Orders of magnitude (acceleration)

This page lists examples of the acceleration occurring in various situations. They are grouped by orders of magnitude.

Multiple Value [G] Item
100 1 m/s² 0 m/s² 0 G The gyro rotors in Gravity Probe B and the free-floating
proof masses in the TRIAD I navigation satellite[1]
0 m/s² 0 G A ride in the Vomit Comet
1.62 m/s² 0.1654 G Standing on the Moon at its equator
9.82 m/s² 1 G Gravity acceleration on earth at sea level-standard.[2]
101 1 deca
(da m/s²)
29 m/s² 3 G Sustainable for > 25 seconds, for a human.[2]
49 m/s² 5 G Causes disorientation, dizziness and fainting in humans.[2]
88 m/s² 9 G Maximum for a fit, trained individual with g-suit with kept consciousness (G-LOC)
11.2 m/s² 1.14 G Saturn V moon rocket just after launch
15.2 m/s² 1.55 G Bugatti Veyron from 0 to 100 km/h in 2.4 s
29 m/s² 3 G Space Shuttle, maximum during launch and reentry
34 – 62 m/s² 3.5 – 6.3 G High-g roller coasters[3]:340
41 m/s² 4.2 G Top Fuel drag racing world record of 4.4 s over 1/4 mile
49+ m/s² 5+ g Formula One car, maximum under heavy braking
51 m/s² 5.2 G Luge, maximum expected at the Whistler Sliding Centre
49 – 59 m/s² 5 – 6 G Formula One car, peak lateral in turns [4]
+69 / -49 m/s² +7 / -5 G Standard, full aerobatics certified glider
70.6 m/s² 7.19 G Apollo 16 on reentry[5]
88 – 118 m/s² 9 – 12 G Typical max. turn in an aerobatic plane or fighter jet
102 1 hecto
(h m/s²)
177 m/s² 18 G Physcial damage in humans like broken capillaries.[2]
454 m/s² 46.2 G Maximum for human on a rocket sled that is survived.[2]
> 491 m/s² > 50 G Death or serious injury likely
982 m/s² 100 G Sprint missile
> 982 m/s² > 100 G Brief human exposure survived in crash[6]
982 m/s² 100 G Deadly limit for most humans.[7] Rocket sled “Gee Whiz” with 50% safety factor.[2]
104 10 k (k m/s²) 17 680 m/s² 1800 G Space gun with a barrel length of 1 km and a muzzle velocity of 6 km/s,
as proposed by Quicklaunch (assuming constant acceleration)
>49 100 m/s² > 5000 G Shock capability of mechanical wrist watches[8]
84 450 m/s² 8600 G Current formula one engines, maximum piston acceleration [9]
105 100 k (k m/s²) 152 210 m/s² 15 500 G Rating of electronics built into military artillery shells[10]
304 420 m/s² 31 000 G 9 × 19 Parabellum handgun bullet (average along the length of the barrel)[11]
106 1 mega
(M m/s²)
1 865 800 m/s² 190 000 G 9 × 19 Parabellum handgun bullet, peak[12]
109 1 giga
(G m/s²)
1.9×109 m/s² 1.9×108 G Mean acceleration of a proton in the Large Hadron Collider[13]
1021 1 zetta
(Z m/s²)
8.7×1021 m/s² 8.9×1020 G Acceleration from a Wakefield plasma accelerator[14]

† Directed 40 degrees from horizontal.

See also


  1. ^ Stanford University: Gravity Probe B, Payload & Spacecraft, and NASA: Investigation of Drag-Free Control Technology for Earth Science Constellation Missions. The TRIAD 1 satellite was a later, more advanced navigation satellite that was part of the U.S. Navy’s Transit, or NAVSAT system.
  2. ^ a b c d e f csel.eng.ohio-state.edu - High Acceleration and the Human Body, Martin Voshell, November 28, 2004
  3. ^ George Bibel. Beyond the Black Box: the Forensics of Airplane Crashes. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008. ISBN 0-8018-8631-7.
  4. ^ 6 g has been recorded in the 130R turn at Suzuka circuit, Japan. [1] Many turns have 5 g peak values, like turn 8 at Istanbul or Eau Rouge at Spa
  5. ^ NASA: Table 2: Apollo Manned Space Flight Reentry G Levels
  6. ^ “Several Indy car drivers have withstood impacts in excess of 100 G without serious injuries.” Dennis F. Shanahan, M.D., M.P.H.: ”Human Tolerance and Crash Survivability, citing Society of Automotive Engineers. Indy racecar crash analysis. Automotive Engineering International, June 1999, 87–90. And National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Recording Automotive Crash Event Data
  7. ^ answerbag.com - Whats the maximum number of g's (G Force) that a human can endure?
  8. ^ Omega [2], Ball Watch Technology
  9. ^ Cosworth V8 engine ; Up to 10,000 g before rev limits
  10. ^ "L-3 Communication's IEC Awarded Contract with Raytheon for Common Air Launched Navigation System". http://www.iechome.com/news/032003.htm. 
  11. ^ Assuming a 8.04 gram bullet, a muzzle velocity of 350 metres per second (1,100 ft/s), and a 102 mm barrel.
  12. ^ Assuming a 8.04 gram bullet, a peak pressure of 240 MPa (35,000 psi) and 440 N of friction.
  13. ^ (7 TeV / (20 minutes * c))/proton mass
  14. ^ (42 GeV / 85 cm)/electron mass

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