Western United States
The Western United States—commonly referred to as the American West or simply the West—traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the
United States(see geographical terminology section for further discussion of these terms). Because the United States expanded westward after its founding, the meaning of the West has evolved over time. The Mississippi Riveris often referenced as the easternmost possible boundary of The West.
According to the
U.S. Coast Guard, "The Western Rivers System consists of the Mississippi, Ohio, Missouri, Illinois, Tennessee, Cumberland, Arkansas and White Rivers and their tributaries, and certain other rivers that flow towards the Gulf of Mexico" not the Sacramento and Columbia.
The "West" had played an important part in
American history; the Old Westis embedded in America's folklore.
In its most expansive definition, the western U.S. is the largest region, covering more than half the land area of the United States. It is also the most geographically diverse, incorporating geographic regions such as the Pacific Coast, the temperate
rain forests of the Northwest, the Rocky Mountains, the Great Plains, most of the tall-grass prairie eastward to Western Wisconsin, Illinois, the western Ozarkplateau, the western portions of the southern forests, the Gulf Coast, and all of the desert areas located in the United States (the Mojave, Sonoran, Great Basin, and Chihuahua deserts).
The region encompasses some of the
Louisiana Purchase, most of the land ceded by Britain in 1818, some of the land acquired when the Republic of Texasjoined the U.S., all of the land ceded by Britain in 1846, all of the land ceded by Mexicoin 1848, and all of the Gadsden Purchase.
Variation and regionalism
As the largest region in the
United Statesthere is variation to such an extent in the West that it is often broken down into regions. Arizonaand New Mexicoare always considered to be in the Southwest while portions of California, Colorado, Nevada, Oklahoma, Texas, and Utahare sometimes considered part of the Southwest, while all or part of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyomingcan be considered part of the Northwest, more narrowly part or all of those same states, with the exception of Wyomingand the eastern portions of Montanaand Idaho, and the addition of the Canadian province of British Columbiacomprise the Pacific Northwest.
The West can be divided into the
Pacific States; Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington, with the term West Coast usually restricted to just California, Oregon, and Washington, and the Mountain States, always Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Alaska and Hawaii, being detached from the other western states, have few similarities with them, but are usually also classified as part of the West. Western Texasin the Chihuahuan Desertis also traditionally considered part of the Western U.S.
Some western states are grouped into regions with eastern states. Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota and North Dakota are often included in the
Midwest, which also includes states like Iowa, Illinoisand Wisconsin. Texas, Arkansas, and Louisiana -- and to a lesser extent, Oklahoma -- are also considered part of the South.
It is rare for any state east of the
Mississippi Riverto be considered part of the modern west. Historically, however, the Northwest Territorywas an important early territory of the U.S., comprising the modern states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michiganand Wisconsin, as well as the northeastern part of Minnesota.
includes 13 states (with a total 2006 estimated population of 69,355,643) and is split into two smaller units, or divisions:
Mountain States: Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, and Nevada
Pacific States: Washington, Oregon, California, Alaskaand Hawaii
However, the United States Census Bureau uses only one definition of the West in its reporting system, which may not coincide with what may be historically or culturally considered the West. For example, in the 2000 Census, the Census Bureau included the state with the second largest Hispanic population, Texas, in the South, included the state with the second largest American Indian population, Oklahoma, also in the South, and included the Dakotas, with their large populations of Plains Indians, in with the Midwest. However, it should be noted that the western half of Oklahoma and far
West Texas, are neither culturally, geographically or socioeconomically identified with the South, as are the eastern portions of those states, and these areas are commonly understood to be part of the West or Southwest, sometimes interchangeably, by residents and visitors alike.Fact|date=October 2007
Statistics from the 2000 United States Census, adjusted to include the second tier of States west of the Mississippi, show that, under that definition, the West would have a population of 91,457,662, including 1,611,447 Indians, or 1.8% of the total, and 22,377,288 Hispanics (the majority Mexican), or 24.5% of the total. Indians comprise 0.9% of all Americans, and Hispanics, 12.5%. Asians, important from the very beginning in the history of the West, totaled 5,161,446, or 5.6%, with most living in the Far West. African-Americans, totaled 5,929,968, or 6.5%--lower than the national proportion (12.8%). The highest concentration (12%) of black residents in the West is found in Texas--the only Western state in which slavery was established.
