Operation Tomodachi

Operation Tomodachi
Part of Response to 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
US Navy 110327-N-MU720-031 Volunteers erve food to children at the Biko-en Children's Care House.jpg
American personnel distribute food to Japanese civilians following the disaster
Type Emergency response
Location Earthquake and tsunami affected areas of Honshu, Japan
Objective Search and rescue, disaster relief, humanitarian relief
Date March 12, 2011 – May 4, 2011
Executed by United States Forces Japan

Operation Tomodachi (トモダチ作戦 tomodachi sakusen?, lit. "Operation Friend(s)") is a United States Armed Forces assistance operation to support Japan in disaster relief following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. As of March 22, 2011, twenty U.S. naval ships, 140 aircraft, and 19,703 Marines and Sailors were involved in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief efforts in and around Japan.[1] By 29 March 2011, the operation, including relief supplies provided to victims of the disaster, was expected to cost a total of $80 million.[2]


Bases and commands

A C-17 Globemaster III is loaded with food, water and blankets at Yokota.

Many if not most of the American military bases in Japan are involved in some manner in Operation Tomodachi.

Joint operations

Col. Stephen Bissonnette, deputy commander of the 353rd SOG stated that "[T]he devastation caused by the earthquake is truly heartbreaking...As part of coordinated relief efforts, the group will work tirelessly with our Japanese counterparts and other relief organizations to help the people affected by the earthquake recover..." The US aid efforts are conducted under the direction of Japanese government or military authorities.[3]


Japanese citizens form a human chain to unload supplies from a U.S. helicopter.

The United States Navy quickly moved 10 naval vessels closer to Japan to provide aid.[4] The aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76) and its battle group were moved to the east coast of Honshu. As well as the group's own helicopters, the Ronald Reagan served as a refuelling platform for Japan Self-Defense Forces helicopters.[5]

Yokota Air Base was used in the aftermath of the earthquake as a landing field for commercial flights as Tokyo Narita Airport was closed.[1] The Navy helicopters based at Naval Air Facility Atsugi and elsewhere were made available for search and rescue immediately after the tsunami, including searching off-shore debris fields[1] and later assisted with food drops.[6] P-3 Orion aircraft were used to do damage surveys.[1] Amphibious landing craft and utility landing craft were used to deploy U.S and Japanese troops and supplies to areas where docks were damaged. Japan electrical company trucks were also moved by U.S. LCUs from USS Essex (LHD-2), notably to Oshima Island.[7]

The destroyers USS McCampbell (DDG-85) and USS Curtis Wilbur (DDG-54), which were off the Bōsō Peninsula at the time of the earthquake, and their helicopters were made available for search and rescue.[6] The landing ships USS Essex (LHD-2) and USS Germantown (LSD-42), with the embarked 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit, were moved from the Sea of Japan to the east coast of Japan.[8]

A U.S. landing craft moves Japan Defense Force vehicles

USS Blue Ridge (LCC-19), which had just arrived in Singapore at the time of the earthquake, was loaded with relief supplies and prepared to sail for Japan.[9]

USS Tortuga (LSD-46), an amphibious dock ship embarked two MH-53E Heavy Lift Helicopters assigned to HM-14 DET 1 stationed in Pohang South Korea. The entire Det was onboard Tortuga less than 18 hours after the earthquake and tsunami hit. Tortuga transported 300 Japanese civil defense workers from the island of Hokkaido to Honshu with 90 vehicles.[10][not specific enough to verify]

Military Sealift Command ships also took part in the operation by transfering relief supplies and fuel to other supporting ships. The ships that took part in the operation were: USNS Carl Brashear (T-AKE 7), USNS Pecos (T-AO 197),USNS Rappahannock (T-AO 204), USS Matthew Perry (T-AKE 9), USNS Bridge (T-AOE 10)[11]

USNS Safeguard (T-ARS-50), which was stationed at U.S. Fleet Activities Sasebo, arrived at Hachinohe, Japan with Explosive Ordnance Disposal Mobile Unit 5 and Underwater Construction Team 2 to clear wreckage from a local commercial channel.[12][13]

