Portal:Beer


Portal:Beer
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B e e r

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The Beer Portal


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Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of starches, mainly derived from cereal grains—the most common of which is malted barley, although wheat, maize (corn), and rice are widely used. Most beer is flavored with hops, which add bitterness and act as a natural preservative, though other flavorings such as herbs or fruit may occasionally be included. Alcoholic beverages distilled after fermentation, fermented from non-starch sources such as grape juice (wine) or honey (mead), or fermented from un-malted starches (rice wine) are not classified as beer.

Some of humanity's earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours, and "The Hymn to Ninkasi," a prayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people. Today, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries.

The basics of brewing beer are shared across national and cultural boundaries and are commonly categorized into two main types—the globally popular pale lagers, and the regionally distinct ales, which are further categorised into other varieties such as pale ale, stout and brown ale. The strength of beer is usually around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (abv.) though may range from less than 1% abv., to over 20% abv. in rare cases.

Beer forms part of the culture of various beer-drinking nations and has acquired various social traditions and associations, such as beer festivals and a rich pub culture involving activities such as pub crawling or pub games such as bar billiards.



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The Beer WikiProject


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WikiProject Beer is an association of Wikipedians with an interest in beer and beer-related subjects. They have come together to coordinate the development of beer and brewery articles here on Wikipedia. Additionally, other groups have formed other projects that entertain subjects that are directly related to beer, bartending and pubs. Additionally, the mixed drinks project covers topics that include beer cocktails. If any of these subjects pique your interest, please feel free to visit their projects. These groups would love you to have you participate!

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A funerary model of a bakery and brewery, dating the 11th dynasty, circa 2009-1998 B.C. Painted and gessoed wood, originally from Thebes.
The History of beer - beer is one of the oldest beverages humans have produced, dating back to at least the 5th millennium BC and recorded in the written history of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.

As almost any cereal containing certain sugars can undergo spontaneous fermentation due to wild yeasts in the air, it is possible that beer-like beverages were independently developed throughout the world soon after a tribe or culture had domesticated cereal. Chemical tests of ancient pottery jars reveal that beer was produced about 7,000 years ago in what is today Iran, and was one of the first-known biological engineering tasks where the biological process of fermentation is used in a process.

In Mesopotamia, the oldest evidence of beer is believed to be a 6,000-year-old Sumerian tablet depicting people drinking a beverage through reed straws from a communal bowl. A 3900-year-old Sumerian poem honoring Ninkasi, the patron goddess of brewing, contains the oldest surviving beer recipe, describing the production of beer from barley via bread.

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Arthur Guinness, Founder of Guinness Brewing
Arthur Guinness
b. 24 September 1725 – d. 23 January 1803

Arthur Guinness was an Irish brewer and the founder of the Guinness Brewery business and family. The Guinness family, though Protestants, claimed descent from the Magennis Gaelic Catholic clan of County Down in the 1600s, but recent DNA evidence instead suggests descent from the McCartans, another County Down clan. His father was land steward for the Archbishop of Cashel, Dr. Arthur Price, and may have brewed beer for the other workers on the estate. In his will, Dr. Price left £100 each to the Guinnesses.

Arthur leased a brewery in Leixlip in 1755, brewing ale. Five years later he left his younger brother in charge of that enterprise and moved on to another in St. James' Gate, Dublin, at the end of 1759. By 1767 he was the master of the Dublin Corporation of Brewers. His first actual sales of porter were listed on tax (excise) data from 1778, and it seems that other Dublin brewers had experimented in brewing porter beer from the 1760s. His major achievement was in expanding his brewery in 1797–99. Thereafter he brewed only porter and employed members of the Purser family who had brewed porter in London from the 1770s. The Pursers became partners in the brewery for most of the 1800s. By his death in 1803 the annual brewery output was over 20,000 barrels.

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Primo Schincariol is a South American brewery and beverage maker based in Brazil. As of 2004, Schincariol became the largest Brazilian owned brewery, gaining this title after Ambev (Brahma e Antarctica) merged with the Belgian Interbrew. There are eight Schincariol breweries around Brazil, being the headquarters situated at the city of Itu, state of São Paulo. The company produces about 2,5 billion litres of beer a year, and exports its products to the Mercosul, Europe, United States and Asia. By 2005, it had 14% of the beer market share in Brazil.

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Sagres
Produced by Sociedade Central de Cervejas e Bebidas, S.A.

Sagres beers are brewed by the SCC - Sociedade Central de Cervejas e Bebidas, S.A. and were introduced at the 1940 “Exposição do Mundo Português” (Portuguese World Exhibition). More commonly known as Central de Cervejas ('Beers Central'), the SCC - Sociedade Central de Cervejas e Bebidas, S.A. is owned by Heineken International. Sagres is the name of the south-westernmost tip of Portugal, and Sagres is considered the "Lisbon beer", as opposed to the Porto-based Super Bock, which is more popular in the north of Portugal, and Coral, which is more popular in Madeira. Sagres is the most selling brand in Portugal.
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Water is drank by the four legged beast; man prefers it with hops, malts, and yeast.


German Trinkspruch
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Drinking a "Maß" of Augustiner
Credit: Martin Ortmann (VanGore)

Drinking a "Maß" of Augustiner

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