- Operation FB
Following the severe losses of convoys PQ 17 and PQ 18 together with demands for allied shipping and escort vessels due to Operation Torch and other activity, the western allies suspended convoys between Iceland and Murmansk in the autumn of 1942. At that time the Soviets were fighting the Germans in the battle of Stalingrad and the suspension of the convoys caused a great deal of ill feeling among the Soviet Leadership. It was decided to sail single ships independently until convoys could resume. After PQ 17 in July 1942 two Russian vessels, the Frederich Engels and the Belamorkanal, sailed in late August; both reached Russia safely. Stalin demanded further supplies and the return of Russian vessels in western ports. After PQ 18 in September it was therefore decided to let a number of ships sail independently, against normal allied naval practice. This was Operation FB.
A total of 13 ships sailed independently from Iceland, leaving at roughly twelve hour intervals between 29 October and 2 November 1942. Seven British and five American vessels took part, departing alternately. A Soviet ship also sailed in the same operation. No escort was provided though a number of warships were involved. Four ASW trawlers from Iceland were stationed along the route, and a further three from Murmansk covered the eastern end of the voyage, a reversion to the "patrol and independent sailing" strategy of World War I. Three ships were forced to turn back. Five ships were sunk, and five arrived safely.
Following Operation FB a further series of independent sailings were staged by the Soviets, involving their own ships. These were separate from the Allied effort and overlapped with the resumption of the convoy cycle in December.
Between the end of October 1942 and January 1943 twenty-three Soviet ships sailed independently, relying on the darkness of the polar night. All but one arrived safely, just one ship was sunk by a German warship in November.
In January 1943, again separate to the convoys of that month (JW 52 and RA 52 ), a further six Soviet ships were sailed independently. Four of these were west-bound, to Iceland; two were sunk and two arrived safely. Two others were east-bound to the Soviet Union; both arrived safely, though both were subsequently damaged in air raids.
Operation FB, November 1942
- Chulmleigh (British) First aground 05.november, then bombed by JU-88 and HE-111, then torpedo and shelling by submarine U-625 on 6 November 1942 (Ship had already grounded on South Cape of Spitzbergen and abandoned)
- Dekabrist (USSR) bombed 4th November 1942
- Empire Gilbert(British) - submarine U-586 on 2nd November 1942
- William Clark (USA) submarine U-354 on 4th November 1942
- Empire Sky (British) by submarine U-625 on 6th November 1942
Soviet independents 1942
- Donbass (USSR) sunk by destroyer Z27 on 7 November 1942
- Krasnyy Partizan (USSR) - submarine U-255 29 January 1943
- Ufa (USSR) - submarine U-255 26 January 1943
- ^ Woodman p
- Bob Ruegg, Arnold Hague Convoys to Russia (1992) ISBN 0 905617 66 5
- Richard Woodman, Arctic Convoys 1941-1945 (1994) ISBN 0-7195-5752-6
- Convoy web
QP 1 · QP 2 · QP 3
1942OutboundHomeboundQP 4 · QP 5 · QP 6 · QP 7 · QP 8 · QP 9 · QP 10 · QP 11 · QP 12 · QP 13 · QP 14 · QP 15 · RA 51 1943OutboundHomebound 1944OutboundHomebound
RA 56 · RA 57 · RA 58 · RA 59 · RA 59A · RA 60 · RA 61 · RA 61A · RA 62 · RA 63
JW 64 · JW 65 · JW 66 · JW 67Homebound
RA 64 · RA 65 · RA 66 · RA 67
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
opération — [ ɔperasjɔ̃ ] n. f. • XIIIe « ouvrage, travail »; lat. operatio 1 ♦ Action d un pouvoir, d une fonction, d un organe qui produit un effet selon sa nature. Les opérations de la digestion. « La mémoire est nécessaire pour toutes les opérations de… … Encyclopédie Universelle
operation — op‧e‧ra‧tion [ˌɒpəˈreɪʆn ǁ ˌɑː ] noun 1. [uncountable] the way the parts of a machine, system etc work together, or the process of making a machine, system etc work: • the design and operation of specialized equipment 2. in/into operation… … Financial and business terms
Operation Ke — Part of the Pacific Theater of World War II … Wikipedia
Operation 40 — was a Central Intelligence Agency sponsored undercover operation in the early 1960s, which was active in the United States and the Caribbean (including Cuba), Central America, and Mexico. It was created by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in March… … Wikipedia
Operation MO — Teil von: Zweiter Weltkrieg, Pazifikkrieg … Deutsch Wikipedia
Operation — may refer to: Scientific operation Surgery, or operation An operation in mathematics: Unary operation Binary operation Arity In language, an operation is a word which represents a function (or instruction), rather than a term or name In computer… … Wikipedia
Operation Mo — Map showing the movements of the Port Moresby invasion force, and the plan for the force s landing at Port Moresby Planned … Wikipedia
Operation — (von lateinisch operatio, „die Verrichtung“) bezeichnet: Operation (Medizin), in der Medizin einen chirurgischen Eingriff in den Organismus Operation (Informatik), in der EDV einen durch einen Befehl ausgelösten Programmschritt Operation (UML),… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Operation RY — Map of the Coral Sea area with Nauru and Ocean (Banaba) islands in the top right corner. Planned April 1942 Objective Occupation of … Wikipedia
Operation K — Part of the Pacific Theater of World War II Approximate route of Operation K … Wikipedia