During the operation the 7th Fleet flew 160 search and relief sorties for 1,100 flight hours, delivered 260 tons of relief supplies, and helped clear the ports of Hachinohe, Aomori, Miyako, Iwate, and Kesennuma, Miyagi.[14]

In total 130 aircraft, 12,510 personnel and over 15 american naval ships took part in Operation Tomodachi including USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76), USS Chancellorsville (CG-62), USS Cowpens (CG-63), USS Shiloh (CG-67), USS John S. McCain (DDG-56), USS Fitzgerald (DDG-62), USS McCampbell (DDG-85), USS Preble (DDG-88),USS Germantown (LSD-42), USS Tortuga (LSD-46), USS Harpers Ferry (LSD-49), USS Essex (LHD-2), USS Blue Ridge (LCC-19), USNS Safeguard (T-ARS-50).[15][16]

Radiologic incidents

Sailors scrub the flight deck of USS Ronald Reagan. (See further Images of radiation decontamination of USS Ronald Reagan)

The US Navy dispatched aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan and other vessels which flew a series of helicopter operations. A spokesman for U.S. 7th Fleet naval personnel stated that monitoring equipment indicated that the warship had been exposed to radiation. Separate hand-held equipment also picked up the contamination on 17 crew members, who had participated in rescue operations. Commander Jeff Davis said that the exposure was low enough that after the crew washed with soap and water, follow-up tests were negative. Davis characterized the exposure as comparable to routine civilian activities and reiterated the US Navy's commitment to the relief operation.[17] As a precaution the aircraft carrier was repositioned farther offshore, away from the downwind direction of the plant and decontaminated. Several helicopters were also decontaminated after returning from flights. One helicopter made a landing at Fukushima Airport after experiencing rotor icing and exposed some Australian and New Zealand search and rescue team members to low levels of radiation.

Radiation precautions were taken at U.S. bases including USS George Washington leaving port at Yokosuka after very low levels of radiation were detected there. Part of its air complement moved to Misawa Air Base to support relief operations.[18]

Marine Corps

Marines move from Okinawa aboard a KC-130

United States Marine Corps facilities in Japan escaped major damage, with no reported casualties.[19][20] This intact infrastructure allowed Marines from III Marine Expeditionary Force and Marine Corps Base Camp Smedley D. Butler to mobilize aid quickly.[21][22][not specific enough to verify]

Marines based at Marine Corps Air Station Futenma moved command and control teams and systems to NAF Atsugi.[4] Eight KC-130Js from VMGR-152 and eight CH-46E transport helicopters from HMM-265, all from MCAS Futenma, were made available to transport rescue teams and equipment, as well as provide search and rescue.[4]

The 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit responded to Northern Japan from Maylasia and Indonesia, where the unit was conducting Theater Security Cooperation exercises. The 31st MEU delivered relief supplies to five cities, one island and one Japanese ship. More than 164,000 pounds of food and relief supplies were delivered, along with thousands of gallons of water. Elements of the 31st MEU, including Combat Logistics Battalion 31 and 2nd Battalion 5th Marines went ashore on Oshima Island to deliver critical supplies and assist in debris removal.

MV Westpac Express, a civil-registered fast ferry chartered by the Marine Corps, was made available to transport equipment from Okinawa to Honshu.[4]Westpac Express made two sorties in support of Operation Tomodachi. The ship moved 450 tons of cargo, including 7-ton trucks, fuel tankers, generators and water tanks from Okinawa to Iwakuni, Japan, arriving March 15. On March 20, Westpac Express loaded 226 pallets of bottled water at Pohang, ROK, off-loading at Iwakuni the next day.[23]

Air Force

A United States Air Force KC-135 Stratotanker arrived at Misawa Air Base on March 14 with the first batch of relief workers and 50 civil engineers from Kadena Air Base.[24]

a USAF C-17 is checked for radiation at Yokota after a relief flight.

Two C-17A Globemaster cargo aircraft from Joint Base Lewis-McChord were made available to transport rescue teams and equipment.[4] A Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle was deployed from Guam for damage assessments.[1]

Air base

Yokota Air Base is the hub for air operations from which cleanup crews were dispatched to clean up Sendai airport. At a Town Hall meeting, the Commander of the 374th Air Wing USAF presented an overview of joint forces operations in support of the Japanese and emphasized teamwork between various players. He stated that "we are very blessed" to be in the nation of Japan because it has a highly sophisticated set of technologies to minimize the damage but that the personnel, logistic and financing problems were formidable.

