Organisation of Islamic Cooperation


Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Flag of the OIC Logo of the OIC
Flag
  Member States
  Observer States
  Blocked States
Administrative center Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Official languages Arabic, English, French
Membership 57 member states
Leaders
 -  Secretary-General Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu
Establishment
 -  OIC Charter signed September 25, 1969 
Population
 -   estimate 1.6 billion (2011) 
GDP (nominal)  estimate
 -  Total $4.8135 billion (2010) 
Website
http://www.oic-oci.org/

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; Arabic: منظمة التعاون الاسلامي; French: Organisation de la Coopération Islamique (OCI))[a 1] is an international organisation consisting of 57 member states. The organisation attempts to be the collective voice of the Muslim world (Ummah) and attempts to safeguard the interests and ensure the progress and well-being of Muslims.

The OIC has a permanent delegation to the United Nations, and considers itself the largest international organisation outside of the United Nations.[1] The official languages of the OIC are Arabic, English, and French. It changed its name from the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (Arabic: منظمة المؤتمر الإسلامي; French: Organisation de la Conférence Islamique) on 28 June 2011.[2]

Contents

History and goals

Since the 19th century, many Muslims had aspired to ummah to serve their common political, economic, and social interests. Despite the presence of secularist, nationalist, and socialist ideologies, in modern Muslim states, they have cooperated together to form the Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation. The formation of the OIC happened shortly after the 1967 Arab-Israeli War. Leaders of Muslim nations met in Rabat to establish the OIC on September 25, 1969.[3]

According to its charter, the OIC aims to preserve Islamic social and economic values; promote solidarity amongst member states; increase cooperation in social, economic, cultural, scientific, and political areas; uphold international peace and security; and advance education, particularly in the fields of science and technology.[3]

The flag of the OIC (shown above) has an overall green background (symbolic of Islam). In the centre, there is an upward-facing red crescent enveloped in a white disc. On the disc the words "Allahu Akbar" (Arabic for "The Almighty God") are written in Arabic calligraphy.

On August 5, 1990, 45 foreign ministers of the OIC adopted the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam to serve as a guidance for the member states in the matters of human rights in as much as they are compatible with the Sharia, or Quranic Law.[4]

On 24 February 2009, the International Zakat Organization in cooperation with the Organization of the Islamic Conferences announced the selection of the BMB Group to head up the management of the Global Zakat and Charity Fund, with its CEO Rayo Withanage becoming the co-chairman of the zakat fund. The fund is expected to contain 2 billion ringgits in 2010, about US$650 million.[5]

Members

The Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation has 57 members, 56 of which are classed by the United Nations as member states. Some, especially in West Africa, are - though with large Muslim populations - not necessarily Muslim majority countries. A few countries with significant Muslim populations, such as Russia and Thailand, sit as Observer States, while others, such as India and Ethiopia, are not members.

