Infobox Belgium Municipality
mayor=André Defat (ACTION)
majority=DEES, UNION, ACTION
postal-codes=6830, 6831, 6832, 6833, 6834,
web= [http://www.bouillon.be/ www.bouillon.be]
Bouillon is a
municipalityof Belgium. It lies in the country's Walloon Regionand Luxembourg Province.
The municipality, which covers 149.09 km², had 5,477 inhabitants, giving a
population densityof 36.7 inhabitants per km².
Middle AgesBouillon was a lordship within the Duchy of Lower Lorraine and the principal seat of the Ardennes-Bouillon dynastyin the 10th and 11th century. In the 11th century they dominated the area, and held the ducal title along with many other titles in the region. Bouillon was the location of the ducal mint and the dominant urban concentration in the dukes' possession.Murray, p. 10.]
There is a common misconception that Bouillon was a
County. While the lords of Bouillon often were counts and dukes, Bouillon itself was not a county. The fortification of Bouillon was, along with the County of Verdun, the core of the possessions of the Ardennes-Bouillon dynasty, and their combined territory was a complex mixture of fiefs, allodial land and other hereditary rights throughout the area. An example of the latter is the Advocacy of the monastery of Saint-Hubert en Ardennes, which was granted to Godfrey II by the Bishop of Liège. [Murray, p. 11.]
The most famous of the
Lords of Bouillonwas Godfrey of Bouillon, who sold Bouillon Castle to the Bishopric of Liege. The bishops started to call themselves dukes of Bouillon, and the town emerged as the capital of a sovereign duchy by 1678, when it was captured from the bishopric by the French army and given to the La Tour d'Auvergnefamily. The duchy was prised for its strategic location as "the key to the Ardennes" (as Vaubancalled it) and hence to France itself. It remained a quasi-independent protectorate, like Orange and Monaco, until 1795, when the Republican Army finally annexed it to France.
*988 - First mention of the castle of Bouillon in a letter to Godfrey the Captive from his brother
Adalberon, Archbishop of Reims.
*1045 - Godfrey the Bearded rebels against the emperor, who has the castle destroyed.
*1065 - Godfrey the Bearded comes to terms with the emperor and rebuilds the castle in Bouillon.
*1082 - Bouillon Castle is inherited by
Godfrey of Bouillon, who sells it to the Bishop of Liège for 3 marks of gold and 1300 marks of silver in order to finance his participation in the First Crusade. Pursuant to the treaty, Godfrey and his three successors retain the right to repurchase the castle at the same price but have no money to make good this privilege.
*1129 - Godfrey's indirect successor, Count Renaud of Bar, captures Bouillon Castle by force.
*1141 - The bishop of Liège expels Count Renaud from Bouillon.
*1155 - The
Holy Roman Emperorconfirms the bishopric's rights to Bouillon.
*1291 - The
bishops of Liègestart to style themselves "Dukes of Bouillon", referring to the castle's former position as the seat of the dukes of Lower Lorrain.
*14th century - Bouillon Castle, as an exclave of the bishopric of Liège, is governed by specially appointed "
*1415 - The office of castellan becomes a hereditary possession of the
van der Marckfamily, a cadet branch of the future Dukes of Clevesand Julich.
William de la Marckhas Louis de Bourbon, Bishop of Liègeassassinated and succeeded by his own son John van der Marck. Another part of the chapter elects John van der Hornas an anti-bishop, thus plunging the bishopric into a civil war.
*May 21, 1484 - Treaty is signed at
Tongeren, whereby the van der Marck family forfeits its claims to the bishopric and supports Liège's struggle against Emperor Maximilianfor the reward of 30,000 livres. Bouillon Castle is mortgaged to William van der Marck until the time of repayment.
*1492 - The treaty of Donchery reiterates the provisions of the treaty of Tongeren. As no repayment follows, the van der Marck family retains Bouillon Castle and assumes the title of the Dukes of Bouillon.
