Outline of food preparation


Outline of food preparation
Food preparation at the Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island, Washington state
Chicago-style deep-dish pizza from the original Pizzeria Uno location

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to food preparation:

Food preparation – preparing foodstuffs for eating, which generally requires the selection, measurement and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure to achieve a desired result. It includes but is not limited to cooking.

Contents

Essence of food preparation

  • Chef – a person who cooks professionally for other people. Although over time the term has come to describe any person who cooks for a living, traditionally it refers to a highly skilled professional who is proficient in all aspects of food preparation.
  • Cooking – act of preparing food for eating. It encompasses a vast range of methods, tools and combinations of ingredients to improve the flavour or digestibility of food. It generally requires the selection, measurement and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure in an effort to achieve the desired result.
  • Cuisine – specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. It is often named after the region or place where its underlining culture is present. A cuisine is primarily influenced by the ingredients that are available locally or through trade.

Food preparation techniques

Baking bread at the Roscheider Hof Open Air Museum

Cooking techniques

Baking

Baking – the technique of prolonged cooking of food by dry heat acting by convection, normally in an oven, but can also be done in hot ashes or on hot stones.

  • Baking Blind –

Boiling

Boiling – the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding environmental pressure.

  • Blanching – cooking technique which food substance, usually a vegetable or fruit, is plunged into boiling water, removed after a brief, timed interval, and finally plunged into iced water or placed under cold running water (shocked) to halt the cooking process.c
  • Braising – combination cooking method using both moist and dry heat; typically the food is first seared at a high temperature and then finished in a covered pot with a variable amount of liquid, resulting in a particular flavour.
  • Coddling – food is heated in water kept just below the boiling point.
  • Infusion
  • Pressure cooking – cooking in a sealed vessel that does not permit air or liquids to escape below a preset pressure, which allows the liquid in the pot to rise to a higher temperature before boiling.
  • Simmeringfoods are cooked in hot liquids kept at or just below the boiling point of water[1], but higher than poaching temperature.
    • Poaching – process of gently simmering food in liquid, generally milk, stock or wine.
  • Steaming – boiling water continuously so it vaporizes into steam and carries heat to the food being steamed, thus cooking the food.
    • Double steaming – Chinese cooking technique in which food is covered with water and put in a covered ceramic jar and the jar is then steamed for several hours.
  • Steeping – saturation of a food (such as an herb) in a liquid solvent to extract a soluble ingredient into the solvent. E.g., a cup of tea is made by steeping tea leaves in a cup of hot water.
  • Stewing – food is cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy.
  • Vacuum flask cooking

Broiling

Cooking with charcoal on a barbecue grill

Grilling – a form of cooking that involves dry heat applied to the surface of food, commonly from above or below.

Frying

Fryingcooking food in oil or another fat, a technique that originated in ancient Egypt around 2500 BC.[2]

Microwaving

Microwave oven – type of oven that heats foods quickly and efficiently using microwaves, but, unlike conventional ovens, does not brown or bake food. This makes them unsuitable for cooking certain foods, or to achieve certain culinary effects. Additional kinds of heat sources can be added to microwave packaging, or into combination microwave ovens, to add these additional effects.

Roasting

Roasting, medieval illuminated manuscript (Tacuina sanitatis casanatensis XIV century)
KitchenAid Stand Mixer in action

Roasting – cooking method that uses dry heat, whether an open flame, oven, or other heat source. Roasting usually causes caramelization or Maillard browning of the surface of the food, which is considered by some as a flavor enhancement.

  • Barbecuing – method of cooking meat, poultry and occasionally fish with the heat and hot smoke of a fire, smoking wood, or hot coals of charcoal.
  • Grilling – applying dry heat to the surface of food, by cooking it on a grill, a grill pan, or griddle.
  • Rotisserie – meat is skewered on a spit - a long solid rod used to hold food while it is being cooked over a fire in a fireplace or over a campfire, or while being roasted in an oven.
  • Searing – technique used in grilling, baking, braising, roasting, sautéing, etc., in which the surface of the food (usually meat, poultry or fish) is cooked at high temperature so a caramelized crust forms.

Smoking

Smoking – the process of flavoring, cooking, or preserving food by exposing it to the smoke from burning or smoldering plant materials, most often wood.

Chemical techniques

Mechanical techniques

History of food preparation

International cuisine

Seafood gumbo, an example of Cajun cuisine

A sample of some cuisines around the world:

General ingredients

Decorated bread loaves
A platter with cheese and garnishes
Japanese silky tofu (Kinugoshi Tofu)
Lamb cutlets
Eggplants, also called Aubergines.

General food preparation concepts

Preserved food

See also

Thai Kaeng phet pet yang: roast duck in red curry

References

  1. ^ Simmer definition from About.com - Culinary arts. Retrieved May 2009.
  2. ^ Tannahill, Reay. (1995). Food in History. Three Rivers Press. p. 75
  3. ^ United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization: Agriculture and Consumer Protection. "Dimensions of Need - Staple foods: What do people eat?". http://www.fao.org/docrep/u8480e/u8480e07.htm. Retrieved 2010-10-15. 

External links


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