- Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
FlagMember StatesObserver StatesBlocked States Administrative center Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Official languages Arabic, English, French Membership 57 member states Leaders - Secretary-General Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu Establishment - OIC Charter signed September 25, 1969 Population - estimate 1.6 billion (2011) GDP (nominal) estimate - Total $4.8135 billion (2010) Website
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; Arabic: منظمة التعاون الاسلامي; French: Organisation de la Coopération Islamique (OCI))[a 1] is an international organisation consisting of 57 member states. The organisation attempts to be the collective voice of the Muslim world (Ummah) and attempts to safeguard the interests and ensure the progress and well-being of Muslims.
The OIC has a permanent delegation to the United Nations, and considers itself the largest international organisation outside of the United Nations. The official languages of the OIC are Arabic, English, and French. It changed its name from the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (Arabic: منظمة المؤتمر الإسلامي; French: Organisation de la Conférence Islamique) on 28 June 2011.
- 1 History and goals
- 2 Members
- 3 Positions
- 4 Structure and organisation
- 5 Secretary General of the OIC
- 6 Member states
- 7 Past Islamic Summit Conferences
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
History and goals
Since the 19th century, many Muslims had aspired to ummah to serve their common political, economic, and social interests. Despite the presence of secularist, nationalist, and socialist ideologies, in modern Muslim states, they have cooperated together to form the Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation. The formation of the OIC happened shortly after the 1967 Arab-Israeli War. Leaders of Muslim nations met in Rabat to establish the OIC on September 25, 1969.
According to its charter, the OIC aims to preserve Islamic social and economic values; promote solidarity amongst member states; increase cooperation in social, economic, cultural, scientific, and political areas; uphold international peace and security; and advance education, particularly in the fields of science and technology.
The flag of the OIC (shown above) has an overall green background (symbolic of Islam). In the centre, there is an upward-facing red crescent enveloped in a white disc. On the disc the words "Allahu Akbar" (Arabic for "The Almighty God") are written in Arabic calligraphy.
On August 5, 1990, 45 foreign ministers of the OIC adopted the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam to serve as a guidance for the member states in the matters of human rights in as much as they are compatible with the Sharia, or Quranic Law.
On 24 February 2009, the International Zakat Organization in cooperation with the Organization of the Islamic Conferences announced the selection of the BMB Group to head up the management of the Global Zakat and Charity Fund, with its CEO Rayo Withanage becoming the co-chairman of the zakat fund. The fund is expected to contain 2 billion ringgits in 2010, about US$650 million.
The Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation has 57 members, 56 of which are classed by the United Nations as member states. Some, especially in West Africa, are - though with large Muslim populations - not necessarily Muslim majority countries. A few countries with significant Muslim populations, such as Russia and Thailand, sit as Observer States, while others, such as India and Ethiopia, are not members.
Member State Joined Notes Afghanistan 1969 Suspended 1980 - March 1989 Algeria 1969 Chad 1969 Egypt 1969 Suspended May 1979 - March 1984 Guinea 1969 Indonesia 1969 Iran 1969 Jordan 1969 Kuwait 1969 Lebanon 1969 Libya 1969 Malaysia 1969 Mali 1969 Mauritania 1969 Morocco 1969 Niger 1969 Pakistan 1969 Blocking India from membership State of Palestine 1969 Saudi Arabia 1969 Senegal 1969 Sudan 1969 Somalia 1969 Tunisia 1969 Turkey 1969 Yemen 1969 From 1990 as Republic of Yemen united with People's Democratic Republic of Yemen Bahrain 1970 Oman 1970 Qatar 1970 Syria 1970 United Arab Emirates 1970 Sierra Leone 1972 Bangladesh 1974 Gabon 1974 Gambia 1974 Guinea-Bissau 1974 Uganda 1974 Burkina Faso 1975 Cameroon 1975 Comoros 1976 Iraq 1976 Maldives 1976 Djibouti 1978 Benin 1982 Brunei 1984 Nigeria 1986 Azerbaijan 1991 Albania 1992 Kyrgyzstan 1992 Tajikistan 1992 Turkmenistan 1992 Mozambique 1994 Kazakhstan 1995 Uzbekistan 1995 Suriname 1996 Togo 1997 Guyana 1998 Côte d'Ivoire 2001 Suspended or Withdrawn Zanzibar 1993 Withdrew August 1993 Observer States Bosnia and Herzegovina 1994 Central African Republic 1997 North Cyprus as 'Turkish Cypriot State' 1979 Designation changed in 2004 Thailand 1998 Russia 2005 Observer Muslim Organisations and Communities Moro National Liberation Front 1977 Blocking membership of the Philippines Observer Islamic institutions Parliamentary Union of the OIC Member States 2000 Islamic Conference Youth Forum for Dialogue and Cooperation 2005 Observer International Organisations League of Arab States 1975 United Nations 1976 Non-Aligned Movement 1977 Organisation of African Unity 1977 Economic Cooperation Organisation 1995
The collective population of OIC member states is over 1.4 billion as 2008.
