- Chengde Mountain Resort
Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples, Chengde *UNESCO World Heritage Site Country China Type Cultural Criteria ii, iv Reference 703 Region ** Asia-Pacific Inscription history Inscription 1994 (18th Session) * Name as inscribed on World Heritage List
** Region as classified by UNESCO
The Mountain Resort in Chengde (Chinese: 避暑山庄; pinyin: Bìshǔ Shānzhuāng; literally: Mountain Villa for Avoiding the Heat; Manchu: Halhūn be jailara gurung) or Ligong (Chinese: 离宫; pinyin: Lígōng), is a large complex of imperial palaces and gardens situated in the city of Chengde in Hebei Province, China. Because of its vast and rich collection of Chinese landscapes and architecture, the Mountain Resort in many ways is a culmination of all the variety of gardens, pagodas, temples and palaces from various regions of China.
Built between 1703 and 1792 during the Qing Dynasty, the Mountain Resort took 89 years to complete. It covers a total area of 5.6 km², almost half of Chengde's urban area. It is a vast complex of palaces and administrative and ceremonial buildings. Temples of various architectural styles and imperial gardens blend harmoniously into a landscape of lakes, pastureland and forests.
The Kangxi, Qianlong and Jiaqing Emperors often spent several months a year here to escape the summer heat in the capital city of Beijing and the palace zone in the southern part of the resort was therefore designed to resemble the Forbidden City in Beijing. It consists of two parts: a court in front, where the emperor received high officials, nobles of various minority nationalities, and foreign envoys; and bed chambers in the rear, which were the imperial family's living quarters. Emperor Jiaqing and Xianfeng both died while staying at Chengde in 1820 and 1861 respectively.
The Mountain Resort is most famous for the 72 scenic spots which were named by the Kangxi and Qianlong Emperors. Many of the scenic spots around the resort's lake area were copied from famous landscaped gardens in southern China. For instance, the main building on the Green Lotus Island, "Tower of Mist and Rain," (Chinese: 烟雨楼; pinyin: Yānyǔ Lóu) is modeled upon a tower in Nanhu Lake at Jiaxing in Zhejiang Province.
The resort's plain area also possesses characteristics of the scenery of the Mongolian grasslands. Forested mountains and valleys are dotted with various buildings. This includes a 70 m tall stone Chinese pagoda, one of the tallest in China, built in the year 1751 during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor. The pagoda is shaped with an octagonal base, while the pagoda's nine stories are decorated with colorful glazed tiles and the steeple is crowned with a gilded round spire.
In December 1994 the Mountain Resort was listed by UNESCO on its list of World Heritage Sites. On May 8, 2007, the Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples, Chengde was approved by the China National Tourism Administration as one of the "5A-class tourist attractions" which represents the highest standards for China's tourist attractions.
The Wenjin Chamber
- Hevia, James Louis. "World Heritage, National Culture, and the Restoration of Chengde." positions: east Asia cultures critique 9, no. 1 (2001): 219-43.
World Heritage Sites in China East
Classical Gardens of Suzhou · Fujian Tulou · Lushan National Park · Mount Huang (Huangshan) · Mount Sanqing (Sanqingshan) · Mount Tai (Taishan) · Mount Wuyi (Wuyishan) · Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and Kong Family Mansion, Qufu · Ancient villages in Southern Anhui - Xidi and Hongcun · West Lake Cultural Landscape of Hangzhou
South Central Southwest
Dazu Rock Carvings · Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace, including the Jokhang and Norbulingka · Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area · Jiuzhaigou Valley Scenic and Historic Interest Area · Old Town of Lijiang · Mount Emei Scenic Area, including Leshan Giant Buddha Scenic Area · Mount Qingcheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System · Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries · Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas
Mount Wutai (Wutaishan) · Chengde Mountain Resort and its outlying temples including the Putuo Zongcheng Temple, Xumi Fushou Temple and the Puning Temple · Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing and Shenyang · Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian · Ancient City of Pingyao · Summer Palace, an Imperial Garden in Beijing · Temple of Heaven: an Imperial Sacrificial Altar in Beijing · Yungang Grottoes
Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom · Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing and Shenyang
Northwest Multiple regions Hebei topics Shijiazhuang (capital) General Geography Education CultureMusic • Pingju opera • Er ren tai Visitor attractions
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