (DTT), and Easy TV were deemed unsuccessful. Both Boxer and Onevision failed to sign-off an agreement between BAI and RTÉ NL.[10][11] Easy TV considered its position on the license offer put to it on 29 April 2010.[11][12] The Easy TV consortium informed the BAI on 12 May 2010 that it was declining their offer to pursue negotiations regarding the Commercial DTT Multiplex Licence.[13]
  • Public service channels are to be carried by RTE Networks Limited, with this service to be operational to 90% of the country by 31 October 2010 [14][15] and complete by 31 December 2011 (98%). However, publicly accessible tests of this system are available across large swathes of the country since December 2009 [5][16] with further expansion since 29 October 2010[17] with a soft launch in Spring 2011 culminating in a hard launch before 31 December 2011 when the ASO phase will begin.
  • The Irish system, as to be used by both RTENL and any subsequent commercial DTT provider is a MPEG-4 DVB-T service with an MHEG-5 interactive layer.[18][19]
  • RTÉ Television have been awarded a licence to operate a single multiplex, with a second multiplex to follow once analogue broadcasting ceases after 2012. Other possible services to launch on the second multiplex include additional services from TV3 such as TV3HD, TV3+1, 3Kids and 3Classics and additional channels from RTÉ such as an arts channel and music channel.[20]
  • The Broadcasting Act 2009 has provided provision for the launch of two additional public services. These include a Oireachtas Channel and an Irish Film Channel. These channels are not expected to launch until 2012. The Irish Film Board will oversee operation for the Irish Film Channel.
  • By 2012, SAORVIEW will offer 98% coverage for all channels. This will be a significant improvement in free-to-air television coverage.[21] Consumers should seek advice from their specialist retailer or manufacturer if looking to make a purchase in the immediate future. Similar services such as Saorview available in the United Kingdom (i.e. Freeview) and other parts of Europe (i.e. TNT) are not compatible with Ireland's DTT service.[22] RTÉ recommends that consumers wishing to avail of the SAORVIEW service only purchase receivers that carry the SAORVIEW approved logo.[23]

Historical testing

DVB-T has repeatedly been tested from RTÉ Network Limited's Three Rock Mountain transmitter, with relatively long tests in 1998 and 2001, and shorter tests in 2004, with a single multiplex carrying the four Irish analogue terrestrial channels, and Tara Television while it was in existence, on both UHF (channel 26) and VHF (channel D). These were under temporary licences for testing, which are regularly awarded. RTÉast Networks also broadcast test DVB-T with analogue TV and radio channels from the Clermont Carn transmitter in the Cooley Mountains, County Louth with some signal bleed into the North.

A contract to run a nationwide system, with six multiplexes from main sites, and four from relay sites was awarded in 2001 to ITS Digital Limited, led by former RTÉ executive, Mr Peter Branagan and trading as "It's TV", who intended to launch a pay TV and broadband service. ITS wanted to offer broadband internet access using the DVB-RCT standard (which while high bandwidth at up to 30 Mbit/s, is not fast enough with 20,000 people on one mast). They had no broadband licence and no viable business plan without selling broadband, and due to lack of funding withdrew its application in Oct 2002.

The government also planned to privatise RTÉ's transmission network at this time but this too failed in October 2002 following the withdrawal of ITS Digital Limited DTT licence application and a number of other factors.[24][25]

Disability organisations and the switchover

  • TV Access, a coalition of organisations that promote issues surrounding individuals with disabilites and senior citizens have begun a campaign to highlight the switch over from analogue to digital television broadcast services in its contribution to the Oireachtas Communications Committee heard on Wednesday 1 April 2009.[26]

