Beijing cuisine

Beijing cuisine (Chinese: 京菜 or 北京菜; pinyin: jīngcài or běijīngcài) is a cooking style in Beijing, China. It is also known as Mandarin cuisine.

Contents

Background

Since Beijing has been the Chinese capital city for centuries, its cuisine has been influenced by culinary traditions from all over China, but the cuisine that has exerted the greatest influence on Beijing cuisine is the cuisine of the eastern coastal province of Shandong.[1][2][3][4] Beijing cuisine has itself, in turn, also greatly influenced other Chinese cuisines, particularly the cuisine of Liaoning, the Chinese Imperial cuisine, and the Chinese aristocrat cuisine.[1][2][3][4]

Another Chinese cuisine that influenced Beijing cuisine (as well as influenced by Beijing cuisine itself) was the Chinese Imperial cuisine that originated from "The Emperor's Kitchen" (御膳房; pinyin: yùshànfáng), which was a term referring to the cooking facilities inside of the Forbidden City, Beijing where thousands of cooks from the different parts of China showed their best cooking skills to please royal families and officials. Therefore, it is at times rather difficult to determine the actual origin of a dish as the term "Mandarin" is generalized and refers not only to Beijing, but other provinces as well. However, some generalization of Beijing cuisine can be characterized as follows: Foods that originated in Beijing are often snacks rather than full courses, and they are typically sold by little shops or street vendors. There is emphasis on dark soy paste, sesame paste, sesame oil, and scallions, and fermented tofu is often served as a condiment. In terms of cooking method, methods relating to the different ways of frying are often used.[1][4] There is a lesser emphasis on rice as an accompaniment than in many other areas of China, as local rice production is limited by the relatively dry climate.

For dishes of Beijing cuisine served as full courses, they are mostly originated from other Chinese cuisines[citation needed], and some of the following in particular have been central to the formation of Beijing (Mandarin) cuisine. Huaiyang cuisine has long been praised since ancient times in China, and it was a general practice for an official going to Beijing to take up their position in the capital to often take a Huaiyang cuisine chef with him among servants he brought to his new home. As the officials finished their term and returned home elsewhere in China, most of these chefs often stayed behind in the capital instead, opening up their own restaurants, or being hired by local wealthy families. [1][4] The imperial family of the Ming Dynasty originally from Jiangsu also contributed greatly in introducing Huaiyang cuisine to Beijing when it moved the imperial capital from Nanjing to Beijing, as the imperial kitchen was mainly Huaiyang style. The element of traditional Beijing culinary/gastronomical culture of enjoying artistic performances such as Beijing opera while dining directly developed from the similar practice in the culinary/gastronomical culture of Jiangsu/Huaiyang cuisine. [1][2][3][4][5] Chinese Islamic cuisine is another important component of the Beijing cuisine, with the first major introduction when Beijing was selected as the imperial capital of the Yuan Dynasty. However, the most significant contribution to the formation of Beijing cuisine came from Shandong cuisine, as most chefs from Shandong came to Beijing en masse in Qing Dynasty. Unlike the earlier two cuisines which were brought by the ruling class such as royalties, aristocrats and bureaucrats, and then spread to the general populace, the introduction of Shandong cuisine begun with serving the general populace, with much wider market segment, from the wealthy merchants to working classes.

History

Qing Dynasty was a major period in the formation of Beijing cuisine. Before the Boxer Rebellion, the foodservice establishments in Beijing were strictly stratified by the foodservice guild. Each category of the foodservice establishment was specifically based on ability to provide the service for a particular market segment. The top ranking foodservice establishment served royalties, aristocrats and wealthiest merchants and landlords, while lower ranking foodservice establishments served populace with lower financial and social status. It was during this period of Qing Dynasty when Beijing cuisine achieved its fame and recognized by the Chinese culinary society, and the stratification of the foodservice was one of its most obvious characteristics as part of its culinary and gastronomic culture during this first peak of its formation.[1][2][3][4] The official stratification was an integral part of the local culture of Beijing and it was not finally abolished officially after the end of Qing Dynasty, which resulted in the second peak in the formation of Beijing cuisine. Any customers with money could purchase meals previously offered to royalties and aristocrats, and as chefs freely switched between jobs offered by different food service establishments, they brought their skills that further enriched and developed Beijing cuisine. Though the stratification of food services in Beijing was no longer effected by imperial laws, the structure more or less remained despite continuous weakening due to the financial background of the local cliental. These different classes includes: [1][2][3][4][5]

  • Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character Village (庄zhuang, or Zhuang Zihao, 庄字号): These were the top ranking foodservice establishments, not only providing foods, but also entertainment as well. The form of entertainment provided was usually Beijing Opera, and foodservice establishments of this class always had long term contracts with a Beijing Opera troupe to perform onsite. Moreover, foodservice establishments of this class would always have long term contracts with famous performers (such as national treasure class performers) to perform onsite, though not on a daily basis. Foodservice establishments of this category did not accept any different customers on walk-in basis, but instead, only accepted customers who came as a group and ordered banquets by appointment, and the banquets provided by foodservice establishments of this category often included most if not all tables at the site. The bulk of the business of foodservice of this category, however, was catering at the topnotch customers’ homes or other locations, and such catering was often for birthdays, marriages, funerals, promotions and other important celebrations / festivals. When catering, these topnotch foodservice establishments not only provided what was on the menu, but upon customers’ requests, also those not on the menu, properly fitting the occasions.
    • Foodservice establishments categorized as Cold Villages (冷庄子 Leng Zhuang Zi): Foodservice establishments without any rooms to host banquets, thus their business was purely catering.
  • Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character Auditorium (堂 tang, or Tang Zihao, 堂字号): Similar to foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character Village (庄 zhuang, or Zhuang Zihao, 庄字号), but the business of these second class foodservice establishments were generally evenly divided among onsite banquet hosting and catering (at customers’ home). Foodservice establishments of this class would also have long term contracts with Beijing Opera troupes to perform onsite, but they did not have long term contracts with famous performers (such as national treasure class performers) to perform onsite on regular basis, however these topnotch performers would still perform at foodservice establishments of this category occasionally. In terms of catering at the customers’ sites, foodservice establishments of this category often only provided dishes strictly according to their menu, and would not provide any dishes that were not on the menu, because they were generally incapable of providing dishes outside their menu according to the specific occasion.
  • Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character Foyer (厅 ting, or Ting Zihao, 厅字号): Foodservice establishments of this category had more business in onsite banquet hosting than catering at the customers’ homes. For onsite banquet hosting, entertainment was still provided, but foodservice establishments of this category did not have long term contracts with Beijing Opera troupes, so that performers varied for time to time, and topnotch performers usually did not perform here or any other foodservice establishments ranking lower. For catering, different foodservice establishments of this category were incapable of handling topnotch catering on their own, but must join forces with other foodservice establishments of same ranking (or lower) to do the job.
  • Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character Garden (园 yuan, or Yuan Zihao, 园字号): Nearly all of the business of foodservice establishments of this category was in hosting banquets onsite. Entertainment was not provided on regular basis, but there were stages built onsite for Beijing Opera performers. Instead of being hired by the foodservice establishments like in the previous three categories, performers at foodservice establishments of this category were usually contractors who paid the foodservice establishment to perform on stages and split the earning according to a certain percentage. Occasionally, foodservice establishments of this category would be called upon to help cater at the customers’ homes, and like foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character Foyer (厅 ting, or Ting Zihao, 厅字号), they could not do the job on their own but must work with others, but they could never be the lead, like foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character Foyer (厅 ting, or Ting Zihao, 厅字号) could.
  • Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character Storey (楼 lou, or Lou Zihao, 楼字号): The bulk of the business of foodservice establishments of this category was hosting banquets onsite by appointment. Additionally, a smaller portion of the business was in serving different customers onsite on a walk-in basis. Occasionally, when catering at the customers’ homes, foodservice establishments of this category would only provide the few specialty dishes they were famous for.
  • Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character Residence (居 ju, or Ju Zihao, 居字号): The business of this category of foodservice establishments was generally evenly divided into two areas: serving different customers onsite on a walk-in basis, and hosting banquets made by appointment for customers who came as one group. Occasionally, when catering at the customers’ homes, foodservice establishments of this category would only provide the few specialty dishes they were famous for, just like foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character Storey (楼 lou, or Lou Zihao, 楼字号). However, unlike foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character Storey (楼 lou, or Lou Zihao, 楼字号) which always cooked their specialty dishes on locations like higher ranking foodservice establishments, foodservice establishment of this category would either cook on location, or simply bring the already cooked food to the location.
  • Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character Study (斋 zhai, or Zhai Zihao, 斋字号): foodservice establishments of this category were mainly in the business of serving different customers onsite on a walk-in basis, but a small portion of the income did come from hosting banquets made by appointment for customers who came as one group. Just like foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character Residence (居 ju, or Ju Zihao, 居字号), when catering at the customers’ homes, foodservice establishments of this category would also only provide the few specialty dishes they were famous for, but they would mostly bring the already cooked dishes to the location, and would only cook on locations occasionally.
  • Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character Workshop (坊 fang, or Fang Zihao, 坊字号): foodservice establishments of this category generally did not offer the service of hosting banquets made by appointment for customers who came as one group, but instead, often only offered to serve different customers onsite on a walk-in basis. Foodservice establishments of this category or lower would not be called upon to perform catering at the customers’ homes for special events.
  • Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character Restaurant (馆 guan, or Guan Zihao, 馆字号): foodservice establishments of this category mainly served different customers onsite on a walk-in basis, and in addition, a portion of the income would be earned from selling to-goes.
  • Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character Shop (店 dian, or Dian Zihao, 店字号): foodservice establishments of this category had their own place, like all previous categories, but serving different customers to dine onsite on a walk-in basis only provided half of the overall income, while the other half came from selling to-goes.
  • Foodservice establishments with name ending with the Chinese character Store (铺 pu, or Pu Zihao, 铺字号): foodservice establishments of this category ranked next to the last, and they were often named after the owners' last names. Foodservice establishments of this category had fixed spots of business for having their own places, but not as large as those belonging to the category of Shop (店 dian, or Dian Zihao, 店字号), and thus did not have tables, but only seats for customers. As a result, the bulk of the income of foodservice establishments of this category was from selling to-goes, while income earned from customers dining onsite only provided a small portion of the overall income.
  • Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character Stand (摊 tan, or Tan Zihao, 摊字号): the lowest ranking foodservice establishments without any tables, and selling to-goes was the only form of business. In addition to name the food stand after the owners’ last name or the food sold, these food stands were also often named after the owners’ nicknames.