The West is still one of the most sparsely settled areas in the United States with 49.5 inhabitants per square mile (19/km²). Only Texas with 78.0 inhabitants/sq mi. (30/km²), Washington with 86.0 inhabitants/sq mi. (33/km²), and California with 213.4 inhabitants/sq mi. (82/km²) exceed the national average of 77.98 inhabitants/sq mi. (30/km²).The entire Western region has also been strongly influenced by European, Native and
Hispanicsculture; it contains the largest number of minorities in the U.S. and encompasses the only four American states where all racial groups including Caucasians are a minority (California, Hawaii, New Mexico, and Texas). While most of the studies of racial dynamics in America such as riots in Los Angeles have been written about European and African Americans, in many cities in the West and California, European and African Americans together are less than half the population because of the preference for the region by Hispanics and Asians. African and European Americans, however, continue to wield a stronger political influence because of the lower rates of citizenship and voting among Asians and Hispanics.
Because the tide of development had not yet reached most of the West when conservation became a national issue, agencies of the federal government own and manage vast areas of land. (The most important among these are the
National Park Serviceand the Bureau of Land Managementwithin the Interior Department, and the U. S. Forest Service within the Agriculture Department.) National parks are reserved for recreational activities such as fishing, camping, hiking, and boating, but other government lands also allow commercial activities like ranching, loggingand mining. In recent years, some local residents who earn their livelihoods on federal land have come into conflict with the land's managers, who are required to keep land use within environmentally acceptable limits.
The largest city in the region is Los Angeles, located on the West Coast. Other West Coast cities include San Diego, San Jose, San Francisco, Seattle, and Portland. Prominent cities in the Mountain States include Denver, Colorado Springs, Phoenix, Tucson, Albuquerque, Las Vegas, and Salt Lake City.
Pacific Oceancoast lie the Coast Ranges, which, while not approaching the scale of the Rockies, are formidable nevertheless. They collect a large part of the airborne moisture moving in from the ocean. Even in the relatively arid climate of central California, the Coast Ranges squeeze enough water out of the clouds to support the growth of coast redwoods. East of the Coast Ranges lie several cultivated fertile valleys, notably the San Joaquin Valleyof California and the Willamette Valleyof Oregon.
Beyond the valleys lie the Sierra Nevada in the south and the
Cascade Rangein the north. These mountains are some of the highest in the United States. Mount Whitney, at 14,505 feet (4,421 m) the tallest peak in the contiguous 48 states, is in the Sierra Nevada. The Cascades are also volcanic. Mount Rainier, a volcano in Washington, is also well over 14,000 feet (4,250 meters approx.). Mount St. Helens, a volcano in the Cascades erupted explosively in 1980. A major volcanic eruption at Mount Mazamaaround 4860 BCE, forming Crater Lake. These mountain ranges see heavy precipitation, capturing most of the moisture that remains after the Coast Ranges, and creating a rain shadowto the east forming vast stretches of arid land. These dry areas encompass much of Nevada, Utah and Arizona. The Mojave Desertand Sonoran Desertalong with other deserts are found here.
Beyond the deserts lie the Rocky Mountains. In the north, they run immediately east of the Cascade Range, so that the desert region does not reach all the way to the Canadian border. The Rockies are hundreds of miles wide, and run uninterrupted from
New Mexicoto Alaska. The tallest peaks of the Rockies, some of which are over 14,000 feet (4,250 meters approx.), are found in central Colorado.
