Molecular cloud

Molecular cloud
Within a few million years the light from bright stars will have boiled away this molecular cloud of gas and dust. The cloud has broken off from the Carina Nebula. Newly formed stars are visible nearby, their images reddened by blue light being preferentially scattered by the pervasive dust. This image spans about two light-years and was taken by the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope in 1999.

A molecular cloud, sometimes called a stellar nursery if star formation is occurring within, is a type of interstellar cloud whose density and size permits the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen (H2).

Molecular hydrogen is difficult to detect by infrared and radio observations, so the molecule most often used to determine the presence of H2 is CO (carbon monoxide). The ratio between CO luminosity and H2 mass is thought to be constant, although there are reasons to doubt this assumption in observations of some other galaxies.[1]



Barnard 68

Within our own galaxy, molecular gas accounts for less than one percent of the volume of the interstellar medium (ISM), yet it is also the densest part of the medium comprising roughly one-half of the total gas mass interior to the Sun's galactic orbit. The bulk of the molecular gas is contained in a molecular ring between 3.5 to 7.5 kiloparsecs from the center of the galaxy (the Sun is about 8.5 kiloparsecs from the center).[2] Large scale carbon monoxide maps of the galaxy show that the position of this gas correlates with the spiral arms of the galaxy.[3] That molecular gas occurs predominantly in the spiral arms argues that molecular clouds must form and dissociate on a timescale shorter than 10 million years—the time it takes for material to pass through the arm region.[4]

Vertically, the molecular gas inhabits the narrow midplane of the Galactic disc with a characteristic scale height, Z, of approximately 50–75 parsec, much thinner than the warm atomic (Z=130–400 pc) and warm ionized (Z=1000 pc) gaseous components of the ISM.[5] The exception to the ionized gas distribution are HII regions which are bubbles of hot ionized gas created in molecular clouds by the intense radiation given off by young massive stars and as such they have approximately the same vertical distribution as the molecular gas.

This smooth distribution of molecular gas is averaged out over large distances; however, the small scale distribution of the gas is highly irregular with most of it concentrated in discrete clouds and cloud complexes.[2]

Types of molecular cloud

Giant molecular clouds (GMCs)

A vast assemblage of molecular gas with a mass of 104–106 times the mass of the Sun is called a giant molecular cloud (GMC). GMCs are 50–300 light-years in diamater (approx 15–92 parsecs).[citation needed] Whereas the average density in the solar vicinity is one particle per cubic centimetre, the average density of a GMC is 102–103 particles per cubic centimetre. Although the Sun is much denser than a GMC, the volume of a GMC is so great that it contains 100,000 to 10,000,000 times as much mass as the Sun.[citation needed] The substructure of a GMC is a complex pattern of filaments, sheets, bubbles, and irregular clumps.[4]

The densest parts of the filaments and clumps are called "molecular cores", whilst the densest molecular cores are, unsurprisingly, called "dense molecular cores" and have densities in excess of 104–106 particles per cubic centimeter. Observationally molecular cores are traced with carbon monoxide and dense cores are traced with ammonia. The concentration of dust within molecular cores is normally sufficient to block light from background stars so that they appear in silhouette as dark nebulae.[6]

GMCs are so large that "local" ones can cover a significant fraction of a constellation; thus they are often referred to by the name of that constellation, e.g. the Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC) or the Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC). These local GMCs are arrayed in a ring in the neighborhood of the Sun coinciding with the Gould Belt.[7] The most massive collection of molecular clouds in the galaxy forms an asymmetrical ring around the galactic center at a radius of 120 parsecs; the largest component of this ring is the Sagittarius B2 complex. The Sagittarius region is chemically rich and is often used as an exemplar by astronomers searching for new molecules in interstellar space.[8]

Small molecular clouds

Isolated gravitationally bound small molecular clouds with masses less than a few hundred times the mass of the Sun are called Bok globules. The densest parts of small molecular clouds are equivalent to the molecular cores found in GMCs and are often included in the same studies.

High-latitude diffuse molecular clouds

In 1984 IRAS identified a new type of diffuse molecular cloud.[9] These were diffuse filamentary clouds that are visible at high galactic latitudes (looking out of the plane of the galactic disc). These clouds would have a typical density of 30 particles per cubic centimeter.[10]


Star formation

Composite image showing young stars in and around molecular cloud Cepheus B.

The general hypothesis is that the creation of newborn stars occurs exclusively within molecular clouds. This is a natural consequence of their low temperatures and high densities, since the gravitational force acting to collapse the cloud may exceed the internal pressures that are acting "outward" to prevent a collapse. Also there is observed evidence that the large, star-forming clouds are confined to a large degree by their own gravity (like stars, planets, and galaxies) rather than external pressure (like clouds in the sky). The evidence comes from the fact that the "turbulent" velocities inferred from CO linewidth scale in the same manner as the orbital velocity (a virial relation).


The physics of molecular clouds are poorly understood and much debated. Their internal motions are governed by turbulence in a cold, magnetized gas, for which the turbulent motions are highly supersonic but comparable to the speeds of magnetic disturbances. This state is thought to lose energy rapidly, requiring either an overall collapse or a steady reinjection of energy. At the same time, the clouds are known to be disrupted by some process—most likely the effects of massive stars—before a significant fraction of their mass has become stars.

Molecular clouds, and especially "giant" molecular clouds (GMCs), are often the home of astronomical masers.


  1. ^ Craig Kulesa. "Overview: Molecular Astrophysics and Star Formation". Research Projects. Retrieved September 7, 2005. 
  2. ^ a b Ferriere, D. (2001). "The Interstellar Environment of our Galaxy". Reviews of Modern Physics 73 (4): 1031–1066. arXiv:astro-ph/0106359. Bibcode 2001RvMP...73.1031F. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.73.1031. 
  3. ^ Dame et al. (1987). "A composite CO survey of the entire Milky Way". Astrophysical Journal 322: 706–720. Bibcode 1987ApJ...322..706D. doi:10.1086/165766. 
  4. ^ a b Williams, J. P.; Blitz, L.; McKee, C. F., (2000). "The Structure and Evolution of Molecular Clouds: from Clumps to Cores to the IMF". Protostars and Planets IV. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. pp. 97. 
  5. ^ Cox, D. (2005). "The Three-Phase Interstellar Medium Revisited". Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics 43: 337–385. Bibcode 2005ARA&A..43..337C. doi:10.1146/annurev.astro.43.072103.150615. 
  6. ^ Di Francesco, J., et al. (2006). "An Observational Perspective of Low-Mass Dense Cores I: Internal Physical and Chemical Properties". Protostars and Planets V. 
  7. ^ Grenier (2004). "The Gould Belt, star formation, and the local interstellar medium". The Young Universe.  Electronic preprint
  8. ^ Sagittarius B2 and its Line of Sight
  9. ^ Low et al. (1984). "Infrared cirrus - New components of the extended infrared emission". Astrophysical Journal 278: L19. Bibcode 1984ApJ...278L..19L. doi:10.1086/184213. 
  10. ^ Gillmon, K., and Shull, J.M. (2006). "Molecular Hydrogen in Infrared Cirrus". Astrophysical Journal 636 (2): 908–915. arXiv:astro-ph/0507587. Bibcode 2006ApJ...636..908G. doi:10.1086/498055. 

See also

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