Outline of cryptography

See also: Index of cryptography articles
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to cryptography:
Cryptography (or cryptology) – practice and study of hiding information. Modern cryptography intersects the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, and engineering. Applications of cryptography include ATM cards, computer passwords, and electronic commerce.
Essence of cryptography
 Main article: Cryptography
 Cryptographer –
 Encryption/Decryption –
 Cryptographic key –
 Cipher –
 Ciphertext –
 Plaintext –
 Code –
 Tabula recta –
 Alice and Bob –
Uses of cryptographic techniques
 Commitment schemes –
 Secure multiparty computations –
 Electronic voting –
 Authentication –
 Digital signatures –
 Crypto systems –
 Dining cryptographers protocol – by David Chaum
 Anonymous remailer –
 Pseudonymity –
 Anonymous internet banking –
 Onion routing –
Branches of cryptography
 Cryptographic engineering –
 Multivariate cryptography –
 Quantum cryptography –
 Steganography –
 Visual cryptography –
History of cryptography
Main articles: History of cryptography and Timeline of cryptography Japanese cryptology from the 1500s to Meiji –
 World War I cryptography –
 World War II cryptography –
Ciphers
Main article: CipherClassical
 Monoalphabetic substitution –
 Polyalphabetic substitution –

 Playfair – by Charles Wheatstone
 Hill –
 Scytale –
 Grille –
 Permutation –
 VIC – complex hand cypher used by at least one Soviet spy in the early 1950s; it proved quite secure for the time
Modern
Symmetrickey algorithms
Main article: Symmetrickey algorithm Stream ciphers
Main article: Stream ciphers
 A5/1 & A5/2 – cyphers specified for the GSM cellular telephone standard
 BMGL –
 Chameleon –
 FISH – by Siemens AG
 WWII 'Fish' cyphers –

 Geheimfernschreiber – WWII mechanical onetime pad by Siemens AG, called STURGEON by Bletchley Park
 Pike – improvement on FISH by Ross Anderson
 Schlusselzusatz – WWII mechanical onetime pad by Lorenz, called tunny by Bletchley Park
 HELIX –
 ISAAC – intended as a PRNG
 Leviathan –
 LILI128 –
 MUGI – CRYPTREC recommendation
 MULTIS01 (CRYPTREC recommendation)
 Onetime pad – Vernam and Mauborgne, patented mid'20s; an extreme stream cypher
 Panama –
 RC4 (ARCFOUR) – one of a series by Professor Ron Rivest of MIT; CRYPTREC recommended limited to 128bit key

 CipherSaber – (RC4 variant with 10 byte random IV, easy to implement

 SOBERt16 –
 SOBERt32 –
 Block ciphers
Main article: Block ciphersFurther information: Block cipher modes of operation
 Product cipher –
 Feistel cipher – pattern by Horst Feistel
 Advanced Encryption Standard (Rijndael) – 128 bit block; NIST selection for the AES, FIPS 197, 2001—by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen; NESSIE selection; CRYPTREC recommendation
 Anubis – 128bit block
 BEAR – built from a stream cypher and hash function, by Ross Anderson
 Blowfish – 64 bit block; by Bruce Schneier et al.
 Camellia – 128 bit block; NESSIE selection (NTT & Mitsubishi Electric); CRYPTREC recommendation
 CAST128 (CAST5) – 64 bit block; one of a series of algorithms by Carlisle Adams and Stafford Tavares, insistent that the name is not due to their initials