The West has several long rivers that empty into the
Pacific Ocean, while the eastern rivers run into the Gulf of Mexico. The Mississippi Riverforms the easternmost possible boundary for the West today. The Missouri River, a tributary of the Mississippi, flows from its headwaters in the Rocky Mountains eastward across the Great Plains, a vast grassy plateau, before sloping gradually down to the forests and hence to the Mississippi. The Colorado Riversnakes through the Mountain states, at one point forming the Grand Canyon. The Colorado is a major source of water in the Southwest and many dams, such as the Hoover Dam, form reservoirs along it. So much water is drawn for drinking water throughout the West and irrigation in California that in some years, water from the Colorado no longer reaches the Gulf of California. The Columbia River, the largest river in volume flowing into the Pacific Ocean from North America, and its tributary, the Snake River, water the Pacific Northwest. The Platte runs through Nebraska and is a mile (2 km) wide but only a half-inch (1 cm) deep. The Rio Grandeforms the border between, Texas and Mexico before turning due north and splitting New Mexico in half.
Climate and agriculture
The seasonal temperatures vary greatly throughout the West. Annual rainfall is greater in the eastern portions, gradually tapering off until reaching the Pacific Coast where it again increases. In fact, the greatest annual rainfall in the United States falls in the coastal regions of the Pacific Northwest. The heaviest snows in the nation fall in the Rockies. Drought is much more common in the West than the rest of the United States. The driest place recorded in the U.S. is
Death Valley, California.
Violent thunderstorms occur east of the Rockies. Tornadoes occur every spring on the southern plains, with the most common and most destructive centered on
Tornado Alley, which covers eastern portions of the West, ( Texasto North Dakota), and all states in between and to the east.
Agriculture varies depending on rainfall, irrigation, soil, elevation, and temperature extremes. The arid regions generally support only livestock grazing, chiefly beef cattle. The "
wheat belt" extends from Texas through the Dakotas, producing most of the wheat and soybeans in the U.S. and exporting more to the rest of the world. Irrigation in the Southwest allows the growing of great quantities of fruits, nuts, and vegetables as well as grain, hay, and flowers. Texas is a major cattle and sheep raising area, as well as the nation's largest producer of cotton. Washington is famous for its apples, and Idaho for its potatoes. California and Arizona are major producers of citruscrops, although growing metropolitan sprawl is absorbing much of this land.
Local state and Government officials started to understand, after several surveys made during the latter part of the nineteenth century, that only action by the federal government could provide water resources needed to support the development of the WestFact|date=February 2007. Starting in 1902, Congress passed a series of acts authorizing the establishment of the
United States Bureau of Reclamationto oversee water development projects in seventeen western states.
During the first half of the 20th century, dams and irrigation projects provided water for rapid agricultural growth throughout the West and brought prosperity for several states, where agriculture had previously only been subsistence level. Following
World War II, the West's cities experienced an economic and population boom. The population growth, mostly in the Southwest, has strained water and power resources, with water diverted from agricultural uses to major population centers, such as Las Vegas and Los Angeles.
Plains make up most of the eastern half of the West, underlain with sedimentary rock from the Upper
Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoiceras. The Rocky Mountains expose igneous and metamorphic rock from both the Precambrianand the Post Precambrian periods. The Inter-mountain States and Pacific Northwest have huge expanses of volcanic rock from the Cenozoic period. Salt flats and salt lakes reveal a time when the great inland seas covered much of what is now the West. The Pacific states are the most geologically active areas in the United States. Earthquakes cause major damage every few years in California. While the Pacific states are the most volcanically active areas, extinct volcanoes and lava flows are found throughout most of the western half of the West.
History and culture
Facing both the Pacific Ocean and the Mexican border, the West has been shaped by a variety of ethnic groups.