Member State Joined Notes
 Afghanistan 1969 Suspended 1980 - March 1989
 Algeria 1969
 Chad 1969
 Egypt 1969 Suspended May 1979 - March 1984
 Guinea 1969
 Indonesia 1969
 Iran 1969
 Jordan 1969
 Kuwait 1969
 Lebanon 1969
 Libya 1969
 Malaysia 1969
 Mali 1969
 Mauritania 1969
 Morocco 1969
 Niger 1969
 Pakistan 1969 Blocking India from membership
 State of Palestine[6] 1969[7]
 Saudi Arabia 1969
 Senegal 1969
 Sudan 1969
 Somalia 1969
 Tunisia 1969
 Turkey 1969
 Yemen 1969 From 1990 as Republic of Yemen united with People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
 Bahrain 1970
 Oman 1970
 Qatar 1970
 Syria 1970
 United Arab Emirates 1970
 Sierra Leone 1972
 Bangladesh 1974
 Gabon 1974
 Gambia 1974
 Guinea-Bissau 1974
 Uganda 1974
 Burkina Faso 1975
 Cameroon 1975
 Comoros 1976
 Iraq 1976
 Maldives 1976
 Djibouti 1978
 Benin 1982
 Brunei 1984
 Nigeria 1986
 Azerbaijan 1991
 Albania 1992
 Kyrgyzstan 1992
 Tajikistan 1992
 Turkmenistan 1992
 Mozambique 1994
 Kazakhstan 1995
 Uzbekistan 1995
 Suriname 1996
 Togo 1997
 Guyana 1998
 Côte d'Ivoire 2001
Suspended or Withdrawn
 Zanzibar 1993 Withdrew August 1993
Observer States
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1994
 Central African Republic 1997
 North Cyprus as 'Turkish Cypriot State' 1979[8] Designation changed in 2004[9]
 Thailand 1998
 Russia 2005
Observer Muslim Organisations and Communities
Moro National Liberation Front 1977 Blocking membership of the Philippines
Observer Islamic institutions
Parliamentary Union of the OIC Member States 2000
Islamic Conference Youth Forum for Dialogue and Cooperation 2005
Observer International Organisations
League of Arab States 1975
United Nations 1976
Non-Aligned Movement 1977
Organisation of African Unity 1977
Economic Cooperation Organisation 1995
Arab League Parliamentary Union of the OIC Member States Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Arab Maghreb Union Agadir Agreement Council of Arab Economic Unity Gulf Cooperation Council West African Economic and Monetary Union Economic Cooperation Organization Turkic Council Liptako-Gourma Authority Liptako-Gourma Authority Economic Cooperation Organization Albania Malaysia Afghanistan Libya Algeria Tunisia Morocco Lebanon Egypt Somalia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Benin Brunei Burkina Faso Cameroon Chad Comoros Côte d'Ivoire Djibouti Gambia Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Indonesia Iran Iraq Jordan Kazakhstan Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Maldives Mali Mauritania Mozambique Niger Nigeria Oman Pakistan Qatar Sudan Palestine Suriname Syria Tajikistan Togo Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Yemen Senegal Gabon Sierra Leone Arab Maghreb Union Agadir Agreement Saudi Arabia
A clickable Euler diagram showing the relationships between various multinational organisations within the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.vde

The collective population of OIC member states is over 1.4 billion as 2008.

Democracy

In the 2010 Democracy Index published by the Economist Intelligence Unit, no OIC countries were rated as a "Full Democracy" under its guidelines, and only 3 of the 57 members were rated as a "Flawed Democracy." The rest were rated either an "Authoritarian Regime" or a "Hybrid Regime."[10]

Freedom

The 2010 Freedom in the World, rated 3 OIC member states as Free based on Political Rights and Civil Liberties in the member countries.[11]

Reporters Without Borders in its 2010 Press Freedom Index rated Mali and Suriname among the OIC members as having a Satisfactory Situation. Other members had ratings ranging from Noticeable Problems to Very Serious Situation.[12][13]

The US Department of State 2010 International Religious Freedom Report cited OIC members Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Uzbekistan as being Countries of Particular Concern, where religious freedom is severely violated. It also cited OIC members Afghanistan, Egypt, Iraq, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan as "countries that face challenges in protecting religious freedom".[14]

Literacy and scholarship

OIC members on average are countries with lower literacy rates. Though some members such as the former CIS states, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan have over 99% literacy, literacy rates are as low as 54% in Pakistan and Bangladesh and under 30% in Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso, etc. The bottom 5 countries with the lowest literacy rates in the world are all OIC members.

Also, while some Islamic countries like the Islamic Republic of Iran exhibited a high scientific publication growth rate in 2009-10,[15] this is still only a fraction of scientific papers published by any OECD nation. Some OIC countries have tried to kick-start scientific research. Saudi Arabia has established KAUST and UAE has invested in Zayed University, United Arab Emirates University, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, etc.[16] Dubai's Prime Minister and UAE Vice-President, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, has also endowed a foundation with $10 billion for invigorating Arab scientific research.[17] However, these investments are yet to yield any significant results.

Economy

The OIC members have a combined GDP (at PPP) of USD 10,140,000,000,000.[citation needed][clarification needed] Turkey had the highest GDP in 2010 among OIC members at $729 billion at nominal exchange rates.[18] The richest country on the basis of GDP per capita is Qatar at USD 103,204 per capita.