Multiplex licensing process

  • The establishment of a commercial multiplex for Digital Television Terrestrial within the Republic of Ireland is punctuated with many delays. The BAI (then the Broadcasting Commission of Ireland) engaged in two phases of targeted consultation to assist in the development of its DTT Multiplex Licensing Policy. These consultations ran from May to December 2007 and involved the production of a comprehensive consultation document outlining policy proposals in relation to DTT licensing and the commissioning of independent research on DTT. It was initially proposed that RTE Television would operate the free-to-air public service multiplex, RTENL would provide the relevant broadcasting technologies and a third party would provide the pay or subscription service. These third parties included Easy TV, One vision DTT and Boxer. Initially, Boxer Ireland was given the licence to operate the pay DTT service. Boxer's failure to negoatiate with RTENL and the economic downturn in Ireland resulted in Boxer no longer holding interest in pursuing it's business in the Republic. On 20 April 2009, the BAI announced that Boxer had ended negotiations on the DTT contract without a successful outcome. Following this the consortium that made up One Vision were issued the licence. Once again, One Vision failed to negoiate with RTENL, hence negotiations were unsuccessful. On 29 April 2010 it was announced that Onevision had pulled out of negotiations. Finally, The Broadcasting Authority of Ireland began negotiating with Easy TV (a consortium made up of RTÉ and UPC Ireland). RTÉ publicly confirmed on 14 May 2010 Easy TV was "declining their offer to pursue negotiations" on the DTT contract.[27] The BAI officially confirmed Easy TV's withdrawal and the conclusion of the current DTT licensing process on 18 May 2010.[28]
  • As of July 2010, the Minister for Communications Eamon Ryan has announced that RTÉ will provide a basic free-to-air service without a pay DTT element,. The free-to-air service will provide up to seven to ten channels and will roll out between 31 October 2010 to 31 December 2012.[29] The new service will provide viewers with existing Irish channels, while also providing opportunities to expand existing channel profolios. This service will be provided by Saorview and Saorsat the latter to be used in areas were availability to access the Saorview is limited due to geographics.

Cross-border Partnership

On 1 February 2010 the Republic of Ireland's Minister for Communications Eamon Ryan signed an agreement with the UK's Ben Bradshaw.[30] This agreement will enable viewers within Northern Ireland to watch RTE One, RTE Two and TG4 on a free-to-air basis as of 2012.[31] The agreement between both jurisdictions will also guarantee that viewers within the Republic of Ireland will be able to view BBC One Northern Ireland and BBC Two Northern Ireland on the Republic of Ireland's free-to-air service to debut in late 2010. A cross-border initiative has always been on the agenda for the Green Party in the Republic of Ireland. However it was later announced that a change has occurred such that BBC services are now to be offered in the Republic of Ireland on a 'paid for' basis and not the original free-to-air basis.[32]

Following a broad range of technical work, the two Governments have now agreed an effective way to provide for the continuing provision of TG4 by building a new, low power TV multiplex in Northern Ireland. In addition to carrying TG4, this multiplex, which will be part of the UK DTT system, will also carry RTÉ 1 and RTÉ 2.[33][34]

This would be expected to increase coverage of these channels in Northern Ireland, to 90% of the population in Northern Ireland to receive their services on a free-to-air basis, either through overspill as before or via the new multiplex.

The existing analogue signals will be switched off on a co-ordinated basis in Ireland and Northern Ireland at the end of 2012 and more work will to be done between then and now. Digital UK plans to keep NI viewers abreast of compatible equipment in time for ASO switch to digital and know what sort of equipment viewers might need to receive these services.

Foreseen as part of the agreement between both Governments is the establishment of a joint venture between RTÉ and TG4 to run the multiplex which will be licensed under the UK's Wireless Telegraphy Act 2006 by Ofcom at the request of the UK Government. This will be a not-for-profit company. In addition, the licensee will have to put out to competitive tender all the elements of the multiplex operation which are contestable and the multiplex will be operated on a not-for-profit and open book basis.[33]

Mobile terrestrial television

Mobile Terrestrial Television is TV on mobile phone handsets, which does not have contention problems compared to 3G networks.

The Commission for Communications Regulation issued its response to Consultation 08/44 about interest in multi-city mobile TV licenses that could cover up to 40% of the population that would lead to the Award of available UHF spectrum in the urban areas of Cork, Dublin, Galway, Limerick and Waterford. That response to consultation was issued on Tuesday 28 July 2009 [35] Having provided options to stakeholders in terms of 2 options outlined in Consultation 08/44 of Mobile Telegraphy License or a technology neutral Wireless Telegarphy License, and minded by the 7 responses it received, the Mobile Telegraphy License was seen as the best use of spectrum, given the nature of the spectrum of 8 MHz of UHF band in between 470 to 750 MHz in the five main urban areas due to the limited spectrum arising from DTT introduction and use of 4 multiplexes as the spectrum priority prior to analogue switchover (ASO).

