company_name = Polaroid Corporation
foundation = 1937
Edwin H. Land
Concord, Massachusetts, USA
homepage = [http://www.polaroid.com/ www.polaroid.com]
Polaroid Corporation was founded in 1937 by
Edwin H. Land. It is most famous for its instant film cameras, which reached the market in 1948, and continued to be the company's flagship product line until the February 2008 decision to cease all production in favor of digital photography products [cite news|last=Jewell|first = Mark|title = After 60 years, Polaroid quits instant film business|publisher=Associated Press|date= 2008-02-08|url=http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2008/02/08/after_60_years_polaroid_quits_its_instant_film_business/|accessdate=2008-02-16] . The company's original dominant market was in polarized sunglasses, an outgrowth of Land's self-guided research in polarizationafter leaving Harvard Universityafter his freshman year (he later returned to Harvard to continue his research).
After Polaroid defeated
Kodakin a patentbattle, Kodak left the instant camerabusiness on January 9, 1986.
Polaroid developed an instant movie system,
Polavision, based on the Dufaycolorprocess. The product arrived on the market when videotape based systems were rapidly gaining popularity. As a result, Polavision was unsuccessful and most of the manufactured product was sold off as a job lot at immense cost to the company.
The company also was one of the early manufacturers of digital cameras, with the
PDC-2000in 1996[ [http://www.epi-centre.com/reports/9604ahs.html Polaroid PDC-2000 Digital Camera ] ] , however they failed to capture a large marketshare in that segment.
October 11, 2001, Polaroid Corporation filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcyprotection. Almost all the company's assets (including the "Polaroid" name itself) were sold to a subsidiaryof Bank One. They went on to form a new company, which also operates under the name "Polaroid Corporation". [http://www.polaroid.com/global/printer_friendly.jsp?PRODUCT%3C%3Eprd_id=845524441760524&FOLDER%3C%3Efolder_id=2534374302023841&bmUID=1164973407121&bmLocale=en_US "Polaroid and One Equity Partners Complete Asset Acquisition"] , New Polaroid Corporation. Press release dated 2002-07-31, retrieved 2006-12-01.] It stopped making Polaroid cameras in 2007 and will stop selling Polaroid film after 2009 [Polaroid Abandons Instant Photography [http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/02/08/polaroid-abandons-instant-photography/?hp] ] , to the consternation of some users. [Industries Frantic To Find Polaroid Instant Film [http://www.manufacturing.net/News-Polaroid-Instant-Film-In-Demand.aspx?menuid=36] ]
The renamed "old" Polaroid now exists solely as an administrative shell. [http://www.primarypdc.com/ Front page] , Primary PDC website. Retrieved
2006-11-30.] Its bankruptcy was widely believed to be the result of the failure of its senior management to anticipate the effect of digital camerason its film business.
Bankruptcy and the "new" Polaroid Corporation
"Chapter 11" controversy
The original Polaroid Corporation filed for federal
bankruptcyprotection on October 11, 2001. The outcome was that within ten months, most of the business (including the "Polaroid" name itself [http://www.primarypdc.com/stockholders.html "Shareholders"] , Primary PDC website. Retrieved 2006-11-30.] and non-bankrupt foreign subsidiaries) had been sold to Bank One's One Equity Partners (OEP). OEP Imaging Corporation then changed its name to Polaroid Holding Company (PHC).Frieswick, Kris, [http://www.cfo.com/article.cfm/3007726/1/c_3046585 "What's wrong with this picture?"] , cfo.com. Article dated 2003-01-01, retrieved 2006-11-30. (p1: Sale of business/assets, controversy. p4: Renamed as Primary PDC, distribution to unsecured creditors). ] [http://www.primarypdc.com/faq/index.html FAQ] , Primary PDC, Inc. Retrieved 2006-11-30.] However, this new company operates using the name of its bankrupt predecessor, Polaroid Corporation.
As part of the settlement, the original Polaroid Corporation changed its name to Primary PDC, Inc. [http://www.primarypdc.com/ Front page] , Primary PDC website. Retrieved
2006-11-30.] Having sold its assets, it was now effectively nothing more than an administrative shell. Primary PDC received approximately 35 percent of the "new" Polaroid, which was to be distributed to its unsecured creditors (including bondholders.O'Neill, Jerry [http://www.imaginginfo.com/article/article.jsp?id=818&siteSection=27 "The New Polaroid: After Chapter 11"] , "From the October 2002 Issue of Imaging Business" via imaginginfo.com. Article updated 2006-02-08, retrieved 2006-12-01.] ) As of late 2006, Primary PDC remains in existence under Chapter 11 protection, but conducts no commercial business and has no employees.
