Malayalam literature

Vaikom Muhammad Basheer is regarded as one of India's most successful and outstanding writers. He is noted for a disarmingly down-to-earth style of writing that has won over both literary critics as well as the common man.

The term Malayalam literature refers to Literature written in Malayalam language. Malayalam is the language spoken by around 35 million people, mainly the inhabitants of the state of Kerala and the union territory of Lakshadweep Islands in India. Malayalam is a Dravidian language and thus has close association with the other Dravidian languages, especially Tamil. Historically, Kerala had been receptive to foreign influence and this has had effect on the Malayalam literature also, which has evolved over time.

Contents

Early literature

For the first 500 years of the Malayalam calendar, Malayalam literature remained in a preliminary stage. During this time, Malayalam literature consisted mainly of various genres of songs. The most prominent among them were songs praising the goddesses of the land, ballads of brave warriors, songs related to the work of a particular caste and songs intended just for entertainment. Bhardakali pattu, thottam pattu, mavaratham pattu, sasthanga pattu, nizhalkoothu pattu, sarpa pattu, sastham pattu, thiyyattu pattu, pulluvar pattu, mannar pattu, panar pattu, krishi pattu, thamburan pattu, pada pattu, villadichan pattu, onappttu, kummi and lullaby were some of the major subgenres. All these names were not used historically, but are used in modern times to describe the song genres of at that time.

Ramacharitham

Ramacharitham is a collection of poems written at the end of preliminary stage in Malayalam literature's evolution. It is the oldest Malayalam book available. The collection has 1814 poems in it. Ramachritham mainly consists of stories from Yuddha Kanda of Ramayana. It is written by a poet named Cheeramakavi who, according to poet Ulloor S. Parameshwaya Aiyer was Sree Veerarama Varman, a king of Travancore from AD 1195 to 1208.[1] Some other experts like Dr. K.M. George and P.V. Krishnan Nair claim that the origin of the book is in north Kerala citing the use of certain words in the book and also the fact that the manuscript of the book was actually recovered from Neeleshwaram in north Kerala.[2] Some experts consider it as a Tamil literary piece. According to A. R. Rajaraja Varma who heavily contributed in the development of Malayalam grammar, is of the opinion that Malayalam originated from ancient Tamil. Ramacharitham is considered as a book written during the forming years of Malayalam. According to Rev. Dr. Hermann Gundert who compiled the first dictionary in Malayalam language, Ramacharitham shows the ancient of Malayalam language.[3]

Notable Malayalam writers

The field of Malayalam writers include the following people, from various disciplines and periods.

Art criticism

Guru Māni Mādhava Chākyār, author of the Nātyakalpadrumam theatrical study

Poetry

Manipravalam
Champukkal
Niranam poets
Cherusseri Namboothiri
Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan
Poonthanam Namboothiri
Arnos Paathiri (1681-1732)
Unnayi Warrier
Kunchan Nambiar (1705-1770)
Irayimman Thampi
Kerala Varma Valiya Koyithampuran
Kattakayam Cherian Mappillai (1859-1936)
K. C. Kesava Pillai (1868-1914)
Kumaran Asan (1873-1924)
Ulloor S Parameswara Iyer (1877-1949)
Vallathol Narayana Menon (1878-1958)

Modern Romantics

Edappalli Raghavan Pillai (1909-1936)
Changampuzha Krishna Pillai (1911-1948)
P. Kunhiraman Nair (1906-1978)
Vennikkulam Gopala Kurup
Pala Narayanan Nair
M.P.Appan
Bodheswaran

Other modern poets

G. Sankara Kurup (1900-1978)
Vyloppilli Sreedhara Menon (1911-1985)
Edasseri Govindan Nair
N. V. Krishna Warrier
Thirunalloor Karunakaran
Vayalar Ramavarma
O. N. V. Kurup
Punaloor Balan
Akkitham
Olappamanna Subramanian Namboothirippad
Sugathakumari
M. Govindan
K. Ayyappa Panicker
Kadammanitta Ramakrishnan
Attoor Ravi Varma
Satchidanandan
Lalitha Lenin
Vishnunarayanan Namboothiri
D. Vinayachandran
Kureepuzha Sreekumar
Balachandran Chullikkadu
A. Ayyappan
Nellikkal Muraleedharan
V Madhusoodanan Nair
Attoor Ravi Varma