ComReg proposes launch of the wholesale mobile TV network following license award be rolled out within 24 months before penalty or license withdrawal from the winner of the contest. The contest is to be done by comparative beauty contest instead of auction, given the nature of Mobile TV as a newish area and the risks in terms of investment inherenet in it. Given the limited spectrum a wholesale model as noted by the EU Commission [35] reference 2 in such situation is chosen. This will result in third parties having access through agreements with the wholesale mobile network operator as Other Mobile TV Service Providers (OMTSPs) in a timely, reasonable, non-discriminatory and transparent manner to the network to provide their own services and electronic programme guide from up to 20 channels maximum space.

The license would be for 10 years and not automatically renewed. Those services will be encrypted by the service provider to the subscriber. Contributors to the consultation 08/44 are given time to reflect on the terms suggested for the comparative beauty contest before 11 September 2009 and following that feedback and ComReg's further reflection on that, the comparative contest guidelines will be issued and an application date set by the end of the year. The winner of that contest will have 2 years to build the network and agree terms with Other Mobile TV Service Providers. The Broadcasting Act 2009 was also referred to in Comreg Publication 09/64.

Update, April 2010

Following on from the response to its consultation at end of 2009 The communications regulator ComReg has issued an Information Notice on the future award of a mobile television license, ComReg 10/26 Mobile TV Wireless Telegraphy Licence Award on Tuesday, 30 March 2010[36]

The Information Notice provides in ComReg's plans to issue one 8 MHz frequency channel in the UHF band in the areas of Cork, Dublin, Galway, Limerick, and Waterford and expects to invite candidates to tender for the license in the fourth quarter of the year of 2010 and announce the license results by the end of 2010. It will weight elements of business plans when it begins the comparative process in Q4 2010. Offer of license will probably be in 2011 but this has to be determined by ComReg. International frequency co-ordination will also be ongoing during the period primarily with the UK.

Comments to ComReg's mobile television license proposal were taken until 30 April 2010.

Update November 2010

Only two responders responded to ComReg's Television license proposals consultation.These were RTÉ NL and Vodafone Ireland.Points regarding wholesale access commitments considered critical for the successful provision of wholesale Mobile TV service and the provision of Mobile TV services for the benefits of consumers more generally were discussed. the two responders addressed points regarding automatic additional spectrum and ComReg outlined that it was minded to consider later award of mobile TV license when a national network for same would be possible of for other uses. The main concern was to whether there is demand for broadcast mobile TV, given experiences elsewhere or whether the award be made post ASO when international spectrum co-ordination is clearer. ComReg welcomed views regarding these issues from interested parties by no later than 5.00 p.m. on 9 December 2010.[37] It will make its decision going forward on the license proposal following consideration of responses to this.

Cable

Prior to Sky Digital Cable television was the most common system for distributing multi-channel television in Ireland. With more than 40 year of history and extensive networks of both wired and "wireless" cable, Ireland is amongst the most cabled countries in Europe. Forty percent[38] of Irish homes received cable television in September 2006. The figure dropped slightly in the early years of the 21st century due to the increased popularity of satellite reception, notably Sky, but has stabilised recently.

In the Republic of Ireland, UPC Ireland, which formally traded under the brand name Chorus NTL, is by far the largest cable and MMDS operator, owning all of the state's MMDS licences and almost all of the state's cable TV operators. UPC offers analogue and digital cable television services in cities and towns throughout the country (with the exception of Cork, where the network is digital-only). It offers MMDS services in rural areas. Other than UPC, the only other operator providing analogue and digital cable is Casey Cablevision, which operates in Dungarvan, County Waterford. There also exists a small number of analogue-only cable networks such as the Longford service Crossan Cable.

Satellite

Direct broadcast satellite service has been available since the late 1980s with the arrival of free-to-air satellite Astra and subscription service Sky Television.