 CAST256 (CAST6) – 128bit block; the successor to CAST128 and a candidate for the AES competition
 CIPHERUNICORNA – 128 bit block; CRYPTREC recommendation
 CIPHERUNICORNE – 64 bit block; CRYPTREC recommendation (limited)
 CMEA – cipher used in US cellphones, found to have weaknesses.
 CSCipher – 64 bit block
 Data Encryption Standard (DES) – 64 bit block; FIPS 463, 1976
 DEAL – an AES candidate derived from DES
 DESX – a variant of DES to increase the key size.
 FEAL –
 GDES – a DES variant designed to speed up encryption
 Grand Cru – 128 bit block
 Hierocrypt3 – 128 bit block; CRYPTREC recommendation
 HierocryptL1 – 64 bit block; CRYPTREC recommendation (limited)
 IDEA NXT – project name FOX, 64bit and 128bit block family; Mediacrypt (Switzerland); by Pascal Junod & Serge Vaudenay of Swiss Institute of Technology Lausanne
 International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) – 64 bit block;James Massey & X Lai of ETH Zurich
 Iraqi Block Cipher (IBC) –
 KASUMI – 64bit block; based on MISTY1, adopted for next generation WCDMA cellular phone security
 KHAZAD – 64bit block designed by Barretto and Rijmen
 Khufu and Khafre – 64bit block ciphers
 LION – block cypher built from stream cypher and hash function, by Ross Anderson
 LOKI89/91 – 64bit block ciphers
 LOKI97 – 128bit block cipher, AES candidate
 Lucifer – by Tuchman et al. of IBM, early 1970s; modified by NSA/NBS and released as DES
 MAGENTA – AES candidate
 Mars – AES finalist, by Don Coppersmith et al.
 MISTY1 – NESSIE selection 64bit block; Mitsubishi Electric (Japan); CRYPTREC recommendation (limited)
 MISTY2 – 128 bit block: Mitsubishi Electric (Japan)
 Nimbus – 64 bit block
 NOEKEON – 128 bit block
 NUSH – variable block length (64  256 bits)
 Q – 128 bit block
 RC2 – 64bit block, variable key length

 RC6 – variable block length; AES finalist, by Ron Rivest et al.
 RC5 – Ron Rivest
 SAFER – variable block length
 SC2000 – 128 bit block; CRYPTREC recommendation
 Serpent – 128 bit block; AES finalist by Ross Anderson, Eli Biham, Lars Knudsen
 SHACAL1 – 160bit block
 SHACAL2 – 256bit block cypher; NESSIE selection Gemplus (France)
 Shark – grandfather of Rijndael/AES, by Daemen and Rijmen
 TEA – by David Wheeler & Roger Needham
 Triple DES – by Walter Tuchman, leader of the Lucifer design team—not all triple uses of DES increase security, Tuchman's does; CRYPTREC recommendation (limited), only when used as in FIPS Pub 463
 Twofish – 128 bit block; AES finalist by Bruce Schneier et al.
 XTEA – by David Wheeler & Roger Needham
 3Way – 96 bit block by Joan Daemen
 Polyalphabetic substitution machine cyphers

 Enigma – WWII German rotor cypher machine—many variants, any user networks for most of the variants
 Purple – highest security WWII Japanese Foreign Office cypher machine; by Japanese Navy Captain
 SIGABA – WWII US cypher machine by William Friedman, Frank Rowlett et al.
 TypeX – WWII UK cypher machine
 Hybrid code/cypher combinations

 JN25 – WWII Japanese Navy superencyphered code; many variants
 Naval Cypher 3 – superencrypted code used by the Royal Navy in the 30s and into WWII
Asymmetric key algorithms
Main article: Asymmetric key algorithm
 ACEKEM – NESSIE selection asymmetric encryption scheme; IBM Zurich Research)

 ACE Encrypt –
 ChorRivest –
 DiffieHellman – key agreement; CRYPTREC recommendation
 El Gamal – discrete logarithm
 Elliptic curve cryptography – (discrete logarithm variant
 PSECKEM – NESSIE selection asymmetric encryption scheme; NTT (Japan); CRYPTREC recommendation only in DEM construction w/SEC1 parameters

 ECIES – Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption System, Certicom Corporation
 ECIESKEM –
 ECDH – Elliptic Curve DiffieHellman key agreement, CRYPTREC recommendation
 EPOC –
 Merkle–Hellman knapsack cryptosystem – knapsack scheme
 McEliece –
 Niederreiter cryptosystem –
 NTRUEncrypt –
 RSA – factoring
 Rabin cryptosystem – factoring

