Outline of Judaism


Outline of Judaism

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Judaism:

Judaism – "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people,[1] based on the ancient Mosaic Law.

Contents

History and branches

Biblical and holy books and people

Oral Law and Talmud

Rabbinic

Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history. But the term often refers specifically to literature from the Talmudic era, as opposed to medieval and modern rabbinic writing, and thus corresponds with the Hebrew term Sifrut Hazal (ספרות חז"ל; "Literature [of our] sages [of] blessed memory," where Hazal normally refers only to the sages of the Talmudic era). This more specific sense of "Rabbinic literature"—referring to the Talmudim, Midrash, and related writings, but hardly ever to later texts—is how the term is generally intended when used in contemporary academic writing. On the other hand, the terms meforshim and parshanim (commentaries/commentators) almost always refer to later, post-Talmudic writers of Rabbinic glosses on Biblical and Talmudic texts.

Mishnaic literature

The Mishnah and the Tosefta (compiled from materials pre-dating the year 200) are the earliest extant works of rabbinic literature, expounding and developing Judaism's Oral Law, as well as ethical teachings. Following these came the two Talmuds:

The Midrash

Midrash (pl. Midrashim) – Hebrew word referring to a method of reading details into, or out of, a Biblical text. The term midrash also can refer to a compilation of Midrashic teachings, in the form of legal, exegetical, homiletical, or narrative writing, often configured as a commentary on the Bible or Mishnah.

Later works by category

Major codes of Jewish law

Jewish thought, mysticism and ethics

Liturgy

Later rabbinic works by historical period

Works of the Geonim

The Geonim are the rabbis of Sura and Pumbeditha, in Babylon (650 - 1250) :

Works of the Rishonim (the "early" rabbinical commentators)

The Rishonim are the rabbis of the early medieval period (1000 - 1550), such as the following main examples:

Works of the Acharonim (the "later" rabbinical commentators)

The Acharonim are the rabbis from 1550 to the present day, such as the following main examples:

Meforshim

Meforshim is a Hebrew word meaning "(classical rabbinical) commentators" (or roughly meaning "exegetes"), and is used as a substitute for the correct word perushim which means "commentaries". In Judaism this term refers to commentaries on the Torah (five books of Moses), Tanakh, the Mishnah, the Talmud, responsa, even the siddur (Jewish prayerbook), and more.

Classic Torah and Talmud commentaries

Classic Torah and/or Talmud commentaries have been written by the following individuals:

Classical Talmudic commentaries were written by Rashi. After Rashi the Tosafot were written, which was an omnibus commentary on the Talmud by the disciples and descendants of Rashi; this commentary was based on discussions done in the rabbinic academies of Germany and France.

Holy days and observances

Philosophy and jurisprudence

Law

Major legal codes and works

Examples of legal principles

Examples of Biblical punishments

  • Capital punishment
  • Kareth
  • Stoning

Life

Dietary laws and customs

Mysticism and the esoteric

Names of God in Judaism:

Religious articles and prayers

Repentance and return

Rejection of Judaism by Jews:
Return to Judaism:
Conversion to Judaism:
  • Conversion to Judaism
  • Brit milah
  • Hatafat dam brit
  • Tevilah
  • Mikveh
  • Category:Converts to Judaism
    • Category:Converts to Judaism from atheism or agnosticism
    • Category:Converts to Judaism from Christianity
    • Category:Converts to Judaism from Islam
    • Category:Converts to Judaism from Oriental Orthodoxy
    • Category:Groups who converted to Judaism

Interactions with other religions and cultures

References

  1. ^ Jacobs, Louis (2007). "Judaism". In Fred Skolnik. Encyclopaedia Judaica. 11 (2d ed.). Farmington Hills, Mich.: Thomson Gale. p. 511. ISBN 978-0-02-865928-2. "Judaism, the religion, philosophy, and way of life of the Jews" 

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