In the 2010 Democracy Index published by the Economist Intelligence Unit, no OIC countries were rated as a "Full Democracy" under its guidelines, and only 3 of the 57 members were rated as a "Flawed Democracy." The rest were rated either an "Authoritarian Regime" or a "Hybrid Regime."
Reporters Without Borders in its 2010 Press Freedom Index rated Mali and Suriname among the OIC members as having a Satisfactory Situation. Other members had ratings ranging from Noticeable Problems to Very Serious Situation.
The US Department of State 2010 International Religious Freedom Report cited OIC members Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Uzbekistan as being Countries of Particular Concern, where religious freedom is severely violated. It also cited OIC members Afghanistan, Egypt, Iraq, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan as "countries that face challenges in protecting religious freedom".
Literacy and scholarship
OIC members on average are countries with lower literacy rates. Though some members such as the former CIS states, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan have over 99% literacy, literacy rates are as low as 54% in Pakistan and Bangladesh and under 30% in Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso, etc. The bottom 5 countries with the lowest literacy rates in the world are all OIC members.
Also, while some Islamic countries like the Islamic Republic of Iran exhibited a high scientific publication growth rate in 2009-10, this is still only a fraction of scientific papers published by any OECD nation. Some OIC countries have tried to kick-start scientific research. Saudi Arabia has established KAUST and UAE has invested in Zayed University, United Arab Emirates University, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, etc. Dubai's Prime Minister and UAE Vice-President, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, has also endowed a foundation with $10 billion for invigorating Arab scientific research. However, these investments are yet to yield any significant results.
The OIC members have a combined GDP (at PPP) of USD 10,140,000,000,000.[clarification needed] Turkey had the highest GDP in 2010 among OIC members at $729 billion at nominal exchange rates. The richest country on the basis of GDP per capita is Qatar at USD 103,204 per capita.
President George W. Bush announced on June 27, 2007, that the United States would establish an envoy to the OIC. Bush said of the envoy, "Our special envoy will listen to and learn from representatives from Muslim states, and will share with them America's views and values." Sada Cumber became the U.S. representative on March 3, 2008. Individual organisation members vote against the United States on over 86 percent of United Nations resolutions.
The Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation on March 28, 2008, added its voice to the growing criticism of the film 'Fitna' by Dutch lawmaker Geert Wilders, which features disturbing images of violent acts juxtaposed with verses from the Quran.
Ninth meeting of PUOICM
The ninth meeting of the Council of PUOICM was held on 15 and 16 February 2007 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The speaker of Malaysia's House of Representatives, Ramli bin Ngah Talib, delivered a speech at the beginning of the inaugural ceremony. OIC secretary-general Prof Dr Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu said prior to the meeting that one main agenda item was stopping Israel from continuing its excavation at the Western Wall near the Al-Aqsa Mosque, Islam's third holiest shrine. The OIC also discussed how it might send peacekeeping troops to Muslim states, as well as the possibility of a change in the name of the body and its charter. Additionally, return of the sovereignty right to the Iraqi people along with withdrawal of foreign troops from Iraq was another one of the main issues on the agenda.
Pakistani Foreign Minister Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri told reporters on 14 February 2007 that the secretary general of OIC and foreign ministers of seven "like-minded Muslim countries" would meet in Islamabad on 25 February 2007 following meetings of President Musharraf with heads of key Muslim countries to discuss "a new initiative" for the resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Kasuri said this would be a meeting of foreign ministers of key Muslim countries to discuss and prepare for a summit in Makkah Al Mukarramah to seek the resolution of the Arab-Israeli conflict.