 RabinSAEP –
 HIME(R) –
Keys
Main article: Key (cryptography)Authentication
Main article: Key authentication
 X.509 –
 IDbased cryptography –
 Certificatebased encryption –
 Secure key issuing cryptography –
 Certificateless cryptography –
 Merkle tree –
Transport/exchange
 Diffie–Hellman –
 Maninthemiddle attack –
 Needham–Schroeder –
 Offline private key –
 Otway–Rees –
 Trusted paper key –
 Wide Mouth Frog –
Weak keys
Main article: Weak key Brute force attack –
 Dictionary attack –
 Related key attack –
 Key derivation function –
 Key strengthening –
 Password –
 Passwordauthenticated key agreement –
 Passphrase –
 Salt –
Cryptographic hash functions
Main article: Cryptographic hash function Message authentication code –
 Keyedhash message authentication code –
 MD5 – one of a series of message digest algorithms by Prof Ron Rivest of MIT; 128 bit digest
 SHA1 – developed at NSA 160bit digest, an FIPS standard; the first released version was defective and replaced by this; NIST/NSA have released several variants with longer 'digest' lengths; CRYPTREC recommendation (limited)
 RIPEMD160 – developed in Europe for the RIPE project, 160bit digest;CRYPTREC recommendation (limited)
 Tiger – by Ross Anderson et al.
 Snefru –
 Whirlpool – NESSIE selection hash function, Scopus Tecnologia S.A. (Brazil) & K.U.Leuven (Belgium)
Cryptanalysis
Main article: CryptanalysisClassical
 Frequency analysis –
 Contact analysis –
 Index of coincidence –
 Kasiski examination –
Modern
 Symmetric algorithms
 Hash functions:
 Side channel attacks
 Network attacks
 External attacks

 Blackbag –
 Rubberhose –
Robustness properties
 Provable security –
 Random oracle model –
 Ciphertext indistinguishability –
 Semantic security –
 Malleability –
Uncracked codes and ciphers
Main category: Uncracked codes and ciphers Beale ciphers –
 Chaocipher –
 D'Agapeyeff –
 Dorabella Cipher –
 Rongorongo –
 Shugborough inscription –
 Voynich manuscript –
Organizations and selection projects
Standards
Main article: Cryptography standards Federal Information Processing Standards Publication Program – run by NIST to produce standards in many areas to guide operations of the US Federal government; many FIPS publications are ongoing and related to cryptography
 ANSI – standardization process that produces many standards in many areas; some are cryptography related, ongoing)
 ISO – standardization process produces many standards in many areas; some are cryptography related, ongoing
 IEEE – standardization process produces many standards in many areas; some are cryptography related, ongoing
 IETF – standardization process that produces many standards called RFCs) in many areas; some are cryptography related, ongoing)
General cryptographic
 NSA – internal evaluation/selections, charged with assisting NIST in its cryptographic responsibilities
 GCHQ – internal evaluation/selections, a division is charged with developing and recommending cryptographic standards for the UK government
 DSD – Australian SIGINT agency, part of ECHELON
 Communications Security Establishment (CSE) – Canadian intelligence agency
Open efforts
 DES – NBS selection process, ended 1976
 RIPE – division of the RACE project sponsored by the European Union, ended mid'80s
 AES – a "breakoff" competition sponsored by NIST, ended in 2001
 NESSIE Project – an evaluation/selection program sponsored by the European Union, ended in 2002
 eSTREAM– program funded by ECRYPT; motivated by the failure of all of the stream ciphers submitted to NESSIE, ended in 2008
 CRYPTREC – evaluation/recommendation program sponsored by the Japanese government; draft recommendations published 2003
 Internet Engineering Task Force – technical body responsible for Internet standards— the Request for Comment series is ongoing
 CrypTool – an elearning freeware programme in English and German— exhaustive educational tool about cryptography and cryptanalysis
Influential cryptographers
Main article: List of cryptographersCryptography scholars
Legal issues
 Free speech
 Export of cryptography –
 Key escrow and Clipper Chip –
 Digital Millennium Copyright Act –
 Digital Rights Management (DRM) –
 Patents

 RSA – now public domain
 David Chaum – and digital cash
 Cryptography and law enforcement
Academic and professional publications
 Further information: Important publications in cryptography & Books on cryptography
 Journal of Cryptology –
 Encyclopedia of Cryptography and Security –
 Cryptologia – quarterly journal focusing on historical aspects
 Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems – cryptography from the viewpoint of information theory
Allied sciences
See also
 Cypherpunk –
 Cryptoanarchism –
 Echelon –
 Zodiac Killer –
References
External links
Cryptography Outlines  General reference
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 Health and fitness
 History and events
 Mathematics and logic
 Natural and physical sciences
 People and self
 Philosophy and thinking
 Religion and belief systems
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Categories: Outlines
 Cryptography
 Cryptography lists and comparisons
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