- Edith Frank-Holländer
name = Edith Frank-Holländer
image_size = 150px
caption = Edith Frank-Holländer
birth_name = Edith Holländer
birth_date = birth date|1900|01|16
death_date = death date and age|1945|01|06|1900|01|16
death_place = Auschwitz,
nationality = German
The Diary of a Young Girl
religion = Jewish
Anne Frankand Margot Frank
parents = Abraham Holländer, Rosa Stern
Edith Frank-Holländer (
January 16 1900– January 6, 1945), was the mother of Anne Frankand Margot Frank.
Edith Holländer was the youngest of four children, having been born into a Dutch/German-Jewish family in
Aachen, Germany. Her father, Abraham Holländer (1860–1928) was a successful trader in industrial equipment and was prominent in the Aachen Jewishcommunity as was her mother, Rosa Stern (1866-1942).
Otto Frankin 1924 and they married on his thirty-sixth birthday, May 12, 1925, at Aachen's synagogue. Their first daughter, Margot, was born in Frankfurton February 16 1926, followed by Anne, who was born on June 12 1929.
The rise of
anti-Semitismand the introduction of discriminatory laws in Germany forced the family to emigrate to Amsterdamin 1933, where Otto established a branch of his spice and pectindistribution company. Her brothers Walter (1897-1968) and Julius (1894-1967) escaped to the United Statesin 1938, and Rosa Holländer-Stern left Aachen in 1939 to join the Frank family in Amsterdam.
Persecution and death
In 1940 the Nazis invaded the
Netherlandsand began their persecution of the country's Jews. Edith's children were removed from their schools, and her husband had to resign his business to his Dutch colleagues Johannes Kleimanand Victor Kugler, who helped the family when they went into hiding at the company premises in 1942.
The two-year period the Frank family spent in hiding with four other people (their neighbours
Hermann van Pels, his wife and son, and Miep Gies's dentist Fritz Pfeffer) was famously chronicled in Anne Frank's posthumously published diary, which ended three days before they were anonymously betrayed and arrested on August 4 1944. After detention in the Gestapoheadquarters on the Euterpestraat and three days in prison on the Amstelveenweg, Edith, and those with whom she was in hiding, was transported to the Westerborktransit camp. From here they were deported to Auschwitzon September 3 1944. Edith and her daughters were separated from Otto upon arrival and were never to see him again. On October 30another selection separated Edith from Anne and Margot. Edith was selected for the gas-chamber, and her daughters were transported to Bergen-Belsen. She escaped with a friend to another section of the camp, where she remained through the winter, but died of exhaustion and malnutrition in January 1945 at the age of forty-four, twenty days before the Red Armyliberated the camp.
When Otto Frank decided to edit his daughter's diary for publication, he was aware that his wife had come in for particular criticism because of her often disagreeable relationship with Anne, and cut some of the more heated comments out of respect for his wife, and other residents of the Secret Annexe. Nevertheless, Anne's portrait of an unsympathetic and sarcastic mother was duplicated in the dramatizations of the book, which was countered by the memories of those who had known her as a modest, distant woman who tried to treat her adolescent children as her equals.
The discovery, in 1999, of previously unknown pages excised by him, showed that Anne had discerned that while her mother very much loved her father, her father, though very devoted to Edith, was not in love with her, and this understanding was leading her to develop a new sense of empathy for her mother's position. And by the time Edith and her daughters were in Auschwitz, Bloeme Evers-Emden, an Auschwitz survivor interviewed by Willy Lindwer in "The Last Seven Months of Anne Frank", observed that: "They were always together - mother and daughters. It is certain that they gave each other a great deal of support. All the things a teenager might think of her mother were no longer of any significance".
* "The Diary of Anne Frank: The Revised Critical Edition", Anne Frank, edited by David Barnouw and Gerrold Van der Stroom, translated by Arnold J. Pomerans, compiled by H. J. J. Hardy, second edition, Doubleday, 2003.
* "Anne Frank Remembered", Miep Gies with Alison Leslie Gold, Simon and Schuster, 1988.
* "Roses from the Earth: the Biography of Anne Frank", Carol Ann Lee, Penguin, 1999.
* "Anne Frank: the Biography", Melissa Muller, afterword by Miep Gies, Bloomsbury 1999.
* "The Footsteps of Anne Frank", Ernst Schnabel, Pan, 1988.
* "The Hidden Life of Otto Frank", Carol Ann Lee, Penguin, 2002.
* "The Last Seven Months of Anne Frank", Wlly Lindwer, Pantheon, 1991.
* [http://www.annefrankguide.net/en-GB/bronnenbank.asp?oid=3065 Short profile of Edith Frank]
* [http://www.annefrank.org/content.asp?pid=47&lid=2 Large biographical article about Edith Frank by the Anne Frank House]
* [http://www.annefrank.org/content.asp?pid=152&lid=2 Edith Frank's early years, by the Anne Frank House]
* [http://www.annefrankguide.net/en-GB/bronnenbank.asp?aid=10666 Short quote by Miep Gies about Edith Frank in hiding]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Edith Frank-Holländer — Edith Frank Holländer, geb. Holländer, (* 16. Januar 1900 in Aachen; † 6. Januar 1945 im KZ Auschwitz Birkenau) war ein deutsches Opfer des Nationalsozialismus. Bekanntheit erlangte sie als Mutter von Margot und Anne Frank. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Edith Frank — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Edith Frank Holländer N … Wikipedia Español
Edith Frank — Edith Holländer Frank (16 janvier 1900 à Aix la Chapelle 6 janvier 1945 à Auschwitz) était la mère d Anne Frank et de Margot Frank, et l épouse d Otto Frank. Sommaire 1 Biographie 2 Mariage … Wikipédia en Français
Frank: Ein kurzes Leben in einer düsteren Epoche deutscher Geschichte — Mit ihren Tagebuchaufzeichnungen hat das jüdische Mädchen Anne Frank ein ergreifendes Zeugnis hinterlassen vom Alltag unter einem unmenschlichen Regime. Die Schriften der Anne Frank, die 1945 im Alter von nur 15 Jahren in Bergen Belsen ermordet … Universal-Lexikon
Anne Frank — Briefmarke zum 50. Geburtstag (1979) Statue in Amsterdam … Deutsch Wikipedia
Margot Frank — Margot Frank, May 1942 Born Margot Betti Frank 16 February 1926(1926 02 16) Frankfurt am Main, Germany … Wikipedia
Anne Frank — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Frank. Pour l’article homophone, voir Franck. Anne Frank … Wikipédia en Français
Anne frank — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Frank. Pour l’article homophone, voir Franck. Anne Frank … Wikipédia en Français
Annelies Marie Frank — Anne Frank Pour les articles homonymes, voir Frank. Pour l’article homophone, voir Franck. Anne Frank … Wikipédia en Français
Le Journal d'Anne Frank — Anne Frank Pour les articles homonymes, voir Frank. Pour l’article homophone, voir Franck. Anne Frank … Wikipédia en Français