- Proton rocket
caption =Launch of a Proton rocket
name = Proton 8K82K
function = Unmanned Launch Vehicle
Soviet Union, Russia
height = 53 m
diameter = 7.4 m
mass = 693,810 kg (3 stage)
stages = 3 or 4
LEO-payload = 22,000 kg
payload-location = GTO
payload = 6,000 kg
status = Active
launches = 335
success = 294
Salyut 6, Salyut 7, Mir, ISS components
fail = 41
July 16, 1965
stage1engines = Proton K-1
stage1thrust = 10,470 kN
stage1fuel = N2O4/
The Proton rocket (Прото́н) (formal designation: UR-500) is a
rocketused in an expendable launch systemfor both commercial and Russian government launches. The first Proton was launched in 1965 and the launch system is still in use as of 2008, which makes it one of the most successful heavy boosters in the history of spaceflight. All Protons are built at the Khrunichevplant in Moscow.cite web |url=http://www.ilslaunch.com/pictures/fact-sheet/proton_fact_sheet-2007.pdf |title=Proton Fact Sheet |publisher= ILS] They are transported for launch to the Baikonur Cosmodrome, where they are brought to the launch pad horizontally and then raised into vertical position for launch. [cite web |url=http://www.flickr.com/photos/alexpgp/40437004/ |title=Proton Verticalization, Pad 39, Baikonur |publisher=flickr]
The name "Proton" originates from a series of large scientific
Proton satellites, which were among the rocket's first payloads. It is also known as the D-1/ D-1e or SL-12/SL-13. Like many Soviet boosters, the name of the recurring payloads became associated with their launchers.
Launch capacity to
low Earth orbitis about 22 tonnes (44,000 lb). Interplanetary transfer capacity is about 5–6 tonnes (11,000–13,000 lb). Commercial launches are marketed by International Launch Services(ILS). In a typical launch of a commercial communications satellite destined for geostationary orbit, a Proton M/Breeze M can place a spacecraft with mass at separation of lb to kg |9127 into an orbit with an apogee of km to mi |35786, a perigee of km to mi |6257 and an inclination of 19.7°. [cite web |url=http://www.ilslaunch.com/news-030708 |title=ILS PROTON TO LAUNCH AMC-14 SATELLITE |publisher=ILS]
Proton initially started life as a "super
ICBM." It was designed to throw a 10- Megaton(or larger) nuclear warheadover a distance of 13,000 km. It was hugely oversized for an ICBM, and was never used in such a capacity. It was eventually utilized as a space launch vehicle. It was the brainchild of Vladimir Chelomei's design bureau as a foil to Sergei Korolev's N1 booster with the specific intent of sending a two-man Zondcraft around the Moon. With the termination of the Saturn Vprogram, Proton became the largest expendable launch systemin service until the Energiarocket first flew in 1987 and the U.S. Titan IVin 1989.
Between the 1965 first flight and 1970, the Proton experienced dozens of failures. However, once perfected it became one of the most reliable heavy launch vehicles. With a total of about 300 launches, it has a 96% success rate.
Proton launched the unmanned Soviet circumlunar flights, and would very likely have launched the first humans to circle the
Moonhad the flight of Apollo 8been conducted as originally planned (i.e. without going to lunar orbit). Proton launched the Salyutspace stations, the Mircore segment and expansion modules, and both the Zaryaand Zvezda modules of the ISS. It also launched many probes to the Moon, Mars, Venus, and even Halley's Comet(using the 4-stage D-1e version).
Proton also launches commercial
satellites, most of them being managed by International Launch Services.
March 1, 2006, a Proton-M rocket failed to launch Arabsat 4A. Following successful first, second, and third stage burns, its upper stage shut down early and failed to place Arabsat 4A into its proper geostationary orbit. An investigation concluded that a foreign particle in the upper stage oxidizer system blocked a pump nozzle, causing the shutdown. After changes were made to resolve the problems, the Proton-M successfully launched the European Hot Bird8 satellite on August 5, 2006. [cite web |url=http://www.spaceflightnow.com/proton/hotbird8/status.html |title=Status |work=Proton |publisher=Space Flight Now] On February 19, 2007, the upper stage which failed to bring Arabsat 4A to its correct orbit exploded over Australia after almost a year in space, creating a cloud of space debris. [cite web |url=http://www.space.com/news/070221_rocket_explodes.html |title=Rocket Explodes |date=2007-02-21 |publisher=Space]
September 5, 2007, another Proton-M rocket, this time carrying the JCSAT-11spacecraft, failed. On this occasion, a wiring fault prevented the first stage from separating from the second stage. A subsequent launch was successful.