Positions

The Parliamentary Union of the OIC member states (PUOICM) was established in Iran in 1999, and its head office is situated in Tehran. Only OIC members are entitled to membership in the union.[19]

President George W. Bush announced on June 27, 2007, that the United States would establish an envoy to the OIC. Bush said of the envoy, "Our special envoy will listen to and learn from representatives from Muslim states, and will share with them America's views and values."[20] Sada Cumber became the U.S. representative on March 3, 2008.[citation needed] Individual organisation members vote against the United States on over 86 percent of United Nations resolutions.[21]

The Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation on March 28, 2008, added its voice to the growing criticism of the film 'Fitna' by Dutch lawmaker Geert Wilders, which features disturbing images of violent acts juxtaposed with verses from the Quran.[22]

Ninth meeting of PUOICM

The ninth meeting of the Council of PUOICM was held on 15 and 16 February 2007 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.[23] The speaker of Malaysia's House of Representatives, Ramli bin Ngah Talib, delivered a speech at the beginning of the inaugural ceremony. OIC secretary-general Prof Dr Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu said prior to the meeting that one main agenda item was stopping Israel from continuing its excavation at the Western Wall near the Al-Aqsa Mosque, Islam's third holiest shrine.[24] The OIC also discussed how it might send peacekeeping troops to Muslim states, as well as the possibility of a change in the name of the body and its charter.[25] Additionally, return of the sovereignty right to the Iraqi people along with withdrawal of foreign troops from Iraq was another one of the main issues on the agenda.[26]

Pakistani Foreign Minister Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri told reporters on 14 February 2007 that the secretary general of OIC and foreign ministers of seven "like-minded Muslim countries" would meet in Islamabad on 25 February 2007 following meetings of President Musharraf with heads of key Muslim countries to discuss "a new initiative" for the resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Kasuri said this would be a meeting of foreign ministers of key Muslim countries to discuss and prepare for a summit in Makkah Al Mukarramah to seek the resolution of the Arab-Israeli conflict.[27]

Human rights

OIC created the Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam.[4] While proponents claim it is not an alternative to the UDHR, but rather complementary, Article 24 states, "All the rights and freedoms stipulated in this Declaration are subject to the Islamic Shari'ah." and Article 25 follows that with "The Islamic Shari'ah is the only source of reference for the explanation or clarification of any of the articles of this Declaration." Attempts to have it adopted by the United Nations Human Rights Council have met increasing criticism, because of its contradiction of the UDHR, including from liberal Muslim groups.[28] Critics of the CDHR state bluntly that it is “manipulation and hypocrisy,” “designed to dilute, if not altogether eliminate, civil and political rights protected by international law” and attempts to “circumvent these principles [of freedom and equality].”[29][30][31]

Human Rights Watch says that OIC has “fought doggedly” and successfully within the United Nations Human Rights Council to shield states from criticism, except when it comes to criticism of Israel. For example, when independent experts reported violations of human rights in the 2006 Lebanon War, “state after state from the OIC took the floor to denounce the experts for daring to look beyond Israeli violations to discuss Hezbollah’s as well.” OIC demands that the council “should work cooperatively with abusive governments rather than condemn them.” HRW responds that this works only with those who are willing to cooperate; others exploit the passivity.[32][33]

The OIC has been criticised for diverting its activities solely on Muslim minorities within majority non-Muslim countries but putting a taboo on the plight, the treatment of ethnic minorities within Muslim-majority countries, such as the oppression of the Kurds in Syria, the Ahwaz in Iran, the Hazars in Afghanistan, the Baluchis in Pakistan, the 'Al-Akhdam' in Yemen, or the Berbers in Algeria.[34]

Antisemitism

The OIC attracted attention at the opening session of the meeting in Putrajaya, Malaysia, on 16 October 2003, where Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad of Malaysia in his speech argued that the Jews control the world: "They invented socialism, communism, human rights, and democracy, so that persecuting them would appear to be wrong, so that they can enjoy equal rights with others. With these they have gained control of the most powerful countries and they, this tiny community, have become a world power.” He also said that “the Europeans killed 6 million Jews out of 12 million, but today the Jews rule the world by proxy. They get others to fight and die for them.”[35][36]