Post-modern poets

Adiyeri Gangadharan
Anvar Ali
A. C. Sreehari
Manoj Kuroor
Mohanakrishnan Kaladi
M.S. Banesh
P. Raman
P. P. Ramachandran
Rose Mary
S. Joseph
Syam Sudhakar
T. P. Rajeevan
V. M. Girija
Veerankutty
Kavitha Balakrishnan
Kattakada Murugan
Satyan Madakkara

Fiction

Nineteenth century

O. Chandhu Menon (1847-1900)
C. V. Raman Pillai (1858-1922)
Vengayil Kunhiraman Nayanar
Modern Asian literature

Arabic literature
Bengali literature
Chinese literature
Indian literature
Japanese literature
Korean literature
Nepalese literature
Pakistani literature
Vietnamese literature

Modern

Karur Neelakanta Pillai (1898-1974)
P. Kesava Dev (1904-1983)
Vaikom Muhammad Basheer (1908-1994)
Ponkunnam Varkey (1908-2004)
S. K. Pottekkatt (1913-1982)
Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai (1914 -1999)
Uroob (1915-1979)
Lalithambika Antharjanam (1909-1987)
Malayatoor Ramakrishnan (1927-1997)
K. Saraswathi Amma (1919-1974)
P. K. Balakrishnan (1926-1991)
V. K. N. (1932-2004)
O. V. Vijayan (1930-2005)
Parappurath (K.E. Mathai)
Vaikom Chandrasekharan Nair
K.Surendran
Pattathuvila Karunakaran
M. Mukundan
P. Padmarajan (1945-1991)
Zacharia
M. T. Vasudevan Nair
T. Padmanabhan
P. M. Taj (1956-1990)
Kamala Surayya (Madhavikkutti, Kamala Das)
Anand
N. S. Madhavan
N. P. Mohammed
Kovilan
M. P. Narayana Pillai
George Onakkur
E. Harikumar
C. Radhakrishnan
Joy J. Kaimaparamban
Benyamin

Post-modern fiction

G. R. Indugopan
T. P. Venugopalan
Pradeep

Children's literature

Sumangala
Nandanar a.k.a P C Gopalan
Shebaly

Essayists

Sanjayan
S. Guptan Nair
Sukumar Azhikode

Literary criticism

Joseph Mundasseri (1901–1977)
Kesari Balakrishna Pillai (1889–1960)
Kuttikrishna Marar (1900–1973)
M. P. Paul (1904–1952)
K.Damodaran
S. Guptan Nair
M. Krishnan Nair
M. N. Vijayan
K. M. Daniel
Sukumar Azhikode
M.Krishnan Nair
K. P. Appan
Narendra Prasad
V. C. Sreejan
S. Rajasekharan

Film Criticism

Vijayakrishnan

Translation

N.K. Damodaran
M.N. Sathyaardhi
M.K.Kumaran
Leela Devi
Nileena Abraham

Others

Jyesthadevan
Rev. Dr. Hermann Gundert
Kottarathil Sankunni
Krishna chaithanya (K.Krishnan Nair)

See also

References

  1. ^ S. Parameshwara Aiyer, Ulloor (1990), Kerala Sahithya Chrithram (History of literature of Kerala), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala: University of Kerala 
  2. ^ Leelavathi, Dr. M., Malayala Kavitha Sahithya Chrithram (History of Malayalam poetry) 
  3. ^ Gundert, Rev. Dr. Hermann (1868)), Malayalabhasha Vyakaranam (Grammar of Malayalam language 

External links

References

  1. ^ S. Parameshwara Aiyer, Ulloor (1990), Kerala Sahithya Chrithram (History of literature of Kerala), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala: University of Kerala 
  2. ^ Leelavathi, Dr. M., Malayala Kavitha Sahithya Chrithram (History of Malayalam poetry) 
  3. ^ Gundert, Rev. Dr. Hermann (1868)), Malayalabhasha Vyakaranam (Grammar of Malayalam language 

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