*1521 - The army of
Emperor Charles Vtakes hold of Bouillon and restitutes it to the bishopric of Liège.
*1526 - Robert III van der Marck is promoted to
Marshal of Franceand styles himself Duke of Bouillon on this occasion.
*1529 - The
Treaty of Cambraiobligates Francois I of Francenot to help Robert III in his struggle to retake Bouillon.
*1547 - Robert IV van der Marck is made
Marshal of France. The letters patentofficially style him "Duc de Bouillon".
Henri II of Francereconquers Bouillon from the bishops ang gives it to Robert IV.
*1559 - The
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresisrestitutes Bouillon to the bishops of Liège, stipulating that the rights to the disputed territory are to be determined by a special arbitration, which never takes place.
*1598 - The
Treaty of Vervinsagain calls for arbitration of the dispute between the bishopric and the van der Marck family.
*October 15, 1591 - Upon extinction of the van der Marck family, their heiress Charlotte is married to Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Marshal of France.
*May 8, 1594 - Charlotte van der Marck dies without issue, and her claims to Bouillon pass to her husband, Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne.
*October 24, 1594 - Charlotte's cousin,
Henri de Bourbon, Duc de Montpensier gives up his claims to the Bouillon succession in exchange for an annuity.
*August 5, 1601 - An agreement is signed between Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne and Charlotte's paternal uncle, Comte de Maulevrier, whose descendants continue to press their claims to Bouillon for the rest of the 17th century.
*September 3, 1641 - Henri's son, Frédéric Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne, renounces his claims to the reward of 30,000 livres promised by the bishops of Liege in the Treaty of Tongeren.
*1651 - Frédéric Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne exchanges his sovereign princely titles for several ducal and comital titles in the
Peerage of France. The agreement obligates France to restitute Bouillon to the La Tour d'Auvergneon the first opportunity.
*1658 - Pursuant to the convention of 1641, the bishops of Liège pay 150,000 guelders to Frederic Maurice, but he continues to style himself Duc de Bouillon despite their protests.
*1676 - The French army takes Bouillon from the bishops and restitutes it to the
La Tour d'Auvergne, as was promised by the exchange of 1651.
*1679 - The
Treaties of Nijmegenconfirm the La Tour d'Auvergnein possession of the duchy of Bouillon. Although a French contingent remains stationed in Bouillon, the dukes exercise sovereign rights to coin money, create peers and grant other titles. They also claim Saint-Hubert as one of their "peerages".
*1757 - Charles Godefroy de La Tour d'Auvergne is welcomed in Bouillon as a sovereign duke, despite formal protests issued by the bishop of Liège.
*1786 - The 6th Duke of Bouillon from the
La Tour d'Auvergnefamily adopts Philip Dauvergne, a British captain and his postulated relative.
*June 25, 1791 - The 6th Duke of Bouillon issues a declaration naming Philip Dauvergne as his successor in Bouillon after extinction of the La Tour d'Auvergne family.
*October 25, 1795 - Annexation of Bouillon by the
*December 27, 1796 - French Republic promulgates a law restoring all the estates of Bouillon to the 7th Duke.
*August 26, 1798 - French Republic sequesters all the estates of Bouillon pertaining to the 1651 exchange.
*March 8, 1800 - The sequester is repealed and the estates are restored to the 7th Duke of Bouillon.
*February 7, 1802 - Death of the 7th Duke and extinction of the
La Tour d'Auvergnefamily.
*January 3, 1809 - The settlement of the Bouillon succession is endorsed by
*1815 - The
Congress of Viennagives Bouillon to the Netherlandsuntil the final settlement of the succession dispute between Philip Dauvergne (a British admiral by that time) and Charles-Alain-Gabriel de Rohan-Guemene (an Austrian general and the last duke's closest relative on his paternal side).
*September 18, 1816 - Philip Dauvergne, ruined by the succession disputes, commits suicide, but the litigations concerning Bouillon drag on inconclusively until 1825.