Significant criticism surrounded this "takeover" because the process left executives of the company with large bonuses, while stockholders, as well as current and retired employees, were left with nothing.
Use of Polaroid brand following bankruptcy
Since the bankruptcy, the Polaroid brand has been licensed for use on other products with the assistance of
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom. In September 2002, World Wide Licenses, a subsidiary of The Character Group plc, was granted the exclusive rights for three years to manufacture and sell digital cameras under the Polaroid brand for distribution internationally. [http://www.cool-icam.com/web/eng/press/PolaroidInt'l1.pdf Press release for camera licensing agreement (PDF)] , World Wide Licenses Ltd. Article dated 2002-09-24, retrieved 2006-12-01.] Polaroid branded LCDs and plasma televisions and portable DVD players have also appeared on the market.
April 27, 2005, Petters Group Worldwideannounced its acquisition of PHC. Petters has in the past bought up failed companies with well-known names for the value of those names. The same year, Flextronicspurchased Polaroid's manufacturing operations and the decision was made to send most of the manufacturing to China. [ [http://www.rrpc-ny.org/Data/newsletter/27_sept_05nl.htm RRPC Newsletter, Issue 15, September 2005] .]
Corporate sponsorship of motorsports
In the 1990s, Polaroid was involved in the corporate sponsorship ofNASCAR racing. For several years, Polaroid was the principal sponsorof NASCAR's 125 mile Featherlite Modified race at Watkins Glen and itwas called the "Polaroid125" [http://members.aol.com/Autoracg/1997high.html] . The Polaroidname was also used in sponsorship in the NASCAR Busch series. In1992, Polaroid was the principal sponsor of female NASCAR driver
Shawna Robinson's #25 Oldsmobile in the BuschSeries. They continued as her principal sponsor when she moved to theother car numbers in 1993 and1994 [http://www.racing-reference.info/drivdet?id=robinsh01&yr=1993&series=B] .
More recently, the Polaroid name has been associated with the NOPIdrift series. Polaroid is currently the principal sponsor of the 350Zdriven by
Nick Bollea[http://hogandrift.com/index.html] , who placed third in Pittsburgh and tenth in Denver at NOPI events in the 2007 season. [http://hogandrift.com/copy_of_index.html] . Polaroid has chosen not to renew their sponsorship of Bollea for the 2008 season. [http://www.baynews9.com/content/36/2007/10/29/298798.html] No official reason has been given, but this decision was made in the wake of a serious accident and allegations of illegal street racing by Bollea.
On February 8, 2008, Polaroid (under the control of Thomas J Petters of Petters Group Worldwide) announced that the company has decided to gradually cease production and withdraw from instant film products completely in early 2009. [http://www.polaroid.com/ifilm/en/index.html]
List of Polaroid instant cameras
List of United States companies
Polaroid- a type of light-polarising material developed by Edwin H. Land
* [http://www.savepolaroid.com Save Polaroid!]
* [http://www.polaroid.com/ The "new" Polaroid Corporation home page] (polaroid.com)
** [http://www.polaroid.com/global/movie_2.jsp?PRODUCT%3C%3Eprd_id=845524441761320&FOLDER%3C%3Efolder_id=282574488338441&bmUID=1134326632680&bmLocale=en_US Company history] (polaroid.com)
* [http://www.primarypdc.com/ Primary PDC home page] - Administrative shell of the "old" Polaroid Corporation; includes information on bankruptcy.
* [http://www.camerapedia.org/wiki/Polaroid Polaroid page at camerapedia.org]
* [http://www.cfo.com/Article?article=8524 Analysis of the Polaroid bankruptcy] (cfo.com)- includes discussion of the role of Polaroid executives in the bankruptcy proceedings.
* [http://www.house.gov/delahunt/EAPA.shtml Polaroid & Corporate Bankruptcy statement] - by U.S. congressman, Bill Delahunt.
* [http://www.whale.tw 台灣拍立得攝影同好會 Taiwan Polaroid Photo Ruten Club]
* [http://weheartfourthings.com/archives/4 Polaroid Issue on We Heart Four Things]
* [http://giam.typepad.com/the_branding_of_polaroid_ The Branding of Polaroid] -
Paul Giambarbaon Polaroid's branding, including background information on the company
* [http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2008/02/08/polaroid_shutting_2_mass_facilities_laying_off_150/ Polaroid shutting 2 Mass. facilities, laying off 150] , The Boston Globe, 2008-02-08, history and future of the company after ceasing its manufacturing of instant film technology
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