Hawaiiis the only state in the union in which Asian Americans outnumber European American residents. Asians from many countries have settled in Californiaand other coastal states in several waves of immigration since the 1800s, contributing to the Gold Rush, the building of the transcontinental railroad, agriculture, and more recently, high technology.
The southwestern border states – California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas – all have large
Mexican Americanpopulations, and the many Spanish place names attest to their history as former Mexican territories.
The West also contains much of the Native American population in the U.S., particularly in the large reservations in the mountain and desert states.Because of having once been a Southern slave state, Texas has a sizeable, non-migrant and rural, African-American population, particularly in the eastern half.
Alaska – the northernmost state in the Union – is a vast land of few, but hearty, people, many of them native; and of great stretches of wilderness, protected in
national parks and wildlife refuges. Hawaii's location makes it a major gateway between the U.S. and Asia, as well as a center for tourism.
In the Pacific Coast states, the wide areas filled with small towns, farms, and forests are supplemented by a few big port cities which have evolved into world centers for the media and technology industries. Now the second largest city in the nation, Los Angeles is best known as the home of the
Hollywood filmindustry; the area around Los Angeles also was a major center for the aerospaceindustry by World War II, though Boeing, located in Washington state would lead the aerospace industry. Fueled by the growth of Los Angeles – as well as the San Francisco Bay Area, including Silicon Valley– California has become the most populous of all the states. Oregon and Washington have also seen rapid growth with the rise of Boeingand Microsoftalong with agriculture and resource based industries. The desert and mountain states have relatively low population densities, and developed as ranching and mining areas which are only recently becoming urbanized. Most of them have highly individualistic cultures, and have worked to balance the interests of urban development, recreation, and the environment. Culturally distinctive points include the large Mormonpopulation of Southeastern Idaho, Utah, Northern Arizonaand Nevada; the extravagant casinoresort towns of Las Vegas and Reno, Nevada; and, of course, the many Native American tribal reservations.
American Old West
Major settlement of the western territories by migrants from the states in the east developed rapidly in the 1840s, largelyFact|date=February 2007 through the
Oregon Trailand the California Gold Rushof 1849; California experienced such a rapid growth in a few short months that it was admitted to statehood in 1850 without the normal transitory phase of becoming an official territory. The largest Fact|date=September 2008 migration in American history occurred in the 1840s as the Latter-day Saints left the Midwest for the safety of the West. Both Omaha, Nebraskaand St. Louis, Missourilaid claim to the title, "Gateway to the West" during this period. Omaha, home to the Union Pacific Railroadand the Mormon Trail, made its fortunes on outfitting settlers; St. Louis built itself upon the vast fur tradein the West before its settlement.
The 1850s were marked by political controversies which were part of the national issues leading to the Civil War, though California had been established as a non-slave state in the
Compromise of 1850; California played little role in the war itself due to its geographically distance from major campaigns. In the aftermath of the Civil War, many former Confederate partisans migrated to California during the end of the Reconstruction period.
The history of the American West in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century has acquired a cultural mythos in the literature and cinema of the United StatesFact|date=February 2007. The image of the
cowboy, the homesteaderand westward expansion took real events and transmuted them into a myth of the west which has influenced American culturesince at least the 1920s.
Writers as diverse as
Bret Harteand Zane Greycelebrated or derided cowboyculture, while artists such as Frederic Remingtoncreated western artas a method of recording the expansion into the westFact|date=February 2007. The American cinema, in particular, created the genre of the western movie, which, in many cases, use the West as a metaphor for the virtue of self-reliance and an American ethos. The contrast between the romanticism of culture about the West and the actuality of the history of the westward expansion has been a theme of late Twentieth and early Twenty-First century scholarship about the WestFact|date=February 2007. Cowboyculture has become embedded in the American experience as a common cultural touchstone, and modern forms as diverse as country and western musicand the works of artist Georgia O'Keefehave celebrated the supposed sense of isolation and independence of spirit inspired by the unpopulated and relatively harsh climate of the regionFact|date=February 2007.
