- Formula of Concord
Formula of Concord (
1577) ( Latin: "Formula concordiae", "Harmony Concord", also the "Bergic Book") is an authoritative Lutheranstatement of faith (called a confession, creed, or "symbol") that, in its two parts ("Epitome" and "Solid Declaration"), makes up the final section of the Lutheran"Corpus Doctrinae" or Body of Doctrine, known as the Book of Concord(most references to these texts are to the original edition of 1580). The "Epitome" is a brief and concise presentation of the "Formula's" twelve articles; the "Solid Declaration" a detailed exposition. Approved doctrine is presented in "theses"; rejected doctrine in "antitheses." As the original document was written in German, a Latin translationwas prepared for the Latinedition of the Book of Concordpublished in 1584.
Significance and composition
The promulgation and subscription of this document was a major factor in the unification and preservation of
Lutheranism. It was instigated at the behest of the Elector August of Saxony, and it was the joint work of a group of Lutherantheologians and churchmen of the latter sixteenth century, who met from April 9to June 7, 1576in Torgau, the seat of government for Electoral Saxony at the time: Jakob Andreä( 1528– 1590), Martin Chemnitz( 1522– 1586), Nikolaus Selnecker( 1528– 1592), David Chytraeus ( 1531– 1600), Andreas Musculus( 1514– 1581), Christoph Körner ( 1518– 1594), Caspar Heyderich ( 1517– 1586), Paul Crell ( 1532– 1579), Maximilian Mörlin ( 1516– 1584), Wolfgang Harder ( 1522– 1602), Daniel Gräser, Nicholas Jagenteufel ( 1520– 1583), Johannes Cornicaelius, John Schütz ( 1531– 1584), Martin Mirus ( 1532– 1593), Georg Listenius (d. 1596), and Peter Glaser ( 1528– 1583); and a smaller set of this group (Andreä, Chemnitz, Selnecker, Chytraeus, Musculus, and Körner) a year later in Bergen Abbey, near Magdeburg, both from March 1–14, and in May, 1577. The most important formulators of the Formula of Concord were Jakob Andreä and Martin Chemnitz.
Having before them two earlier documents (the "Swabian-Saxon Concord", drafted by Andreä in 1574 and the so called "Maulbron Formula" of 1576) the first group of theologians produced the "Torgau Book". Andreä condensed this into what would become known as the "Epitome," the first part of the "Formula of Concord." Its title as found in the 1576 first printing ran as follows: " [A] Brief Summary of the articles which, controverted among the theologians of the Augsburg Confession for many years, were settled in a Christian manner at Torgau in the month of June, 1576, by the theologians which there met and subscribed".
Over the eleven months since the "Torgau Book" had been published, suggested emendations were sent to Andreä and Chemnitz, and further revision was deemed necessary, so the second group (Andreä, Chemnitz, Selnecker, Chytraeus, Musculus, and Körner) revised the "Torgau Book" into its final form, known as the "Bergic Book" or the "Solid Declaration" of the "Formula of Concord." (Depending on the translation, the "Solid Declaration" is also known as the "Thorough Declaration of the Formula of Concord".) It was presented to Elector August of Saxony on
May 28, 1577. Subsequently it was signed (subscribed to) by three electors of the Holy Roman Empire, twenty dukes and princes, twenty-four counts, four barons, thirty-five free imperial cities, and over 8,000 pastors. These constituted two-thirds of the Lutheran Church in Germanyat the time. Every clergyman in electoral Saxony had to either subscribe or write his objections with respect to the Formula of Concord. A rhyme was circulated [at the time] : "Write, dear Lord, write, that you might remain at the parish" (schreibt, lieber Herre, schreibt, dass Ihr bei der Pfarre bleibt).
The "Formula of Concord" was not accepted by Lutherans in Hesse, Zweibrücken, Anhalt, Pommeranian (Land), Holstein, Denmark, Sweden, Nürnberg, Strassburg, and Magdeburg, and the government of Queen Elizabeth I of England lobbied in its German embassies to prevent acceptance of it among the German estates.
Articles of the "Formula of Concord"
*III. The Righteousness of Faith before God
Law and Gospel
*VI. The Third Use of the Law
*VII. The Holy Supper of Christ
*VIII. The Person of Christ
*IX. Christ's Descent into
*X. Church Ceremonies (Adiaphora, or Indifferent Things)
*XI. The Eternal Foreknowledge and Election of God
*XII. Other heresies and sects
* [http://bookofconcord.org/fc-ep.html Epitome of the Formula of Concord]
* [http://bookofconcord.org/fc-sd.html Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord]
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=ig5PF6Tf07UC&pg=PA9&lpg=PA0 The Book of Concord: confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Formula of Concord — The Formula of Concord was a doctrinal confession issued by the second generation of Lutherans after the deaths of Martin Luther in 1546 and Philip Melancthon in 1560. The formula deals with theological questions that arose after the founders… … Encyclopedia of Protestantism
Fórmula de la Concordia — Este artículo o sección necesita referencias que aparezcan en una publicación acreditada, como revistas especializadas, monografías, prensa diaria o páginas de Internet fidedignas. Puedes añadirlas así o avisar … Wikipedia Español
Concord EFS, Inc. — Concord EFS, Inc. was a major corporation that provided ATM, credit card, debit card, and payroll processing services. On February 26, 2004 Concord merged with First Data. A Brief History of ConcordEFS Concord EFS, Inc., based in Memphis,… … Wikipedia
Concord, Formula of — Согласия Формула … Вестминстерский словарь теологических терминов
Book of Concord — The Book of Concord Title page from the … Wikipedia
Book of Concord — ▪ Lutheranism collected doctrinal standards of Lutheranism in Germany, published in German (June 25, 1580) and in Latin (1584). Its publication concluded a 30 year effort to heal the divisions that had broken out in the Lutheran movement… … Universalium
Fiat Concord — est la filiale Argentine du constructeur italien Fiat, implanté dans ce pays depuis l année 1900. Article détaillé : Tableau modèles Fiat Auto monde. Sommaire 1 Historique de FIAT Concord 2 Les dérivés IAVA 2.1 La création de … Wikipédia en Français
Lutheranism — Luther s Seal Book of Concord … Wikipedia
Martin Chemnitz — (November 9, 1522 – April 8, 1586) was an eminent second generation Lutheran theologian, reformer, churchman, and confessor. In the Lutheran tradition he is known as Alter Martinus, the Second Martin : Si Martinus non fuisset, Martinus vix… … Wikipedia
Sacramental union — (Latin, unio sacramentalis ; German, sakramentliche Einigkeit ) is the Lutheran theological doctrine of the Real Presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Christian Eucharist. Type of union The sacramental union is distinguished from the… … Wikipedia