OIC created the Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam. While proponents claim it is not an alternative to the UDHR, but rather complementary, Article 24 states, "All the rights and freedoms stipulated in this Declaration are subject to the Islamic Shari'ah." and Article 25 follows that with "The Islamic Shari'ah is the only source of reference for the explanation or clarification of any of the articles of this Declaration." Attempts to have it adopted by the United Nations Human Rights Council have met increasing criticism, because of its contradiction of the UDHR, including from liberal Muslim groups. Critics of the CDHR state bluntly that it is “manipulation and hypocrisy,” “designed to dilute, if not altogether eliminate, civil and political rights protected by international law” and attempts to “circumvent these principles [of freedom and equality].”
Human Rights Watch says that OIC has “fought doggedly” and successfully within the United Nations Human Rights Council to shield states from criticism, except when it comes to criticism of Israel. For example, when independent experts reported violations of human rights in the 2006 Lebanon War, “state after state from the OIC took the floor to denounce the experts for daring to look beyond Israeli violations to discuss Hezbollah’s as well.” OIC demands that the council “should work cooperatively with abusive governments rather than condemn them.” HRW responds that this works only with those who are willing to cooperate; others exploit the passivity.
The OIC has been criticised for diverting its activities solely on Muslim minorities within majority non-Muslim countries but putting a taboo on the plight, the treatment of ethnic minorities within Muslim-majority countries, such as the oppression of the Kurds in Syria, the Ahwaz in Iran, the Hazars in Afghanistan, the Baluchis in Pakistan, the 'Al-Akhdam' in Yemen, or the Berbers in Algeria.
The OIC attracted attention at the opening session of the meeting in Putrajaya, Malaysia, on 16 October 2003, where Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad of Malaysia in his speech argued that the Jews control the world: "They invented socialism, communism, human rights, and democracy, so that persecuting them would appear to be wrong, so that they can enjoy equal rights with others. With these they have gained control of the most powerful countries and they, this tiny community, have become a world power.” He also said that “the Europeans killed 6 million Jews out of 12 million, but today the Jews rule the world by proxy. They get others to fight and die for them.”
The speech was very well received by the delegates, including many high ranking politicians, who responded with standing ovations". International, non-Muslim reactions, however, were appalled. "We view [the remarks] with contempt and derision," said a U.S. State Department spokesman. The foreign minister of Italy, who was the chairman of the European Union, called the incident "gravely offensive." Malaysian officials later clarified that Mahathir had been trying to say that despite having been a marginal and persecuted community the Jews have survived—by use of brains, not brawn. The former prime minister said this in relation to the decline of Muslim knowledge in the 20th Century.
In 1999 OIC adopted the OIC Convention on Combating International Terrorism. Human Rights Watch has noted that the definition of terrorism in article 1 describes “any act or threat of violence carried out with the aim of, among other things, imperiling people’s honour, occupying or seizing public or private property, or threatening the stability, territorial integrity, political unity or sovereignty of a state.” HRW views this as vague and ill defined, and includes much that is outside the generally accepted understandings of the concept of terrorism. In HRW's view, it labels, or could easily be used to label, as terrorist actions, acts of peaceful expression, association, and assembly.
Legal scholar Ben Saul of University of Sydney argues that the definition is subjective and ambiguous and concludes that there is “serious danger of the abusive use of terrorist prosecutions against political opponents” and others.
Furthermore, HRW is concerned by OIC’s apparent unwillingness to recognise as terrorism acts that serve causes endorsed by their member states. Article 2 reads: “Peoples’ struggle including armed struggle against foreign occupation, aggression, colonialism, and hegemony, aimed at liberation and self-determination.” HRW has suggested to OIC that they embrace “longstanding and universally recognised international human rights standards”—a request that has as yet not led to any results.
Contradictions between OIC's and other U.N. member’s understanding of terrorism has stymied efforts at the U.N. to produce a comprehensive convention on international terrorism.
On a meeting in Malaysia in April 2002, delegates discussed terrorism but failed to reach a definition of it. They rejected, however, any description of the Palestinian fight with Israel with terrorism. Their declaration was explicit: "We reject any attempt to link terrorism to the struggle of the Palestinian people in the exercise of their inalienable right to establish their independent state with Al-Quds Al-Shrif (Jerusalem) as its capital." In fact, at the outset of the meeting, the OIC countries signed a statement praising the Palestinians and their "blessed intifada." The word terrorism was restricted to describe Israel, whom they condemned for "state terrorism" in their war with the Palestinian people.