As a result of the various periods of rapid growth, many new residents were migrants who were seeking to make a new start after previous histories of either personal failure or hostilities developed in their previous communitiesFact|date=February 2007. With these and other migrants who harbored more commercial goals in the opening country, the area developed a strong ethos of self-determinism and individual freedomFact|date=February 2007, as communities were created whose residents shared no prior connection or common set of ideals and allegiances. The open land of the region allowed residents to live at a much greater distance from neighbors than had been possible in eastern cities, and an ethic of tolerance for the different values and goals of other residents developed. California's state constitutions (in both 1849 and 1879) were largely drafted by groups which sought a strong emphasis on individual property rights and personal freedom, arguably at the expense of ideals tending toward civic communityFact|date=February 2007.
The twentieth century
By 1890, the frontier was gone [ [http://xroads.virginia.edu/~Hyper/TURNER/ Frederick Jackson Turner, "The Significance of the Frontier in American History", 1920, ISBN 0486291677, Ch.1:] "In a recent bulletin of the Superintendent of the Census for 1890 appear these significant words: "Up to and including 1880 the country had a frontier of settlement, but at present the unsettled area has been so broken into by isolated bodies of settlement that there can hardly be said to be a frontier line. In the discussion of its extent, its westward movement, etc., it can not, therefore, any longer have a place in the census reports." On-line version of the book] ] . The advent of the automobile enabled the average American to tour the West. Western businessmen promoted
U.S. Route 66as a means to bring tourism and industry to the West. In the 1950s, representatives from all the western states built the Cowboy Hall of Fameand Western Heritage Centerto showcase western culture and greet travelers from the East. During the latter half of the twentieth century, several transcontinental interstate highways crossed the West bringing more trade and tourists from the East. In the news, reports spoke of oil boom towns in Texasand Oklahomarivaling the old mining camps for their lawlessness, of the Dust Bowl forcing children of the original homesteaders even further west. The movies replaced the dime novel as the chief entertainment source featuring western fictionFact|date=February 2007.
In recent decades, Western cities' reputation for diversity and tolerance has been marred by segregation, along with accusations of
racial profilingand police brutalitytowards minorities, sometimes leading to racially based riots. Nevertheless, perhaps because so many westerners have moved there from other regions to make a new start, as a rule interpersonal relations remain marked by a tolerant and individualistic "live and let live" attitude. The western economy is varied. California, for example, features both agriculture and high-technology manufacturing as major sectors in its economy.
Major population centers
Combined Statistical Areas Metropolitan Statistical Areas
*The city of
El Paso, Texas, although belonging to a state considered part of the Southern United States, is more considered part of the Western United States.
The prevalence of
libertarianpolitical thought, even if not labeled as such, can be widely observed. For example, the majority of Western states have legalized medicinal marijuana(all but New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming) and some forms of gambling(except Utah); Oregon has legalized euthanasia; Utah has a long history of former polygamousterritorial leaders; and most counties in Nevada have legalized prostitution. There is less resistance to the legal recognition of same-sex unions: California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington recognize them, and only 28%Fact|date=June 2007 of all western residents are against legal recognition (compared to the 48%Fact|date=June 2007 in southern states). California and Washington have moved to limit affirmative action.
Most major urban centers on the Pacific Coast lean toward the Democratic PartyFact|date=February 2007. San Francisco's two main political parties are the Green Party and the Democratic Party. Seattle has historically been a center of radical left-wing politics; the union
Industrial Workers of the Worldis particularly active, and it is one of the few American cities with a monument to the Communist leader Lenin. The mayor of Salt Lake City, Rocky Anderson, supports same-sex marriage [http://www.glaad.org/media/release_detail.php?id=3901] , and Denver's residents have voted to decriminalize marijuana completelyFact|date=February 2007. Hawaii has come closest to adopting single payer healthcare financing in the U.S.Fact|date=February 2007 Both the Democratic leaders of the U.S. Congress are from the region: Speaker Nancy Pelosiof California and Senate Majority Leader Harry Reidof Nevada.