The speech was very well received by the delegates, including many high ranking politicians, who responded with standing ovations".[37][38][39] International, non-Muslim reactions, however, were appalled. "We view [the remarks] with contempt and derision," said a U.S. State Department spokesman. The foreign minister of Italy, who was the chairman of the European Union, called the incident "gravely offensive." Malaysian officials later clarified that Mahathir had been trying to say that despite having been a marginal and persecuted community the Jews have survived—by use of brains, not brawn. The former prime minister said this in relation to the decline of Muslim knowledge in the 20th Century.[38]

Terrorism

In 1999 OIC adopted the OIC Convention on Combating International Terrorism.[40] Human Rights Watch has noted that the definition of terrorism in article 1 describes “any act or threat of violence carried out with the aim of, among other things, imperiling people’s honour, occupying or seizing public or private property, or threatening the stability, territorial integrity, political unity or sovereignty of a state.” HRW views this as vague and ill defined, and includes much that is outside the generally accepted understandings of the concept of terrorism. In HRW's view, it labels, or could easily be used to label, as terrorist actions, acts of peaceful expression, association, and assembly.[41]

Legal scholar Ben Saul of University of Sydney argues that the definition is subjective and ambiguous and concludes that there is “serious danger of the abusive use of terrorist prosecutions against political opponents” and others.[42]

Furthermore, HRW is concerned by OIC’s apparent unwillingness to recognise as terrorism acts that serve causes endorsed by their member states. Article 2 reads: “Peoples’ struggle including armed struggle against foreign occupation, aggression, colonialism, and hegemony, aimed at liberation and self-determination.” HRW has suggested to OIC that they embrace “longstanding and universally recognised international human rights standards”[41]—a request that has as yet not led to any results.

Contradictions between OIC's and other U.N. member’s understanding of terrorism has stymied efforts at the U.N. to produce a comprehensive convention on international terrorism.[43]

On a meeting in Malaysia in April 2002, delegates discussed terrorism but failed to reach a definition of it. They rejected, however, any description of the Palestinian fight with Israel with terrorism. Their declaration was explicit: "We reject any attempt to link terrorism to the struggle of the Palestinian people in the exercise of their inalienable right to establish their independent state with Al-Quds Al-Shrif (Jerusalem) as its capital." In fact, at the outset of the meeting, the OIC countries signed a statement praising the Palestinians and their "blessed intifada." The word terrorism was restricted to describe Israel, whom they condemned for "state terrorism" in their war with the Palestinian people.[44]

At the 34th Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers (ICFM), an OIC section, in May 2007, the foreign ministers termed Islamophobia the worst form of terrorism.[45]

Dispute with Thailand

Thailand has responded to OIC criticism of human rights abuses in the Muslim majority provinces of Pattani, Yala, and Narathiwat in the south of the country. In a statement issued on 18 October 2005 secretary-general Ihsanoglu vocalised concern over the continuing conflict in the south that "claimed the lives of innocent people and forced the migration of local people out of their places".[46] He also stressed that the Thai government's security approach to the crisis would aggravate the situation and lead to continued violence.

On 18–19 April 2009, The exile Patani leader Abu Yasir Fikri (see PULO) was invited to the OIC to speak out about the conflict and present a solution to end the violence between the Thai government and the ethnically Malay Muslims living in the socioeconomically neglected south, that has been struggling against Thai assimilation policy and for self governance since it became annexed by Thailand in 1902. Abu Yasir Fikri presented a six-point solution at the conference in Jiddah that included getting the same basic rights as other groups when it came to right of language, religion, and culture. In the solution Abu Yasir Fikri also suggested that Thailand give up its discriminatory policies against the Patani people and allow Patani to at least be allowed the same self-governing rights as other regions in Thailand already have, citing that this does not go against the Thai constitution since it has been done in other parts of Thailand and that it is only a matter of political will.[47] He also criticised the Thai government’s escalation of violence by arming and creating Buddhist militia groups and questioned their intentions. He added Thai policies of not investigating corruption, murder, and human rights violations perpetrated by Bangkok-led administration and military personnel against the Malay Muslim population was an obstacle for achieving peace and healing the deep wounds of being treated as third-class citizens.[47][48]

Thailand responded to this criticism over its policies. The Thai foreign minister, Kantathi Suphamongkhon, said: “We have made it clear to the OIC several times that the violence in the deep South is not caused by religious conflict and the government grants protection to all of our citizens no matter what religion they embrace.” The Foreign Ministry issued a statement dismissing the OIC’s criticism and accusing it of disseminating misperceptions and misinformation about the situation in the southern provinces. “If the OIC secretariat really wants to promote the cause of peace and harmony in the three southern provinces of Thailand, the responsibility falls on the OIC secretariat to strongly condemn the militants, who are perpetrating these acts of violence against both Thai Muslims and Thai Buddhists.”[46][49][50]

HRW"[51] and Amnesty International[48] have echoed the same concerns as OIC, rebuffing Thailand's attempts to dismiss the issue.