Castle of Bouillonstill sits above the town centre, and is a popular tourist attraction.
Bellevaux| Corbion| Dohan | La Cornette| Les Hayons| Muno| Poupehan| Rochehaut| Noirefontaine| Sensenruth| Ucimont| Vivy
last = Murray
first = Alan V.
title = The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. A Dynastic History 1099-1125.
publisher = Prosopographica et Genealogica
year = 2000
id = ISBN 1-900934-03-5
* [http://www.bouillon.be/ Official web site] , in French
* [http://www.fortified-places.com/bouillon.html Webpage about the fortifications]
* [http://www.hoeckmann.de/germany/luxemburgkarte.htm Map of Luxembourg and Bouillon in 1789]
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Look at other dictionaries:
bouillon — [ bujɔ̃ ] n. m. • fin XIIe; de bouillir I ♦ 1 ♦ Bulles qui se forment au sein d un liquide en ébullition. ⇒ bouillonnement. Retirer au premier bouillon, dès l ébullition. Bouillir à gros bouillons, très fort. ⇒ bouillonner. Par ext. (les bulles… … Encyclopédie Universelle
bouillon — BOUILLON. s. m. Cette partie de l eau ou de quelque autre liqueur, qui s élève en rond au dessus de sa sursace par l action du feu. Faire bouillir de l eau à petits bouillons, à gros bouillons. f♛/b] On dit d Une chose qu il ne faut pas faire… … Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798
bouillon — Bouillon. s. m. L eslevation, l agitation & l enflure de l eau ou de quelque autre liqueur par la chaleur ou autrement. Il ne faut que deux ou trois bouillons à cela. le pot bout à gros bouillons. le bouillon du pot. cette fontaine sort à gros… … Dictionnaire de l'Académie française
Bouillon — Sf std. (18. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus frz. bouillon m., einer Ableitung von frz. bouillir sieden , dieses aus l. bullīre (eigentlich Blasen werfen ), zu l. bulla Blase (usw.) . Das deutsche Wort erscheint als Femininum, wohl im Anschluß an… … Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache
bouillon — Bouillon, Ebullitio. Bouillon ou bouteille qui s esleve sur l eau, comme quand il pleut en de l eau, Bulla. Herbe dite Bouillon blanc ou noir, Verbascum. Une des especes de l herbe appelée Bouillon, autrement dit Taxus barbatus, Thryallis,… … Thresor de la langue françoyse
Bouillon  — Bouillon, 1) Führer des ersten Kreuzzugs, s. Gottfried von Bouillon. 2) Robert von der Mark, Marschall von, s. Mark … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Bouillon — Bouillon, Godofredo de Bouillon, duques de … Enciclopedia Universal
bouillon — (n.) 1650s, from Fr. bouillon (11c.), noun use of pp. of bouillir to boil, from O.Fr. bolir (see BOIL (Cf. boil) (v.)) … Etymology dictionary
Bouillon — »Fleischbrühe«: Das Wort wurde im 18. Jh. aus frz. bouillon entlehnt. Das zugrunde liegende Verb frz. bouillir »wallen, sieden« geht auf gleichbed. lat. bullire (eigentlich »Blasen werfen«) zurück, das seinerseits von lat. bulla »Blase«… … Das Herkunftswörterbuch
Bouillon — Bou illon , n. [F., fr. bouillir to boil.] 1. A nutritious liquid food made by boiling beef, or other meat, in water; a clear soup or broth. [1913 Webster] 2. (Far.) An excrescence on a horse s frush or frog. [1913 Webster] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Bouillon  — Bouillon (fr., spr. Bulljong), eigentlich jede kochende Flüssigkeit, bes. aber die Fleischbrühe; als Nahrungs u. Stärkungsmittel bereitet. Der gewöhnliche ist klarer B., wie solcher bes. auch zur Bouillonsuppe dient. Unter den gewöhnlichen… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon