Per os (P.O., pronounced /ˌpɜrˈoʊs/) is an adverbial phrase meaning literally from Latin "by mouth" or "by way of the mouth." The expression is used in medicine to describe a treatment that is taken orally. The abbreviated P.O. is often used on medical prescriptions. P.O. is also occasionally (and grammatically incorrectly; os is a neuter noun of the 3rd declension and thus the accusative is the same as the nominative) rendered per orem, which is sometimes corrupted to per oram.
Oral administration generally includes buccal, sublabial and sublingual administration, as well as enteral administration and that through the respiratory tract, unless made through e.g. tubing so the medication is not in direct contact with any of the oral mucosa.
Concomitant ingestion of water facilitates in swallowing tablets and capsules. If the substance has disagreeable taste, addition of a flavor may facilitate ingestion. Substances that are harmful to the teeth are preferably given through a straw.
- Nil per os
- List of Latin phrases
- Medical prescription
- List of abbreviations used in medical prescriptions
- ^ a b c TheFreeDictionary > oral administration of medication Citing: Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. 2009
Routes of administration / Dosage forms Oral
Ocular / Otologic / Nasal Urogenital Rectal (enteral) Dermal Injection / Infusion
- Intra-articular or intrasynovial injection
Additional explanation:Mucous membranes are used by the human body to absorb the dosage for all routes of administration, except for "Dermal" and "Injection/Infusion".
Administration routes can also be grouped as Topical (local effect) or Systemic (defined as Enteral = Digestive tract/Rectal, or Parenteral = All other routes).
Routes of administration by organ system Gastrointestinal Respiratory systemPulmonary • Nasal Visual system / Auditory system Reproductive systemIntracavernous • Intravaginal • Intrauterine (Extra-amniotic) Urinary systemIntravesical Peritoneum Central nervous system Circulatory system Musculoskeletal system SkinEpicutaneous • Intradermal • Subcutaneous This Toxicology-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.