Dispute with India

India has also hit out at the OIC for supporting UN demands for a plebiscite in Kashmir.The UN stated that it was “concerned” about the “violent protests” in Kashmir and the reaction from the Indian state and called for restraint from both sides.[52]

Although it contains the third largest number of Muslims in the world, India has been blocked by Pakistan from joining the OIC.[53][54][55]

Structure and organisation

The OIC system consists of:

Islamic summit

The largest meeting, attended by the kings and the heads of state and government of the member states, convenes every three years.[clarification needed]

Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers

It meets once a year to examine a progress report on the implementation of its decisions taken within the framework of the policy defined by the Islamic Summit.

Permanent Secretariat

It is the executive organ of the Organisation, entrusted with the implementation of the decisions of the two preceding bodies, and is located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The current secretary general of this international organisation is Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu, from Turkey, since January 1, 2005.

Standing committees

  • Standing Committee on Information and Cultural Affairs (COMIAC).
  • Standing Committee on Economic and Commercial Cooperation (COMCEC).
  • Standing Committee on Scientific and Technological Cooperation (COMSTECH).
  • Islamic Committee for Economic, Cultural and Social Affairs.
  • Permanent Finance Committee.
  • Financial Control Organ.

Subsidiary organizations

Specialised institutions

Affiliated institutions

Secretary General of the OIC

Secretaries-General of the Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation[56]
No. Name Country of origin Took office Left office
1 Tunku Abdul Rahman  Malaysia 1971 1973
2 Hassan Al-Touhami  Egypt 1974 1975
3 Amadou Karim Gaye  Senegal 1975 1979
4 Habib Chatty  Tunisia 1979 1984
5 Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada  Pakistan 1985 1988
6 Hamid Algabid  Niger 1989 1996
7 Azeddine Laraki  Morocco 1997 2000
8 Abdelouahed Belkeziz  Morocco 2001 2004
9 Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu  Turkey 2005 Incumbent

Member states

The OIC has 57 member states.

Past Islamic Summit Conferences

Number Date Country Place
1st September 22–25, 1969  Morocco Rabat
2nd February 22–24, 1974  Pakistan Lahore
3rd January 25–29, 1981  Saudi Arabia Makkah Al Mukarramah and Taif
4th January 16–19, 1984  Morocco Casablanca
5th January 26–29, 1987  Kuwait Kuwait City
6th December 9–11, 1991  Senegal Dakar
7th December 13–15, 1994  Morocco Casablanca
1st Extraordinary March 23, 1997  Pakistan Islamabad
8th December 9–11, 1997  Iran Tehran
9th November 12–13, 2000  Qatar Doha
2nd Extraordinary March 5, 2003  Qatar Doha
10th October 16–17, 2003  Malaysia Putrajaya
3rd Extraordinary December 7–8, 2005  Saudi Arabia Makkah Al Mukarramah
11th March 13–14, 2008  Senegal Dakar

See also

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation

  • Economy
GDP, GDP/capita, Exports, Imports
  • Education

Notes

  1. ^ Upon the groups's renaming, some sources provided the English-language translation "Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation", but the OIC's official website and the website of the OIC Mission to the UN have since indicated the preferred English translation omits the "the".