In 1985 a pan-European satellite service was launched through SES Astra. The service provided viewers with pan-European channels which targeted the entire continent. On 5 February 1989, when Sky Television launched. British Satellite Broadcasting, which was also available in Ireland, launched in 1990 and the two merged to form British Sky Broadcasting in 1990. For most of the 1990s however, Sky's DBS customer base in Ireland was dwarfed by the large numbers receiving its channels via cable. Sky Digital, Ireland's first digital television service, launched on October 1998. However, in the absence of any subsidy for the Sky Digibox in the Republic of Ireland - viewers in the UK could avail of both a Sky subsidy and one from British Interactive Broadcasting - the cost to initially acquire Sky Digital equipment was very expensive (IEP 450) and subscriber numbers did not rise until both these subsidies were introduced into Ireland in 2000. In 2001, UK and Irish terrestrial channels became available to Irish Sky customers for the first time.

While Sky Ireland is the biggest satellite service in the Republic of Ireland, it is by no means the only satellite broadcasts available. Most free to air broadcasts available in Europe are available in the Republic of Ireland via the right receiver (set top box) and a dish pointed at the correct satellite. In 2008, Sat4free, an adapted version of the UK Freesat equipment, began selling in Ireland. It is a fixed NI post code version of a Freesat receiver. Some retailers in Ireland sell actual Freesat setboxes. Both Freesat and Sat4free are superior to generic satellite receivers for the reception of UK television, only old stock of Sat4Free is now available and new purchases should be "Freesat HD" even if the TV set is not HDTV. Imported "Grey market" (as the contract the operator has doesn't permit direct sales outside the intended Geographic area) satellite receivers are sometimes used to watch both FTA and subscription channels from visitors home countries (e.g., Cyfrowy Polsat)

Following the failure of the commercial DTT process in May 2010 RTÉ submitted a revised DTT plan including a FTA satellite option to the Dept of Communications in mid June 2010 for approval.[39] RTÉ publicly announced at an Oireachtas Joint Committee on Communications discussion [40] in mid July 2010 that a free-to-air satellite service, called Saorsat, would be offered to complement the terrestrial DTT service. Saorsat will enable Irish public service channels to be made available free to air and unencrypted, for the first time, as a means of covering the last 2% of the population who will be unable to receive the Saorview terrestrial service.

RTÉ said the combined offering was designed to be the most cost-effective solution for viewers and broadcasters; to offer for the first time 100% coverage of free-to-air public service television services in the Republic of Ireland; and to provide full national back-up coverage on satellite in the event of an emergency or catastrophic failure of the DTT system.

Approval for the revised National DTT plan and the new Saorsat satellite service was announced by the Minister for Communications at the end of July 2010.[41]

It is anticipated that the Saorsat satellite service will be available publicly from Autumn 2011 as tests commenced at the end of May 2011.[42]

Other technologies

DVB-H

  • O2 Ireland and 3 Ireland have commenced trials of DVB-H. However delays in licensing broadcast spectrum to the mobile sector in the Republic of IReland has forced telecoms providers such as 02 to proceed with 3G/HSDPA Mobile TV.[43][44] Vodafone Ireland and 3 Ireland already have significant digital video content distributed over their 3G and 3.5G (HSDPA) networks

UPC Digital provides a wireless cable service over an all digital MMDS network reaching over 80% of the country. This network operates at 2.5 GHz to 2.7 GHz.[45]

The now defunct SCTV Digital provided an advanced digital television service to Cork City and parts of County Cork. It is licenced to operate all over Munster. Operating at 11.7 GHz to 12.5 GHz (MVDDS) it delivered approximately 75 digital television channels and video on demand services from "Sky By Wire".[46]

Digital satellite is the only form of subscriber satellite transmission available in the country and is provided by Sky Ireland (and Sky+ HD). The Freesat a UK service is also available in the country, as are FTA satellite channels from several other European countries.

Two companies provide digital television via IPTV; Magnet Entertainment and Smart Vision (from Smart Telecom).

  • Magnet Networks now offers viewers in Ireland the chance to view RTE One, RTE Two, TV3, TG4, 3e and Dail & Seanad TV channels via the internet.

