Samuel Hinga Norman
Samuel Hinga Norman (
January 1, 1940– February 22 2007) was a Sierra Leonean politicianfrom the Mende tribe. He was the founder and leader of the traditional Civil Defence Forces, commonly known as the Kamajors. The Kamajors fought under the supported the government of Ahmed Tejan Kabbahagainst the Revolutionary United Front(RUF), which was led by Foday Sankohand funded in part by Charles Taylor of Liberia. On 7 March 2003, however, Hinga Norman was indicted by the Special Court for Sierra Leonefor war crimes and crimes against humanity. He died on the 22 February 2007in Dakar, Senegalwhile undergoing medical treatment. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6387673.stm]
Sam Hinga Norman was born
January 1 1940in Mongeri, Bo District, in the Southern Provinceof Sierra Leone. He joined the Sierra Leone Army in 1959 and served until 1972, ascending to the rank of captain. He also attended school during this time and received a diploma from the Officer's School of Aldershotin the United Kingdom.
Political Service to Sierra Leone
Entering politics, Hinga Norman became Deputy Minister of Defence, serving from
April 20 1998to May 21 2002). He then served as Minister of the Interior from May 21 2002to March 10 2004, overlapping his indictment at the Special Court. He also served as the national director of the CDF, and tapped the traditional groups called the Kamajors to serve as a militia.
The Kamajors are a group of traditional hunters from the south and east of the country. They were originally employed by local chiefs, but under the leadership of Hinga Norman were used by President
Ahmed Tejan Kabbahin 1996 to replace mercenaries ( Executive Outcomesand Sandline International, both of whom helped train the force) as the security force of the government. The force eventually consisted of over 20,000 men, dwarfing the size of the army and the rebel groups. The Sierra Leone Army(SLA) was at this time supporting former coup leader Foday Sankohagainst the Kabbah government. The Kamajors integrated themselves into the ECOMOG(a Nigerialed force) counteroffensive to reinstate Kabbah in 1998 after Freetownwas taken by the Charles Taylor backed and Foday Sankoh led Armed Forces Revolutionary Council(AFCR), which was a combination of the rebel (RUF) and the former SLA.
Problems of the Kamajors
The Karmajors were not a professionally trained army. They were also made up by soldiers whose allegiances were not always clear. Many fighters in the civil war fought on different sides at different times. This led to the coinage of the term "sobel" or soldier by day, rebel by night, especially in connection with the SLA. The Kamajors too have been accused of pillaging, terrorizing, and killing. Less ambiguous is the accusation of recruiting soldiers under the age of 15, in clear violation of the
Trial at the Special Court for Sierra Leone
Sam Hinga Norman was indicted on
March 7 2003by the Special Court for Sierra Leone (TSSL). He was arrested on March 10and plead not guilty on the 15 of the same month.His indictment accused him of
* crimes against humanity for: inhuman murders and acts;
* violations of Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions as well as Additional Protocol II for: acts of terrorism and
collective punishmentagainst the civil population, reached with the physical and mental integrity and the life in particular cruel treatment, plundering;
* other serious violations of the humane international law due to enrolment of children of less than 15 years in the armed forces
Norman's trial then began on
June 3 2004along with those of Moinina Fofanaand Allieu Kondewa. At the outset of his trial, Norman dissolved his legal team and stated that he wished to represent himself. He died while imprisoned during his trial.
* [http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~warcrime/SL-Reports/SamuelHingaNorman_SpecialReport.html Special Report: Media Response to Samuel Hinga Norman's Death] UCB War Crimes Studies Center
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Samuel Hinga Norman — (* 1. Januar 1940 in Mongeri, Bo Distrikt in Sierra Leone; † 22. Februar 2007 in Dakar, Senegal) war Stammesführer der Mende und Anführer der Kamajors, der Civil Defence Force während des Bürgerkriegs in Sierra Leone. Er unterstützte mit seinen… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Norman — ist ein männlicher Vorname und bzw. Familienname. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Herkunft und Bedeutung 2 Bekannte Namensträger 2.1 Vorname 2.2 Familienname … Deutsch Wikipedia
SCSL — Der Sondergerichtshof für Sierra Leone, auch Sondertribunal für Sierra Leone, (engl.: Special Court for Sierra Leone, SCSL) mit Sitz in Freetown ist ein durch einen bilateralen Vertrag zwischen Sierra Leone und den Vereinten Nationen vom 16.… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Sondertribunal für Sierra Leone — Der Sondergerichtshof für Sierra Leone, auch Sondertribunal für Sierra Leone, (engl.: Special Court for Sierra Leone, SCSL) mit Sitz in Freetown ist ein durch einen bilateralen Vertrag zwischen Sierra Leone und den Vereinten Nationen vom 16.… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Sierra Leone — Sierra Leonean /lee oh nee euhn/. /lee oh nee, lee ohn / an independent republic in W Africa: member of the Commonwealth of Nations; formerly a British colony and protectorate. 4,891,546; 27,925 sq. mi. (72,326 sq. km). Cap.: Freetown. * * *… … Universalium
Civil Defence Forces — The Civil Defense Forces or CDF were a paramilitary organization who fought in the Sierra Leone Civil War (1991 2002). They supported the elected government of Ahmed Tejan Kabbah against the rebel groups RUF (Revolutionary United Front) and AFRC… … Wikipedia
Sondergerichtshof für Sierra Leone — nbsp nbsp Sondergerichtshof für Sierra Leone Flagge der Vereinten Nationen Englische Bezeichnun … Deutsch Wikipedia
Liste der Biografien/No — Biografien: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q … Deutsch Wikipedia
Sierra-Leonischer Bürgerkrieg — Bürgerkrieg in Sierra Leone Karte von Sierra Leone Datum 1991–2002 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Sierraleonischer Bürgerkrieg — Bürgerkrieg in Sierra Leone Karte von Sierra Leone Datum 1991–2002 … Deutsch Wikipedia