Interior areas, especially in the Rocky Mountains, lean toward the Republican Party. Broadly speaking, the western GOP is less-influenced by conservative evangelical Christians than elsewhere in the countryFact|date=February 2007, notably the South, although Colorado Springs is a center for religious conservative activity. U.S. Senator
John McCainof Arizonaand California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, arguably the Western Republicans best-known across the country, have reputations as mavericks within their party.
As the fastest-growing demographic group,
Latinos are hotly contested by both partiesFact|date=February 2007; immigrationremains an important political issue for this group. Backlash against illegal immigration led to the passage of California Proposition 187 in 1994, a ballot initiative which would have denied many public services to undocumented residents. Association of this proposal with the California Republicans, especially incumbent governor Pete Wilson, is creditedFact|date=February 2007 with driving many Hispanic voters to the Democrats.
In presidential elections since 1992, starting with electoral college importance,
Californiawith its 55 electoral votes generally favors Democratic Party candidates by a margin of 11%, Washingtonwith its 11 votes favors Democrats by 8%, Arizonawith its 10 votes favors Republican Party candidates by 5%, Coloradowith its 9 votes favors Republicans by 5%, Oregonwith its 7 votes favors Democrats by 4%, New Mexicowith its 5 votes favors Democrats by .3%, Utahwith its 5 votes favors Republicans by 36%, Hawaiiwith its 4 votes favors Democrats by 17%, Idahowith its 4 votes favors Republicans by 33%, Nevadawith its 5 votes favors Democrats by .6%, Alaskawith its 3 votes favors Republicans by 24%, Montana with its 3 votes favors Republicans by 16%, and Wyomingwith its 3 votes favors Republicans by 31%.
This region has several
swing states. There are five states in the region with recent presidential election margins of 5% or less: Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico and Oregon. Fact|date=February 2007
History of the west coast of North America
High Country News
Art of the West (magazine)
Western White House
*Beck, Warren A., Haase, Ynez D.; "Historical Atlas of the American West". University of Oklahoma Press, Oklahoma, 1989. ISBN 0-8061-2193-9
*Lamar, Howard. "The New Encyclopedia of the American West". Yale University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-300-07088-8
*Milner II, Clyde A; O'Connor, Carol A.; Sandweiss, Martha A. "The Oxford History of the American West". Oxford University Press; Reprint edition, 1996. ISBN 0-19-511212-1
*Phillips, Charles; Axlerod, Alan; editor. "The Encyclopedia of the American West". Simon & Schuster, New York, 1996. ISBN 0-02-897495-6
*White, Richard. "". University of Oklahoma Press; Reprint edition, 1993. ISBN 0-8061-2567-5
* [http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award97/codhtml/hawphome.html History of the American West] "Library of Congress"
* [http://www.archives.gov/research_room/research_topics/american_west/american_west.html Photographs of the American West: 1861-1912] "US National Archives & Records Administration"
* [http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs.html US Census Bureau Briefs]
* [http://www.bls.gov/ro9 Western Region Labor Statistics] "Bureau of Labor Statistics"
* [http://www.vlib.us/americanwest/ WWW-VL: History: American West]
* [http://www.carnet2voyages.com Guide to the American West]
* [http://www.americanwest.com/ The American West]
* [http://www.autrynationalcenter.org/institute/index.php Institute for the Study of the American West]
* [http://www.westernheritagecenter.com/index.html High Plains Western Heritage Center]
* [http://www.nationalcowboymuseum.org/index2.html National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum]
* [http://www.museumoftheamericanwest.org/museum/ Museum of the American West]
* [http://centerwest.org/ Center of the American West]
* [http://www.vlib.us/americanwest/ WWW-VL: History: American West]
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