- Time travel in fiction
Time travelis a common theme in science fictionand is depicted in a variety of media.
Time travel can form the central theme of a book, or it can be simply a plot device. Time travel in fiction can ignore the possible effects of the time-traveler's actions, as in "
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court", or it can use one resolution or another of the Grandfather paradox.
Early stories featuring time travel without time machines
The Time Machine" by H. G. Wellswas instrumental in causing the idea of time travel to enter the public imagination, non-technological forms of time travel had appeared in a number of earlier stories, and some even earlier stories featured elements suggestive of time travel, but remain somewhat ambiguous.
* "Memoirs of the Twentieth Century" (1733) by
Samuel Maddenis mainly a series of letters from English ambassadors in various countries to the British "Lord High Treasurer", along with a few replies from the British foreign office, all purportedly written in 1997 and 1998 and describing the conditions of that era. However, the framing story is that these letters were actual documents given to the narrator by his guardian angel one night in 1728; for this reason, Paul Alkon suggests in his book "Origins of Futuristic Fiction" that "the first time-traveler in English literature is a guardian angel who returns with state documents from 1998 to the year 1728", although the book does not explicitly show how the angel obtained these documents. Alkon later qualifies this by writing "It would be stretching our generosity to praise Madden for being the first to show a traveler arriving "from" the future", but also says that Madden "deserves recognition as the first to toy with the rich idea of time-travel in the form of an artifact sent backwards from the future to be discovered in the present."
* In the science fiction anthology "Far Boundaries" (1951), the editor
August Derlethidentifies the short story "Missing One's Coach: An Anachronism", written for the "Dublin Literary Magazine" by an anonymous author in 1838, as a very early time travel story. In this story, the narrator is waiting under a tree to be picked up by a coach which will take him out of Newcastle, when he suddenly finds himself transported back over a thousand years, where he encounters the Venerable Bede in a monastery, and gives him somewhat ironic explanations of the developments of the coming centuries. It is never entirely clear whether these events actually occurred or were merely a dream.
* The book "Paris avant les hommes (Paris before Men)" by the French botanist and geologist
Pierre Boiterd, published posthumously in 1861, in which the main character is transported to various prehistoric settings by the magic of a "lame demon", and is able to actively interact with prehistoric life.
* The short story " [http://www.horrormasters.com/Text/a2221.pdf The Clock That Went Backward] ", written by editor
Edward Page Mitchellappeared in the "New York Sun" in 1881, another early example of time travel in fiction.
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court" (1889) by Mark Twain.
Tourmalin's Time Cheques" (1891) by Thomas Anstey Guthrie(written under the pseudonymF. Anstey) was the first story to play with the paradoxes that time travel could cause.
Golf in the Year 2000" (1892) by J. McCulloughtells the story of an Englishman who fell asleep in 1892 and awakens in the year 2000. The focus of the book is how the game of golf would have changed by then, but many social and technological themes are also discussed along the way, including a device similar to televisionand women's equality.
Time traveling themes and ideological function
A number of themes tend to recur in science fiction time-travel stories, often with enough variation to make them interesting.
*Taking technology to the past In these stories a visitor to the past changes history using knowledge from their own time, either for evil or good, or sometimes accidentally. Examples of this genre include the classic "
Lest Darkness Fall" by L. Sprague de Camp.
*The Guardians of Time In this genre a group of people are charged with ensuring that time turns out 'properly' (or protecting it from changes by other travellers). This includes
Terry Pratchett's humorous " Thief of Time", and Simon Hawke's TimeWarsseries.
*Unintentional change or fulfillment. In these stories a time traveller intends to observe past events, but discovers that he or she has unintentionally either prevented or created the events. "
Behold the Man" is an example of this kind.
Time travel as a defining characteristic of science fiction
Time travel in science fiction versus fantasy
Stories that involve time travel devices and technologies that take people backwards and forwards in time and space are considered part of the science fiction genre, whereas stories that involve time travel through supernatural, magical, or unexplained means are considered part of the fantasy genre.
The genre of
science fictionis often characterized by incorporating technology either as “a driving force of the story, or merely the setting for drama.” [http://www.sfsite.com/columns/amy26.htm] Therefore, it is this key component—technology—that can be used to distinguish between time travel of the science fictionand fantasyrealms. Isaac Asimov, when asked to explain the difference between science fiction and fantasy, once explained that science fiction, given its grounding in science, is possible; fantasy, which has no grounding in reality, is not.” [http://www.sfsite.com/columns/amy26.htm] Any story involving time travel may be considered to include an element of science fiction. However, novels and short stories from the science fiction genre usually feature time travel via technology (a 'time machine') rather than time travel by supernatural means, and often play with the possibility of time paradoxes such as the grandfather paradox. [http://www.twilighttimes.com/Odgers4a.html]
Time travel in science fiction
* List of time travel science fiction literature
* List of time travel science fiction films
* List of time travel in science fiction television
List of games containing time travel
List of fictional characters who can manipulate time
* [http://www.aetherco.com/timelinks/timevideo-thebiglist.html timelinks - the big list of time travel video, time travel movies, & time travel TV] - over 700 movies and television programs featuring time travel
* [http://www.scifan.com/themes/themes.asp?TH_themeid=4&Items= SciFan: Time Travel - Time Control - Time Warp] - list of over 2400 books featuring time travel
* Aparta Krystian. [http://www.timetravel.110mb.com/ Conventional Models of Time and Their Extensions in Science Fiction] A master's thesis exploring
conceptual blendingin time travel.
* [http://www.timetravelreviews.com/ Andy's Anachronisms] - Exploring the themes of Time Travel and Alternate Universes in Literature and Entertainment
* [http://www.toptenz.net/top-ten-time-travel-movies.php Time Travel Movies] - Reviews and clips of the some more influential movies involving time travel.
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