He repeatedly asserted that the situation is "eminently controllable" in part due to highly experience personnel available for various contingencies. US military personnel stationed at the Air Base expressed interest in making cash donations – in dollars or yen – to the American Red Cross and other organizations working in the Japanese relief effort.[25]

Cub Scouts

Cub Scout Pack 49 of Yokota Air Base has a brotherhood with a local Japanese pack called Kiyose. The boys of Kiyose have asked Pack 49 to gather donations to help out the children impacted by the tsunami, needing simple school supplies, pencils, rulers, scissors etc.[citation needed]


Several Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters from the U.S. Army Japan Aviation Detachment have been made available for relief efforts. A disaster assessment team from I Corps (United States) Forward departed Camp Zama and arrived in northeastern Japan on March 14 to assist in relief and humanitarian operations as well as set up a forward logistics base for supplies.[26] A 59-member logistics team from Sagamihara General Depot helped reopen Sendai Airport.[1]

Operation Pacific Passage

Charter flights carried family of U.S. service members in Japan to the U.S. West Coast. (See further Category:Operation Pacific Passage)

Over 7,000 family members of U.S. service members in Japan were voluntarily evacuated in March to Seattle Tacoma Airport and Travis Air Force Base in the U.S. during Operation Pacific Passage.[27] Concerns over the uncertainty of the radiation situation and reducing the burden of supporting families while conducting relief operations and the related troop movements lead to the relocation program.

Interagency collaboration

With Yokota Air Base available, US Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance sent Urban Search and Rescue California Task Force 2 and Virginia Task Force 1.[28] Two urban search and rescue teams arrived at the pending merger with a 60 member/two-dog team from the UK. On 3/16, a RAAF C-17 Globemaster III landed on Kadena's flight line. USAF personnel assisted Royal Australian Air Force and Japan Ground Self Defense Force to load supplies and fly to mainland Japan.[29][not specific enough to verify]


March 12, 2011

Four Marine KC-130J Aircraft from VMGR-152 deployed from MCAS Futenma to the Japanese Mainland to support relief operations. About a hundred airmen and three MC-130P Combat Shadows, with 19 maintenance personnel, from the 353rd Special Operations Group deployed on March 12, one day after the earthquake. Col. Stephen Bissonnette, deputy commander of the 353rd SOG stated that "[T]he devastation caused by the earthquake is truly heartbreaking...As part of coordinated relief efforts, the group will work tirelessly with our Japanese counterparts and other relief organizations to help the people affected by the earthquake recover..."[30]

March 13, 2011

Marine helicopters depart Okinawa for Atsugi

Four additional Marine KC-130J aircraft from VMGR-152 deployed from MCAS Futenma along with nearly 80 maintainers, effectively relocating the squadron to the Japanese Mainland. Eight Marine CH-46E helicopters from HMM-265 deployed to NAS Atsugi to begin relief operations. A USAF KC-135 Stratotanker arrived at Misawa Air Base on Sunday with the first batch of relief workers and 50 civil engineers from Kadena Air Base.[24]

Two US urban search and rescue teams arrived from Fairfax County, Virginia and Los Angeles County, California with a total of 140 rescuers and 14 rescue dogs. The teams merged with a 63 member search and rescue team from the UK. The combined US-UK operation deployed to the town of Sumita, Iwate to set up a base of operations.[31] The teams performed daily search and rescue missions in the cities of Ofunato and Kamaishi for five days until departing for home.

Members of the U.S. Navy Reserve Detachment 105 were joined by six members of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Liaison (LNO) and Consequence Management Advisory Team (CMAT). These two elements formed the initial core of the United States Forces Japan (USFJ) Radiological Consequence Management Team (RCMT) whose mission was to advise Lieutenant General Burton Field Commander USFJ on matters related to the nuclear fuel cycle, potential hazards, and potential mitigation of a radiological incident.

HM-14 DET 1 rapidly deploys to assist in relief efforts onboard USS Tortuga.

