Chengde Mountain Resort


Chengde Mountain Resort
Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples, Chengde *
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Mountain Resort, Chengde
Country Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iv
Reference 703
Region ** Asia-Pacific
Inscription history
Inscription 1994 (18th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List
** Region as classified by UNESCO

The Mountain Resort in Chengde (Chinese: 避暑山庄; pinyin: Bìshǔ Shānzhuāng; literally: Mountain Villa for Avoiding the Heat; Manchu: Halhūn1.png Halhūn be jailara gurung) or Ligong (Chinese: 离宫; pinyin: Lígōng), is a large complex of imperial palaces and gardens situated in the city of Chengde in Hebei Province, China. Because of its vast and rich collection of Chinese landscapes and architecture, the Mountain Resort in many ways is a culmination of all the variety of gardens, pagodas, temples and palaces from various regions of China.[1]

Contents

History

A tower on the Little Golden Mountain

Built between 1703 and 1792 during the Qing Dynasty, the Mountain Resort took 89 years to complete. It covers a total area of 5.6 km², almost half of Chengde's urban area. It is a vast complex of palaces and administrative and ceremonial buildings. Temples of various architectural styles and imperial gardens blend harmoniously into a landscape of lakes, pastureland and forests.

The Kangxi, Qianlong and Jiaqing Emperors often spent several months a year here to escape the summer heat in the capital city of Beijing and the palace zone in the southern part of the resort was therefore designed to resemble the Forbidden City in Beijing. It consists of two parts: a court in front, where the emperor received high officials, nobles of various minority nationalities, and foreign envoys; and bed chambers in the rear, which were the imperial family's living quarters. Emperor Jiaqing and Xianfeng both died while staying at Chengde in 1820 and 1861 respectively.

Scenic spots

The Mountain Resort is most famous for the 72 scenic spots which were named by the Kangxi and Qianlong Emperors. Many of the scenic spots around the resort's lake area were copied from famous landscaped gardens in southern China. For instance, the main building on the Green Lotus Island, "Tower of Mist and Rain," (Chinese: 烟雨楼; pinyin: Yānyǔ Lóu) is modeled upon a tower in Nanhu Lake at Jiaxing in Zhejiang Province.

The resort's plain area also possesses characteristics of the scenery of the Mongolian grasslands. Forested mountains and valleys are dotted with various buildings. This includes a 70 m tall stone Chinese pagoda, one of the tallest in China, built in the year 1751 during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor. The pagoda is shaped with an octagonal base, while the pagoda's nine stories are decorated with colorful glazed tiles and the steeple is crowned with a gilded round spire.

In December 1994 the Mountain Resort was listed by UNESCO on its list of World Heritage Sites. On May 8, 2007, the Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples, Chengde was approved by the China National Tourism Administration as one of the "5A-class tourist attractions" which represents the highest standards for China's tourist attractions.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Journal of garden history , Volume 19. Taylor & Francis from University of California. 1999. 

Further reading

  • Hevia, James Louis. "World Heritage, National Culture, and the Restoration of Chengde." positions: east Asia cultures critique 9, no. 1 (2001): 219-43.

Coordinates: 40°59′15″N 117°56′15″E / 40.9875°N 117.9375°E / 40.9875; 117.9375


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