March 15, 2008, Proton-M suffered its second failure in six months, when it left the AMC-14 satellite in a useless orbit after the second burn of the Briz-Mupper-stage shut down prematurely. The failure was caused by a ruptured exhaust gas conduit, which led to a shutdown of the turbo pump feeding the Briz-Mengine. [ [http://www.ilslaunch.com/news-061608 PROTON BREEZE M CLEARED FOR RETURN TO FLIGHT] ] Krunichev Space Centre proceeded to make modifications on the Briz-Mengine and also completed a detailed quality assurance review. [ [http://www.ilslaunch.com/news-061608 PROTON BREEZE M CLEARED FOR RETURN TO FLIGHT] ]
August 19, 2008Proton-M succesfully launched one the biggest commercial satellites ever built - the Inmarsat 4 F3. After three failures in three years, the successful outing for the Inmarsat satellite was deemed essential to maintain market confidence in the Proton-M rocket, according to the BBC. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7568867.stm Perfect return flight for Proton] ]
The (GRAU index) 8K82K version is now usually called "Proton K". It is fuelled by unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine and
nitrogen tetroxide. These are hypergolicfuels which burn on contact, avoiding the need for an ignition system, and can be stored at ambient temperatures. This avoids the need for low-temperature–tolerant components, and allows the rocket to sit on the pad indefinitely (the only other liquid-fueled rockets with such capability were the U.S. Titan II, Titan III, and Titan IVrockets). In contrast, cryogenic fuels need periodic topping-up of propellants as they boil off. Hypergols are, however, very corrosiveand toxicfuels, requiring special handling by highly trained labor. When the spent first and second stages impact downrange, Russia must pay for cleanup of the residual fuel.
Note that the six structures around the base of the Proton are not strap-on boosters, and do not detach from the core structure. There is a central oxidizer tank, and the six units are outrigger fuel tanks. This entire assembly forms the first stage, which separates as one piece from the second stage at the lattice structure. The Soviet hierarchy requested that Proton components be built in facilities near Moscow, then transported by rail to the final assembly point near the pad. Rail limited the widths to approximately 4.5 meters, hence the diameters of the upper stages. At the assembly hall, the first-stage oxygen tank is loaded into a giant "rotisserie". One outrigger tank/engine assembly is mated, then the assembly is spun 60 degrees to accept the next fuel tank/engine, and so forth.
Outrigger tanks also reduce sloshing, compared to the short, wide fuel and oxidizer tanks that would have been used in a standard tandem configuration. They may also be cheaper to fabricate. They do however raise the specter of uneven fuel consumption and resulting flight instability. This may have been the failure mode of two ill-fated Mars probe attempts.
The first stage uses six RD-253 engines, designed by
Valentin Glushko. RD-253 is a single-chamber engine and uses the highly efficient staged combustion cycle. First-stage guidance was open-loop. Though this method is quite simple, it required significant amounts of propellant to be held in reserve. This reduces payload.
The second stage ignites while still attached to the first stage (a "fire in the hole" event). Exhaust gases escape through the lattice. The forward dome of the first-stage oxidizer tank is insulated to retain integrity until stage separation.
The RD-0210 engine of the third stage consists of a main engine, and four vernier nozzles with common systems. The main engine does not
gimbal; instead, the verniers provide steering. The four thrusters also act as separation aids and ullage rockets. Ducts are built into the structure to channel vernier exhaust before stage separation. This is referred to by the builders as "semi-hot fire". The stage's guidance electronics are also in charge of first- and second-stage flight.
The fourth stage has come in multiple variants, depending on the mission. The simplest, Blok D, was used for interplanetary missions. Blok D had no guidance module, depending on the probe to control flight. Three different Blok DM versions (DM, DM2, and DM-2M) were for high Earth orbits. (Low-Earth orbits often skipped a fourth stage entirely, hence the third stage's self-contained guidance capability.) The Blok D/DM were unusual in that the fuel was stored in a toroidal tank, around the engine and behind the oxidizer tank.
Significant upgrades were temporarily put on hold following announcement of the new Angara launch vehicle. The single largest upgrade was the KVRB stage. This cryogenic stage would have greatly increased capacity. The engine was developed successfully, and the stage as a whole had progressed to hardware. However, as KVRB is noticeably larger than Blok D, the vehicle's aerodynamics, flight control, software, and possibly electronics would have to be reevaluated. In addition, the launch pad can supply existing Protons with common hypergol fuels from single sources. The upper stages, in particular, are fed by common loading pipes running along the rocket. Switching to a stage with different fuels requires the addition of extra support articles; switching to cryogens requires that such support articles top off the stage periodically.
Heavy variants of Angara will be simpler and cheaper than Proton (and like the new
Atlas Vrocket, will not use hypergolics; instead, it will use the same RP-1fuel as that used on the Soyuz rocket). They will also be designed from the start to accept a KVRB stage, and will already have a LOX supply at the pad; only a hydrogen supply will be called upon. However, delays in Angara development mean that Protons will continue to fly for some time.
Comparison of heavy lift launch systems
* [http://www.russianspaceweb.com/proton.html Proton rocket specifications sheet]
* [http://www.spaceandtech.com/digest/sd2001-14/sd2001-14-001.shtml Proton M Debuts With Successful Ekran Launch on
April 7, 2001]
* [http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/probrizm.htm Proton 8K82K / Briz-M] . Astronautix.
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