References

  1. ^ Organisation of the Islamic Conference, Permanent Observer Mission to the United Nations. "About OIC". http://www.oicun.org/2/23/. Retrieved 2011-05-30. 
  2. ^ OIC changes name, emblem Pakistan Observer
  3. ^ a b http://www.oic-oci.org/page_detail.asp?p_id=52
  4. ^ a b "University of Minnesota Human Rights Library". .umn.edu. http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/cairodeclaration.html. Retrieved 2011-03-25. 
  5. ^ "BMB Group to partner with International Zakat Organization to establish and co-manage a Global Zakat & Charity Fund " FiNETIK – Asia and Latin America – Market News Network". Blog.finetik.com. 2009-02-24. http://blog.finetik.com/2009/02/24/bmb-group-to-partner-with-international-zakat-organization-to-establish-and-co-manage-a-global-zakat-charity-fund/. Retrieved 2011-03-25. 
  6. ^ The State of Palestine succeeded the seat of the Palestine Liberation Organization following the 1988 Palestinian Declaration of Independence.
  7. ^ OIC member states
  8. ^ OIC observers
  9. ^ The Turkish Cypriot community of Cyprus became an OIC “observer community” in 1979 under the name “Turkish Muslim community of Cyprus”. The 31st OIC Meeting of Foreign Ministers which met in Istanbul in June 2004, decided that the Turkish Cypriot Community (represented by the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus) will participate in the OIC meetings under the name envisaged in the Annan Plan for Cyprus (i.e. “Turkish Cypriot constituent state of the United Cyprus Republic” or Turkish Cypriot State in short). Cyprus and the Organization of Islamic Conferences
  10. ^ "Democracy Index 2010". Economist Intelligence Unit. http://graphics.eiu.com/PDF/Democracy_Index_2010_web.pdf. Retrieved 26 May 2011. 
  11. ^ "Freedom in the World 2011: Table of Independent Countries". Freedom House. http://www.freedomhouse.org/images/File/fiw/Tables%2C%20Graphs%2C%20etc%2C%20FIW%202011_Revised%201_11_11.pdf. Retrieved 2011-09-16. 
  12. ^ "Freedom of the Press Worldwide in 2011". Reporters Without Borders. http://en.rsf.org/IMG/pdf/carte-2011.pdf. Retrieved 2011-09-16. 
  13. ^ "Press Freedom Index 2010". Reporters Without Borders. http://en.rsf.org/spip.php?page=classement&id_rubrique=1001. Retrieved 2011-09-16. 
  14. ^ "July-December, 2010 International Religious Freedom Report: Challenges to Religious Freedom and Executive Summary Of Individual Country Reports". U.S. Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/172440.pdf. Retrieved 2011-09-16. 
  15. ^ http://www.science-metrix.com/30years-Paper.pdf
  16. ^ "EIAST". AMEinfo.com. http://www.ameinfo.com/news/Company_News/E/EIAST/. Retrieved 2011-03-25. 
  17. ^ "Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Foundation - His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum". Mbrfoundation.ae. http://www.mbrfoundation.ae/English/Pages/sheikhmohammedbio.aspx. Retrieved 2011-03-25. 
  18. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Imf.org. 2006-09-14. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=103&pr.y=12&sy=2008&ey=2015&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=186&s=NGDP_R%2CNGDP_RPCH%2CNGDP%2CNGDPD%2CNGDP_D%2CNGDPRPC%2CNGDPPC%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CPPPSH%2CPPPEX%2CPCPI%2CPCPIPCH%2CPCPIE%2CPCPIEPCH%2CLUR%2CLP%2CGGR%2CGGR_NGDP%2CGGX%2CGGX_NGDP%2CGGXCNL%2CGGXCNL_NGDP%2CGGXONLB%2CGGXONLB_NGDP%2CGGXWDN%2CGGXWDN_NGDP%2CGGXWDG%2CGGXWDG_NGDP%2CNGDP_FY%2CBCA%2CBCA_NGDPD&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 2011-03-25. 
  19. ^ "وب سایتهای ایرنا - Irna". http://www2.irna.ir/en/news/view/menu-236/0702153662195331.htm. Retrieved 2011-03-25. 
  20. ^ The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,,-6740455,00.html. [dead link]
  21. ^ "Snopes.com". Snopes.com. http://www.snopes.com/inboxer/outrage/unvote.asp. Retrieved 2011-03-25. 
  22. ^ "Muslims condemn Dutch lawmaker's film - CNN.com". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/europe/03/28/islam.film/index.html. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  23. ^ [1][dead link]