Dispute with Thailand
Thailand has responded to OIC criticism of human rights abuses in the Muslim majority provinces of Pattani, Yala, and Narathiwat in the south of the country. In a statement issued on 18 October 2005 secretary-general Ihsanoglu vocalised concern over the continuing conflict in the south that "claimed the lives of innocent people and forced the migration of local people out of their places". He also stressed that the Thai government's security approach to the crisis would aggravate the situation and lead to continued violence.
On 18–19 April 2009, The exile Patani leader Abu Yasir Fikri (see PULO) was invited to the OIC to speak out about the conflict and present a solution to end the violence between the Thai government and the ethnically Malay Muslims living in the socioeconomically neglected south, that has been struggling against Thai assimilation policy and for self governance since it became annexed by Thailand in 1902. Abu Yasir Fikri presented a six-point solution at the conference in Jiddah that included getting the same basic rights as other groups when it came to right of language, religion, and culture. In the solution Abu Yasir Fikri also suggested that Thailand give up its discriminatory policies against the Patani people and allow Patani to at least be allowed the same self-governing rights as other regions in Thailand already have, citing that this does not go against the Thai constitution since it has been done in other parts of Thailand and that it is only a matter of political will. He also criticised the Thai government’s escalation of violence by arming and creating Buddhist militia groups and questioned their intentions. He added Thai policies of not investigating corruption, murder, and human rights violations perpetrated by Bangkok-led administration and military personnel against the Malay Muslim population was an obstacle for achieving peace and healing the deep wounds of being treated as third-class citizens.
Thailand responded to this criticism over its policies. The Thai foreign minister, Kantathi Suphamongkhon, said: “We have made it clear to the OIC several times that the violence in the deep South is not caused by religious conflict and the government grants protection to all of our citizens no matter what religion they embrace.” The Foreign Ministry issued a statement dismissing the OIC’s criticism and accusing it of disseminating misperceptions and misinformation about the situation in the southern provinces. “If the OIC secretariat really wants to promote the cause of peace and harmony in the three southern provinces of Thailand, the responsibility falls on the OIC secretariat to strongly condemn the militants, who are perpetrating these acts of violence against both Thai Muslims and Thai Buddhists.”
Dispute with India
India has also hit out at the OIC for supporting UN demands for a plebiscite in Kashmir.The UN stated that it was “concerned” about the “violent protests” in Kashmir and the reaction from the Indian state and called for restraint from both sides.
Structure and organisation
The OIC system consists of:
The largest meeting, attended by the kings and the heads of state and government of the member states, convenes every three years.[clarification needed]
Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers
It meets once a year to examine a progress report on the implementation of its decisions taken within the framework of the policy defined by the Islamic Summit.
It is the executive organ of the Organisation, entrusted with the implementation of the decisions of the two preceding bodies, and is located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The current secretary general of this international organisation is Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu, from Turkey, since January 1, 2005.
- Standing Committee on Information and Cultural Affairs (COMIAC).
- Standing Committee on Economic and Commercial Cooperation (COMCEC).
- Standing Committee on Scientific and Technological Cooperation (COMSTECH).
- Islamic Committee for Economic, Cultural and Social Affairs.
- Permanent Finance Committee.
- Financial Control Organ.
- The Statistical, Economic and Social Research and Training Centre for Islamic Countries (SESRIC), located in Ankara, Turkey.
- The Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA), located in Istanbul, Turkey.
- The Islamic University of Technology, located in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
- The Islamic Centre for the Development of Trade, located in Casablanca, Morocco.
- The Islamic Fiqh Academy, located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
- The Executive Bureau of the Islamic Solidarity Fund and its Waqf, located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
- The Islamic University in Niger, located in Say, Niger.
- The Islamic University in Uganda, located in Mbale, Uganda.
- The Islamic social, Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (ISESCO), located in Rabat, Morocco.
- The Islamic States Broadcasting Organisation (ISBO) and the International Islamic News Agency (IINA), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
- Islamic Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ICCI), located in Karachi, Pakistan.
- World Islamic Economic Forum (WIEF), located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
- Organisation of Islamic Capitals and Cities (OICC), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
- Sports Federation of Islamic Solidarity Games, located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
- Islamic Committee of the International Crescent (ICIC), located in Benghazi, Libya.
- Islamic Shipowners Association (ISA), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
- World Federation of International Arab-Islamic Schools, located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
- International Association of Islamic Banks (IAIB), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
- Islamic Conference Youth Forum for Dialogue and Cooperation,(ICYF-DC)located in Istanbul, Turkey.