Deflectors (UHF Television Programme Retransmission)

In rural areas where neither cable or MMDS are available, UHF Television Programme Retransmission systems or deflectors[47] pick up the UK terrestrial channels (either from Northern Ireland or Wales), and retransmit them on local UHF signals along with other channels. These operators faced legal action in the late 1990s from MMDS operators, as they did not pay royalties to the relevant broadcasters, and were not licenced. When the deflectors were shut down, there was such an outcry in those areas that an independent election candidate in County Donegal, Tom Gildea, was elected as a TD on a platform of supporting legalisation, which occurred in 1999.
Deflectors were first licenced in 1999 by the then spectrum regulator, the ODTR.[48][49] The current regulations, Wireless Telegraphy (UHF Television Programme Retransmission) Regulations, 2009 [50] will be the last for deflectors, all deflector licences expire in Dec 2012 and will not be renewed due to the roll-out of DTT in Ireland.

Television licence

In the Republic of Ireland, a television licence is required for any address at which there is a television set or device not exempted under Staturory Instrument 319 of 2009 see.[51] In 2008, the annual licence fee is 160.[52] Revenue is collected by An Post, the Irish postal service. The bulk of the fee is used to fund Raidió Teilifís Éireann, the state broadcaster. The licence must be paid for any premises that has any equipment that can potentially decode TV signals, even those that are not RTÉ's. The licence is free to senior citizens (to anyone over the age of 70, some over 66), some Social Welfare recipients, and individuals who are blind. The fee for the licences of such beneficiaries is paid for by the state.

Most-viewed channels

The channels with the largest AGB Nielsen viewing share from 2002 - 2009 are outlined in the table below:[53]

Share of total viewing (%)
Position Channel Owner 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002
1 RTÉ One Raidió Teilifís Éireann 24.8 25.79 26.8 26.9 27.5 27.8 27.7 27.4 24.1
2 TV3 Ireland TV3 Group 12.8 12.30 11.9 12.8 12.8 13.4 14.0 13.4 10.7
3 RTÉ Two Raidió Teilifís Éireann 9.8 9.65 10.7 11.8 12.2 11.1 11.4 10.7 10.2
4 BBC One Northern Ireland BBC 4.7 5.29 5.6 5.7 6.4 7.1 6.9 7.6 9.8
5 UTV UTV Media 4 4.53 4.5 5.0 5.6 5.9 6.7 7.7 10.2
6 Channel 4 NI Channel 4 2.9 3.74 3.9 4.3 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.5 5.9
7 BBC Two Northern Ireland BBC 2.7 3.06 3.2 3.3 3.5 4.0 4.5 4.5 5.1
8 TG4 Teilifís na Gaeilge 2.2 2.67 2.6 2.8 3.1 3.2 3.1 2.9 2.1
9 Sky1 Sky Ireland 1.2 1.92 2.2 1.9 1.9 2.1 2.9 3.6 4.1
10 3e TV3 Group 1.1 0.85 0.8 0.6 0.4
11 E4 Channel 4 1 1.19 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.3
12 Living Virgin Media Television 1 1.18 1.5 1.2 0.3
13 Sky News Ireland Sky Ireland 0.9 1.17 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.8 1.7 2.2 1.8
14 Sky Sports 1 Sky Ireland 0.8 0.94 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2
15 Comedy Central MTV Networks Europe 0.7 1.02 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.4
16 Sky Sports News BSkyB 0.6 0.53 0.2
17 The Discovery Channel Discovery Inc. 0.5 0.01
18 Setanta Ireland Setanta Sports 0.4 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.2
19 Nickelodeon Ireland MTV Networks Europe 0.4 0.48 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.8
20 Sky Sports 2 Sky Ireland 0.4 0.48 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.3
21 Nick Jr MTV Networks Europe 0.3 0.46 0.4
22 MTV MTV Networks Europe 0.3 0.72 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.1 0.8
23 Comedy Central +1 MTV Networks Europe 0.3 0.47 0.1
24 E! Comcast 0.3 0.02
25 Other Various 25.6 20.09 17.9 17.6 14.9 14.6 12.3 10.6 14.8

See also

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