  24. ^ "Malaysian National News Agency". Bernama. http://www.bernama.com.my/bernama/v3/news.php?id=247167. Retrieved 2011-03-25. 
  25. ^ "Malaysian National News Agency". Bernama. http://www.bernama.com.my/bernama/v3/news.php?id=247227. Retrieved 2011-03-25. 
  26. ^ http://www.indianmuslims.info/comment/reply/17638
  27. ^ [2][dead link]
  28. ^ ’’Human Rights Brief’’ United Nations Update Accessed 10 March 2009.
  29. ^ Fatema Mernissi: Islam and Democracy, Cambridge 2002, Perseus Books, p. 67.
  30. ^ Ann Mayer, “An Assessment of Human Rights Schemes,” in Islam and Human Rights, p. 175. Westview 1999, Westview Press.
  31. ^ Robert Carle: "Revealing and Concealing: Islamist Discourse on Human Rights,” Human rights review, vol:6, No 3 April–June 2005.
  32. ^ How to Put U.N. Rights Council Back on Track Human Rights Watch, November 2, 2006.
  33. ^ The UN Human Rights Council Human Rights Watch Testimony Delivered to the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, July 25, 2007.
  34. ^ Multicultural odysseys: navigating ... - Google Books. Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=yySlh_dSElQC&pg=PA308. Retrieved 2011-03-25. 
  35. ^ Mahathir attack on Jews condemned CNN October 17, 2003.
  36. ^ Mahathir airs virulent anti-Semitism The Taipei Times, Friday, Oct 17, 2003
  37. ^ Condemned by West, Malaysia apologises for Judaism attack Jerusalem Post October 17, 2003.
  38. ^ a b Muslim reaction to Mahathir speech BBC 18 October 2003.
  39. ^ Islamic Anti-Semitism New York Times 18 October 2003.
  40. ^ WEBB - building the web. www.webb.az. "OIC Convention on Combating International Terrorism". Oicun.org. http://www.oicun.org/articles/55/1/OIC-Convention-on-Combating-International-Terrorism/1.html. Retrieved 2011-03-25. 
  41. ^ a b Organisation of the Islamic Conference: Improve and Strengthen the 1999 OIC Convention on Combating International Terrorism Human Rights Watch 11 March 2008.
  42. ^ Ben Saul: Branding Enemies: Regional Legal Responses to Terrorism in Asia ‘’Asia-Pacific Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, 2008’’ Sydney Law School Legal Studies Research Paper No. 08/127, October 2008.
  43. ^ Patrick Goodenough: UN Anti-Terror Effort Bogged Down Over Terrorism Definition CNSNew.com, September 2, 2008.
  44. ^ The OIC's blind eye to terror The Japan Times 9 April 2002.
  45. ^ ‘Islamophobia Worst Form of Terrorism’ Arab News May 17, 2007.
  46. ^ a b "Ihsanoglu urges OIC Member States to accord greater attention to Muslim minority issues". Patanipost.com. http://www.patanipost.com/090418OIC.html. Retrieved 2011-03-25. 
  47. ^ a b "Welcome to Patani Post! PULO President invited to speak at OIC meeting 18–19 April 2009". Patanipost.com. http://www.patanipost.com/OIC090419.html. Retrieved 2011-03-25. 
  48. ^ a b "Thailand | Amnesty International". Amnesty.org. http://www.amnesty.org/en/region/thailand. Retrieved 2011-03-25. 
  49. ^ http://www.islamonline.net/English/News/2005-10/20/article08.shtml
  50. ^ "Welcome to Patani Post! OIC Resolution - Kampala". Patanipost.com. http://www.patanipost.com/OicResolution.html. Retrieved 2011-03-25. 
  51. ^ "Thailand | Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. http://www.hrw.org/asia/thailand. Retrieved 2011-03-25. 
  52. ^ OHCHR calls for restraint in Indian-administered Kashmir
  53. ^ Eight Countries Seek OIC Membership
  54. ^ ‘Pak will match India weapons’
  55. ^ Arab News
  56. ^ Former Secretaries-General–OIC.

Further reading

  • Ankerl, Guy Coexisting Contemporary Civilisations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva, INUPress, 2000, ISBN 2-88155-004-5
  • Al-Huda, Qamar. "Organisation of the Islamic Conference." Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. Edited by Martin, Richard C. Macmillan Reference, 2004. vol. 1 p. 394. 20 April 2008

External links


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