Well known Beijing dishes and street food

Non-vegetarian

  • Peking Duck (usually served with pancakes) (北京烤鸭)
  • Hot and Sour Soup (酸辣汤)
  • Peking Barbecue (烤肉/北京烤肉)
  • Instant-boiled mutton (涮羊肉)
  • Sweetened Vinegar Spareribs (糖醋排骨)
  • Stir Fried Tomatoes with Scrambled Eggs (西红柿炒鸡蛋 xīhóngshì chǎo jīdàn)
  • Beggar's chicken (富贵鸡) [6]
  • Sweet Stir Fried Mutton/Lamb (它似蜜) (Ta Si Mi)
  • Plain Boiled Pork (白肉) (Bai Rou)
  • Fried Small Meatballs (炸丸子) (Zha Xiao Wan Zi)
  • Fried Pig Liver wrapped in Chinese Small Iris (Iris pallasii) (炸卷肝) (Zha Juan Gan)
  • Shredded Skin Salad (拌皮丝) (Ban Pi Si)
  • Cold Pig ears in Sauce (拌双脆) (Ban Shuang Cui)
  • Pickled Chinese Cabbage with Blood Filled Intestines (酸菜血肠) (suan cai xue chang)
  • Sauced Meat (酱肉) (Jiang Rou)
  • Pickled Sauced Meat (清酱肉) (Qing Jiang Rou)
  • Upper Parts of the Pork Hand/Leg (水晶肘子) (Shui Jing Zhou Zi)
  • Three Non-Stickiness (三不粘 ; San Bu Nian)
  • Wood shavings meat 木须肉 (Moo shu pork)
  • Quick-Fried Tripe (mainly intestines) (爆肚) (Bao Du)
  • Fried Triangle (炸三角) (Zha San Jiao)
  • Roast (Mutton/Beef/Pork (烧牛/羊/猪肉) (Shao Niu/Yang/Zhu Rou)
  • Peking Dumpling (饺子/北京饺子) (Jiaozi/Beijing Jiaozi)
  • Peking wonton (馄饨/北京馄饨) (Hun Tun/Beijing Huntun)
  • Braised fish (酥鱼) (Su Yu)
  • Soft fried fish (软炸鱼) (Ruan Zha Yu)
  • Fish cooked with five spices (五香鱼) (Wu Xiang Yu)
  • Fish cooked with vinegar and pepper (醋椒鱼) (Cu Jiao Yu)
  • Shrimp chips with egg (金鱼戏莲) (Jin Yu Xi Lian)
  • Fish soaked with soup (干烧鱼) (Gan Shao Yu)
  • Family style boiled fish (家常熬鱼) (Jia Chang Ao Yu)
  • Sea cucumber with quail egg (乌龙吐珠) (Wu Long Tu Zhu)
  • Fish cooked with five kinds of sliced vegetable (五柳鱼) (Wu Liu Yu)
  • Abalone with peas and fish paste (蛤蟆鲍鱼) (Ha Ma Bao Yu)
  • Meat wrapped in thin mung bean flour pancake (煎饼馃子) (Jian Bing Guo Zi)
  • Egg and shrimp wrapped in corn flour pancake (糊饼) (Hu Bing)
  • Fried tofu with egg wrapping (锅塌豆腐) (Guo Ta Do Fu)
  • Wheaten cake boiled in meat broth (卤煮火烧) (Lu Zhu Huo Shao)
  • Fried wheaten pancake with meat and sea cucumber fillings (褡裢火烧) (Da Lian Huo Shao)
  • Fried butter cake (奶油炸糕) (Nai You Zha Gao)
  • Fried cake with fillings (烫面炸糕) (Tang Mian Zha Gao)
  • Fried dry soybean cream with diced meat filling (炸响铃) (Zha Xiang Ling)
  • Dried Soy Milk Cream in Tight Roll with Beef Fillings (炸卷果) (Zhua Juan Guo)
  • Lotus ham (莲枣肉方) (Lian Rou Zao Fang)
  • Pork in broth (苏造肉) (Su Zao Rou)
  • Stewed pork organs (炖吊子) (Dun Diao Zi)
  • Goat/sheep intestine filled with blood (羊霜肠) (Yang Shuang Chang)
  • Beef wrapped in pancake (门钉肉饼) (Men Ding Rou Bing)
  • Soft fried tenderloin (软炸里脊) (Ruan Zha Li Ji)
  • Meatballs soup (清汤丸子) (Qing Tang Wan Zi)
  • Fried sesame egg cake (开口笑) (Kai Kuo Xiao)
  • Pork fat with flour wrapping glazed in honey (蜜汁葫芦) (Mi Zhi Hu Lu)
  • Glazed fried egg cake (金丝糕) (Jin Si Gao)
  • Steamed egg cake (碗糕) (Wan Gao)
  • Lotus shaped cake with chicken meat (莲蓬鸡糕) (Lian Peng Ji Gao)

Noodles (Can be either vegetarian or served with meat)

  • Noodles with Thick Gravy (打卤面) (Da Lu Mian)
  • Zhajiang mian (炸酱面)
  • Naked oats noodle (莜面搓鱼) (You Mian Cuo Yu)

