- Operation Barak
Operation Barak (Hebrew: , Mivtza Barak, lit. Operation Lightning) was a Haganah offensive launched just before the end of the British Mandate in Palestine. It was part of Plan Dalet. Its objective was to capture villages North of Gaza in anticipation of the arrival of the Egyptian army. It was undertaken by the newly formed Giv'ati brigade, commanded by Shimon Avidan.
Operational orders defined the Giv'ati brigades objectives as: "To deny the enemy a base ... creating general panic and breaking his morale ... cause the flight of the inhabitants of the smaller settlements in the area." Commander Avidan's instructions were: "You will determine alone, in consultation with your Arab affair advisers and Intelligence Service officer, the villages in your zone that should be occupied, cleaned up or destroyed." According to historian Benny Morris, Avidan preferred the latter option.
As a prelude, the Giv'ati brigade's first action took place on 4 May 1948 when the brigade occupied 'Aqir, south west of al-Ramle, population 2,480.
The offensive was launched on 9 May with Bayt Daras being subjected to mortar bombardment prior to being occupied. Subsequently village houses were blown up. A second round of attacks were launched on 15 May.
Two months later the Giv'ati brigade carried out a further operation in this area capturing at least 16 villages and creating 'more than 20,000' refugees.
Arab communities captured during Operation Barak
Name Date Defending forces Brigade Population Aqir 4 May 1948 'hostages taken' Giv'ati 2,480 Qatra 6 May 1948 villagers Giv'ati 1,210 Bayt Darra 10 May 1948 n/a Giv'ati 2,750 'Arab Suqrir 10 May 1948 n/a Giv'ati 390 Barqa 10-13 May n/a Giv'ati 890 Burayr 12 May 1948 n/a Negev 2,740 Al-Sawafir al-Shamaliyya 12 May 1948 n/a n/a 680 Bashshit 12 May 1948 n/a Giv'ati 1,620 Khubbayza 12-14 May 1948 n/a IZL 290 Najd 13 May 1948 n/a Negev 620 Al-Batani al-Sharqi 13 May 1948 n/a Giv'ati 650 Abu Shusha 14 May 1948 n/a
Giv'ati 870 Al-Na'ani 14 May 1948 n/a Giv'ati 2,060
inc. 590 Jews
Al-Qubab 15 May 1948 n/a n/a 1,980 Simsim 15 May 1948 n/a Negev 1,360
inc. 70 Jews
Al-Maghar 15 May 1948 n/a Giv'ati 1,740
- ^ Morris, pages 126 and 127: "Avidan apparently wanted only empty villages."
- ^ 'All that remains'. page 360. Quotes New York Times as estimating the Haganah force as being 400 strong.
- ^ All that remains. pages 87, 395. Morris, pages 126, 127.
- ^ Morris, pages 212,213. reference given as Giv'ati Brigade's official history (in Hebrew).
- Walid Khalidi, All That Remains, ISBN 0 88728 224 5. Uses 1945 census for population figures.
- Benny Morris, The Birth of the Palestinian refugee problem, 1947-1949,ISBN 0 521 33028 9.
Israeli military operations in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War Pre-IDF IDF
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