18th Civil Engineer Squadron also arrived at Misawa Air Base for Operation Tomodachi.

March 14, 2011

The Yokota Town Hall Meeting was conducted in which personnel and their families were reassured that the problems, though formidable, were manageable given the highly qualified Japanese, US, and international personnel on the scene. There was an assurance that there would be daily monitoring of radiation levels. Many of the service men and women expressed interest in making financial contributions through the Red Cross.[25]

March 15, 2011

Work continued to re-establish a workable landing strip at Sendai Airport. Kadena AFB personnel restored power at Misawa.[32] The USS George Washington was docked for maintenance in Yokosuka, about 175 miles (280 kilometers) from the plant, when instruments detected the radiation at 7 a.m. Tuesday (6 p.m. ET Monday).

March 16, 2011

U.S. sailors assist locals and French volunteers to clear the harbor in Hachinohe

Rear Admiral Wren, the Commander, US Naval Forces Japan, sent out a letter advising personnel to limit outdoor activity at Fleet Activities Yokosuka and Naval Air Facility Atsugi due to newly developing, low level radiation.[33]

March 17, 2011

The Pentagon said Thursday that it was sending more specialized aircraft to evaluate nuclear contamination at and around the Fukushima site including a WC-135, Constant Phoenix from Offutt Air Force Base to take air samples, which aircraft had formerly been used as a sniffer with regard to North Korean nuclear weapons testing.[34][35]

Carrier Air Wing-5 was relocated from NAF Atsugi to Andersen Air Force Base in Guam temporarily, what the Navy calls a "force posture adjustment" for Operation Tomodachi. The air wing's SH-60 helicopters from HS-14 and HSL-51 and C-2 Greyhound from Fleet Logistics Support Squadron 30 Det. 5 remained behind in support of the operation.[36][37][38] As a precaution, the navy has also stopped moving its personnel to Japan as well.[39]

According to NPR, unmanned Global Hawk drones and old U-2 were also deployed and along with a planning team from the U.S. Northern Command in Colorado.[40]

March 23, 2011

Navy officials halted air operations from USS Ronald Reagan temporarily on Wednesday so they could decontaminate the ship from the radiation the ship received. While the radiation did not pose any significant health risk, “it needed to go away,” Cmdr. Ron Rutan, chief engineer for the Reagan.[41][42][43]

March 25, 2011

U.S. barge loaded with fresh water for Fukushima Power Plant

Mississippi and Alabama National Guard forces joined those from Kentucky and Guam to assist with Operation Tomodachi.[44][45]

500,000 gallons of fresh water has been provided from the US Navy to support cooling efforts at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.[46]

May 1, 2011

US troops will begin to withdraw from the Tohoku coastline and return to their bases, and the US-Japan Joint Cooperation Center in Sendai has closed down.[47] While it will continue to airlift personnel and supplies as needed, the work on the ground will be handed over to the Japanese Self-Defence Forces.[48]

May 4, 2011

Marines from the Consequence Management Support Force return to Okinawa from mainland Japan May 4, representing the departure of the last major element of the III Marine Expeditionary Force deployed to mainland in support of Operation Tomodachi.[49]

Clean-up efforts

US troops assisted Japanese government workers in cleaning up debris and rubble left by the tsunami.[50]

Effect on Japan–US relations

Toshimi Kitazawa given an Operation Tomodachi banner on April 4, 2011

The disaster may have also brought a diplomatic opening to Japan. The support provided by the US illustrated the value of the relationship between the two countries.[51][52] It was commented that the level of support provided by the US for relief operations will probably assuage tension over base relocation disputes between the governments of the two nations.[53] The Yomiuri Shimbun reported that the "coordinated relief activities at the disaster sites are expected to deepen the Japan-U.S. alliance."[54][55]

On 4 April 2011, Japan's minister of defense, Toshimi Kitazawa, accompanied by US ambassador to Japan John Roos, visited the Ronald Reagan to thank its crew for its assistance as part of Operation Tomodachi. Said Kitazawa, "I have never been more encouraged by and proud of the fact that the United States is our ally."[56]