Vegetarian

  • Mustardy Chinese cabbage (芥末墩) (Jie Mo Dun)
  • Beijing preserved fruit (果脯) (Guo Pu)
  • Beijing candied fruit (蜜饯) (Mi Jian)
  • Hawthorn cake (京糕) (Jin Gao)
  • Stir fried hawthorn (炒红果) (Chao Hong Guo)
  • Iced fruits (冰果) (Bing Guo)
  • Watermellon jelly (西瓜酪) (Xi Gua Lao)
  • Almond drink (杏仁茶) (Xin Ren Cha)
  • Beijng 'yoghurt' (奶酪) (Nai Lao)
  • Fuling pancake sandwich (茯苓夹饼) (Fuling jiabing)
  • Thin Millet Flour Pancake (煎饼) (Jian Bing)
  • Thin pancake (薄饼) (Bao Bing)
  • Pancake (烙饼) Lao bing
  • Deep Fried Dough Cake (油饼) (You Bing)
  • Baked Sesame Seed Cake (烧饼) (shaobing)
  • Purplevine Cake (藤萝饼) (Teng Luo Bing)
  • Shortening cake (牛舌饼) (Niu She Bing)
  • Glutinous rice cake (切糕) (Qie Gao)
  • Thousand-layer cake (千层糕) (Qian Ceng Gao)
  • Lamma cake (喇嘛糕) (La Ma Gao)
  • Proso millet cake (黄糕) (Huang Gao)
  • Glutinous rice cake roll (卷糕) (Juan Gao)
  • Glazed steamed glutinous rice cake (水晶糕) (Shui Jing Gao)
  • Rice and white kidney bean cake with jujube (盆糕) (Pen Gao)
  • Honeycomb cake (蜂糕) (Feng Gao)
  • Buckwheat cake (扒糕) (Ba Gao)
  • Rice and jujube cake (甑糕) (Zeng Gao)
  • Mung bean cake (绿豆糕) (Lu Dou Gao)
  • Soybean flour cake (豆面糕) (Dou Mian Gao)
  • Bean paste cake (凉糕) (Liang Gao)
  • Fried Cake (炸糕) (Zha Gao)
  • Rice cake with bean paste (花糕) (Hua Gao)
  • Chestnut cake with bean paste (栗子糕) (Li Zi Gao)
  • Chestnut broth (栗子羹) (Li Zi Geng)
  • Glazed/Candied Chinese Yam (拔丝山药) (Ba Si Shan Yao)
  • Glazed thin pancake with Chinese yam and jujube stuffing (糖卷果) (Tang Juan Guo)
  • Thin pancake of pork fat (油皮) (You Pi)
  • Sweet hard flour cake (硬面饽饽) (Yi Mian Bo Bo)
  • Sweet flour cake (墩饽饽) (Dun Bo Bo)
  • Fried sugar cake (糖耳朵) (Tang Er Duo)
  • Fried cake glazed in malt sugar (蜜三刀) (Mi San Dao)
  • Cake with bean paste filling (豆陷烧饼) (Dou Xian Shao Bing)
  • Freshwater snail shaped cake (螺蛳转) (Luo Si Zhuan)
  • Chinese "fajitas" (春饼卷菜 — not to be confused with spring rolls [春卷])
  • Chatang / Miancha / Youcha (茶汤/面茶/油茶)
  • Fermented Mung Bean Juice (豆汁) (Dou Zhi)
  • Baked Wheaten Cake (火烧) (Huo Shao)
  • Sweetened baked wheaten cake (糖火烧) (Tang Huo Shao)
  • Bean Jelly (凉粉) (Liangfen)
  • Sweet Potato Starch Jelly (粉皮) (Fen Pi)
  • Crisp Fritter (麻页) (Ma Ye)
  • Crisp Fritter with Sesame (薄脆) (Bao Cui)
  • Crisp Thin Fritter Twist (排叉) (Pai Cha)
  • Crisp Noodle (馓子) (San Zi)
  • Stir Fried Starch Knots (炒疙瘩) (Chao Ge Da)
  • Fried Ring (焦圈) (Jiao Quan)
  • Fried Dough Twist (麻花) (Ma Hua)
  • Pease Pudding (豌豆黄) (Wan Dou Huang)
  • Fermented Mung Bean Juice Dried (麻豆腐) (Ma Dou Fu)
  • Jellied Bean Curd (豆腐脑) (Dou Fu Nao)
  • Almond tofu (杏仁豆腐)
  • Glutinous rice ball (艾窝窝) (Ai Wo Wo)
  • Noodle roll (银丝卷) (Yi Si Juan)
  • Kidney bean roll (芸豆卷) (Yun Dou Juan)
  • Dried Soy Milk Cream in Tight Rolls (腐竹) (Fu Zhu)
  • Sugarcoated haws on a stick (糖葫芦) (Tang hu lu)
  • Millet zongzi (粽子) (Zongzi)
  • Tangyuan (元宵) (Yuan Xiao)

Restaurants known for Beijing cuisine

Numerous traditional restaurants in Beijing are credited with great contributions in the formation of Beijing cuisine, but many of them have gone out of business as time went by.[1][2][3][4][5][7][8][9][10][11][12] However, some of them managed to survive until today, and some of them are:

  • Bai Kui (白魁): established in 1780
  • Bao Du Feng (爆肚冯): established in 1881, also known as Ji Sheng Long (金生隆)
  • Bianyifang: established in 1416, the oldest surviving restaurant in Beijing
  • Cha Tang Li (茶汤李), established in 1858
  • Dao Xiang Chun (稻香春): established in 1916
  • Dao Xian Cun (稻香村): established in 1895
  • De Shun Zhai (大顺斋): established in the early 1870s
  • Dong Lai Shun (东来顺): established in 1903
  • Dong Xin Shun (东兴顺): also known as Bao Du Zhang (爆肚张), established in 1883
  • Du Yi Chu (都一处): established in 1738
  • Dou Fu Nao Bai (豆腐脑白): established in 1877, also known as Xi Yu Zhai (西域斋)
  • En Yuan Ju (恩元居), established in 1929
  • Fang Sheng Zhai (芳生斋), also known as Nai Lao Wei (奶酪魏), established in 1857
  • Hong Bin Lou (鸿宾楼): established in 1853 in Tianjin, relocated to Beijing in 1955.
  • Jin Sheng Long (金生隆): established in 1846
  • Kao Rou Ji (烤肉季): established in 1828
  • Kao Rou Wan (烤肉宛): established in 1686
  • Liu Bi Ju (六必居) established in 1530
  • Liu Quan Ju (柳泉居): established in the late 1560s, the second oldest surviving restaurant in Beijing
  • Nan Lai Shun (南来顺): established in 1937
  • Nian Gao Qian (年糕钱): established in early 1880s
  • Quanjude (全聚德): established in 1864
  • Rui Bin Lou (瑞宾楼): originally established in 1876
  • Sha Guoo Ju (砂锅居), established in 1741
  • Tian Fu Hao (天福号): established in 1738
  • Tian Xing Ju (天兴居), established in 1862
  • Tian Yuan Jian Yuan (天源酱园): established in 1869
  • Wang Zhi He (王致和): established in 1669
  • Wonton Hou (馄饨侯): established in 1949
  • Xi De Shun (西德顺): also known as Bao Du Wang (爆肚王), established in 1904
  • Xi Lai Shun (西来顺): established in 1930
  • Xian Bing Zhou (馅饼周): established in 1910s, also known as Tong Ju Guan (同聚馆)
  • Xiao Chang Chen (小肠陈): established in the late 19th century
  • Xin Yuan Zhai (信远斋), established in 1740
  • Yang Tou Man (羊头马): established in the late 1830s

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Wang, Juling, Famous Dishes of Famous Restaurant in Beijing, Golden Shield Publishing House in Beijing, December, 2000, ISBN 7-5082-1400-5
  2. ^ a b c d e f Xu, Chengbei, Ancient Beijing, Customs of the General Populace of Ancient Beijing, Jiangsu Fine Arts Publishing House in Nanjing, September, 1999, ISBN 7-5344-0971-3
  3. ^ a b c d e f Hua Mengyang and Zhang Hongjie, Lives of the residents of Ancient Beijing, Shandong Pictorial Publishing House in Jinan, June, 2000, ISBN 7-80603-452-8
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Du, Fuxiang and Guo, Yunhui, Famous Restaurants in China, China Tourism Publishing House in Beijing, 1982
  5. ^ a b c Bai, Zhongjian, Legends of Historical Business in Beijing, China Tourism Publishing House in Beijing, 1993, ISBN 7503208872
  6. ^ Lo, Eileen Yin-Fei (1999). "Chinese Classics", The Chinese Kitchen, calligraphy by San Yan Wong, 1st Edition, New York, New York: William Morrow and Company, 416. ISBN 0-688-15826-9.
  7. ^ Ma, Jing, Beijing Culinary Guide, China Light Industry Publishing House in Beijing, January 2002, ISBN 7-5019-3559-9/TS.2143
  8. ^ Hou, Shiheng, Historical Business in Beijing, 1st Edition, Chinese Environmental Science Publishing House in Beijing, 1991, ISBN 7800107655
  9. ^ Hou, Shiheng, Historical Business in Beijing, Chinese Foreign Trade Publishing House in Beijing, 1998, ISBN 7800045358
  10. ^ Xu, Chengbei, Ancient Beijing, Change of Qianmen, Jiangsu Fine Arts Publishing House in Nanjing, September, 2000, ISBN 7-5344-0969-1
  11. ^ Yin, Qingmin, Historical Business Establishments in Beijing, Shining Daily Publishing House in Beijing, 2004, ISBN 7801458125
  12. ^ Zhou, Jianduan, Old Memory of Beijing, Social Life and Customs, Southern Cantonese Publishing House in Hong Kong, 1987, ISBN 9620405803

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