On 10 April 2011,Japan's Prime Minister, Naoto Kan, visited Camp Sendai to talk to U.S. service members. The prime minister spoke of the immediate response of the U.S. military and expressed his belief that the joint efforts between the U.S. military, and the JGSDF will only strengthen the bonds between the Japanese people and the United States.[57]

See also

  • Humanitarian response to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
  • Fukushima I nuclear accidents
  • International reaction to Fukushima I nuclear accidents


  1. ^ a b c d e f Japan 2011 Earthquake: U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) Response, Andrew Feickert and Emma Chanlett-Avery, Congressional Research Service, March 22, 2011
  2. ^ Tiron, Roxana, "U.S. Defense Department Will Spend As Much As $80 Million On Aid To Japan", Bloomberg News, 29 March 2011.
  3. ^ Associated Press, "Disaster aid puts new face on U.S. military", Japan Times, 28 March 2011, p. 2.
  4. ^ a b c d e Dawson, Chester (March 14, 2011). "U.S. Military Joins in Quake-Relief Effort". Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704893604576200183092822382.html?mod=googlenews_wsj. 
  5. ^ Dilanian, Ken (March 12, 2011). "U.S. military, aid teams headed for Japan". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/sc-dc-japan-quake-us-relief-20110313,0,5697005.story. 
  6. ^ a b "U.S. troops, USS Ronald Reagan arrive in Japan". CNN. March 13, 2011. http://edition.cnn.com/2011/US/03/12/quake.response/. 
  7. ^ Essex Amphibious Read Group Continues Relief Efforts on Oshima Island, Eva-Marie Ramsaran, ACU ONE, Commander Naval Surface Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet, April 3, 2011
  8. ^ Stewart, Phil (March 15, 2011). "U.S. redirects warships over Japan radiation risk". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/15/us-japan-quake-usa-aid-idUSTRE72E8R620110315. 
  9. ^ Stewart, Phil (March 13, 2011). "U.S. military ramps up Japan relief effort". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/13/us-japan-quake-usa-aid-idUSTRE72C3DB20110313. 
  10. ^ AP report cited by Idaho Times[not specific enough to verify]
  11. ^ http://www.msc.navy.mil/sealift/2011/May/japan.htm
  12. ^ http://www.navy.mil/search/display.asp?story_id=59317
  13. ^ http://www.dvidshub.net/news/67707/usns-safeguard-and-additional-salvage-support-reaches-hachinohe
  14. ^ Martin, Alex, "Military flexes relief might, gains newfound esteem", Japan Times, 15 April 2011, p. 3.
  15. ^ http://www.japanbases.com/news/view/entryid/1230/operation-tomodachi-foul-weather-march-26.aspx
  16. ^ http://www.japanbases.com/news/view/entryid/1417/operation-tomodachi-defense-minister-of-japan-visits-uss-ronald-reagan-april-4.aspx
  17. ^ USS Carrier Ronald Reagan Moved After Detecting Radioactive Plume Off Japan – ABC News. Abcnews.go.com (2011-03-14). Retrieved on 2011-03-19.
  18. ^ USS George Washington to return to Yokosuka on Wednesday , Erik Slavin, Stars and Stripes, April 19, 2011
  19. ^ Sanborn, James K.; Gidget Fuentes (March 11, 2011). "Marine Bases Japan spared by earthquake". Navy Times. http://www.navytimes.com/news/2011/03/marine-earthquake-japan-tsunami-aid-031111w/. Retrieved March 16, 2011. 
  20. ^ Burke, 1stLt Lucas (March 12, 2011). "Marines conduct emergency actions in wake of earthquake, tsunami". III Marine Expeditionary Force. United States Marine Corps. http://www.marines.mil/unit/iiimef/Pages/Marinesconductsemergencyactionsinwakeofearthquake,tsunami.aspx. Retrieved March 16, 2011. 
  21. ^ "Japan-based Marines move to provide aid". Marine Corps Times. March 12, 2011. http://www.marinecorpstimes.com/news/2011/03/marine-japan-based-units-move-to-provide-aid-031211w/. Retrieved March 16, 2011. 
  22. ^ http://news.lalate.com/category/operation-tomodachi/[not specific enough to verify]
  23. ^ http://www.msc.navy.mil/sealift/2011/May/japan.htm
  24. ^ a b Relief workers, search and rescue teams arrive at Misawa AB. Af.mil (2011-03-13). Retrieved on 2011-03-19.
  25. ^ a b Yokota Town Hall Meeting 3/14/2011
  26. ^ http://www.army.mil/-news/2011/03/14/53236-army-ready-to-help-after-earthquake-tsunami-in-japan/[not specific enough to verify]
  27. ^ Joint Task Force 505 operates in Okinawa, Yokota, March 24, 2011
  28. ^ "Tsunami Update 4: Urban Search & Rescue (US&R) deploying to Japan". FEMA Blog. FEMA. 11. http://blog.fema.gov/2011/03/tsunami-update-4-urban-search-rescue-us.html. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 
  29. ^ http://www.kadena.af.mil/[not specific enough to verify]
  30. ^ Airmen deploy to support relief operations. Af.mil. Retrieved on 2011-03-19.
  31. ^ Search team: No miracle finds for British rescuers as they join grim task of finding the dead. Retrieved on 2011-04-13.
  32. ^ Kadena Airmen restore power at Misawa after devastating earthquake. Kadena.af.mil (2011-03-15). Retrieved on 2011-03-19.
  33. ^ [1]
  34. ^ Japan quake tsunamiThis Just In – CNN.com Blogs. News.blogs.cnn.com (2011-03-15). Retrieved on 2011-03-19.
  35. ^ Cosmic Log – U.S. boosts radiation-sniffing system. Cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com. Retrieved on 2011-03-19.
  36. ^ http://www.dvidshub.net/news/67650/hs-14-and-hsl-51-join-forces-support-operation-tomodachi
  37. ^ http://www.pacificnewscenter.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12541:1000-sailors-from-navy-air-wing-and-their-planes-re-locating-to-guam-from-japan&catid=45:guam-news&Itemid=156
  38. ^ http://www.c7f.navy.mil/news/2011/03-march/052.htm
  39. ^ http://www.armytimes.com/news/2011/03/navy-stop-movement-sailors-japan-031711w/
  40. ^ Food, Gas Shortages Amid Relief Efforts In Japan. NPR (2011-03-15). Retrieved on 2011-03-19.
  41. ^ "Regan air crews pause relief operations to decontaminate"
  42. ^ "USS Ronald Regan aircraft carrier gets washed to remove radioactive contamination"
  43. ^ United States Pacific Command (USPACOM), PACOM Supporting Japan in Time of Crisis
  44. ^ http://www.hstoday.us/briefings/today-s-news-analysis/single-article/national-guard-boosts-forces-in-japanese-relief-effort/6a0c4f6d847c47493e7eaa510f445151.html
  45. ^ http://ra.defense.gov/html/japan.html
  46. ^ http://www.navy.mil/search/display.asp?story_id=59318
  47. ^ http://www.newsonjapan.com/html/newsdesk/article/89371.php
  48. ^ http://newpacificinstitute.org/jsw/?p=5939
  49. ^ http://www.dvidshub.net/news/69933/marines-return-operation-tomodachi
  50. ^ Robson, Seth, and Chiyomi Sumida, "U.S., Japanese troops tackle giant task of removing tsunami debris", Stars and Stripes, 9 April 2011.
  51. ^ Eldridge, Robert D., "Quake relief effort hightlights a vital U.S. military function", Japan Times, 31 March 2011, p. 13.
  52. ^ Johnston, Eric, "After the disaster, better ties?", Japan Times, 5 April 2011, p. 2.
  53. ^ Hansen, Liane, "U.S.S Essex Helps Delivers Aid To Japan", NPR Weekend Edition, 27 March 2011, 1 p.m.
  54. ^ "Japan-U.S. relief efforts expanding". The Daily Yomiuri. Mar. 20 2011. http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/national/T110319003100.htm. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  55. ^ http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5hH2c9iDTprbA66vaPoCtEiOrJMXg
  56. ^ Kyodo News, "Japanese defense chief thanks U.S. military for humanitarian efforts", 4 April 2011.
  57. ^ http://www.dvidshub.net/news/68560/japan-prime-minister-visits-camp-sendai

External links

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