- General Council for Islamic Banks and Financial Institutions,(CIBAFI)located in Manama, Bahrain.
Secretary General of the OIC
Secretaries-General of the Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation No. Name Country of origin Took office Left office 1 Tunku Abdul Rahman Malaysia 1971 1973 2 Hassan Al-Touhami Egypt 1974 1975 3 Amadou Karim Gaye Senegal 1975 1979 4 Habib Chatty Tunisia 1979 1984 5 Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada Pakistan 1985 1988 6 Hamid Algabid Niger 1989 1996 7 Azeddine Laraki Morocco 1997 2000 8 Abdelouahed Belkeziz Morocco 2001 2004 9 Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu Turkey 2005 Incumbent
The OIC has 57 member states.
Past Islamic Summit Conferences
Number Date Country Place 1st September 22–25, 1969 Morocco Rabat 2nd February 22–24, 1974 Pakistan Lahore 3rd January 25–29, 1981 Saudi Arabia Makkah Al Mukarramah and Taif 4th January 16–19, 1984 Morocco Casablanca 5th January 26–29, 1987 Kuwait Kuwait City 6th December 9–11, 1991 Senegal Dakar 7th December 13–15, 1994 Morocco Casablanca 1st Extraordinary March 23, 1997 Pakistan Islamabad 8th December 9–11, 1997 Iran Tehran 9th November 12–13, 2000 Qatar Doha 2nd Extraordinary March 5, 2003 Qatar Doha 10th October 16–17, 2003 Malaysia Putrajaya 3rd Extraordinary December 7–8, 2005 Saudi Arabia Makkah Al Mukarramah 11th March 13–14, 2008 Senegal Dakar
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
- GDP, GDP/capita, Exports, Imports
- Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam
- Islamic University of Technology
- List of largest cities in Organisation of Islamic Cooperation member countries
- List of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation member states by population
- Rashad Hussain
- Pakistan-OIC relations
- ^ Organisation of the Islamic Conference, Permanent Observer Mission to the United Nations. "About OIC". http://www.oicun.org/2/23/. Retrieved 2011-05-30.
- ^ OIC changes name, emblem Pakistan Observer
- ^ a b http://www.oic-oci.org/page_detail.asp?p_id=52
- ^ a b "University of Minnesota Human Rights Library". .umn.edu. http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/cairodeclaration.html. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
- ^ "BMB Group to partner with International Zakat Organization to establish and co-manage a Global Zakat & Charity Fund " FiNETIK – Asia and Latin America – Market News Network". Blog.finetik.com. 2009-02-24. http://blog.finetik.com/2009/02/24/bmb-group-to-partner-with-international-zakat-organization-to-establish-and-co-manage-a-global-zakat-charity-fund/. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
- ^ The State of Palestine succeeded the seat of the Palestine Liberation Organization following the 1988 Palestinian Declaration of Independence.
- ^ OIC member states
- ^ OIC observers
- ^ The Turkish Cypriot community of Cyprus became an OIC “observer community” in 1979 under the name “Turkish Muslim community of Cyprus”. The 31st OIC Meeting of Foreign Ministers which met in Istanbul in June 2004, decided that the Turkish Cypriot Community (represented by the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus) will participate in the OIC meetings under the name envisaged in the Annan Plan for Cyprus (i.e. “Turkish Cypriot constituent state of the United Cyprus Republic” or Turkish Cypriot State in short). Cyprus and the Organization of Islamic Conferences
- ^ "Democracy Index 2010". Economist Intelligence Unit. http://graphics.eiu.com/PDF/Democracy_Index_2010_web.pdf. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- ^ "Freedom in the World 2011: Table of Independent Countries". Freedom House. http://www.freedomhouse.org/images/File/fiw/Tables%2C%20Graphs%2C%20etc%2C%20FIW%202011_Revised%201_11_11.pdf. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- ^ "Freedom of the Press Worldwide in 2011". Reporters Without Borders. http://en.rsf.org/IMG/pdf/carte-2011.pdf. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- ^ "Press Freedom Index 2010". Reporters Without Borders. http://en.rsf.org/spip.php?page=classement&id_rubrique=1001. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- ^ "July-December, 2010 International Religious Freedom Report: Challenges to Religious Freedom and Executive Summary Of Individual Country Reports". U.S. Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/172440.pdf. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- ^ http://www.science-metrix.com/30years-Paper.pdf
- ^ "EIAST". AMEinfo.com. http://www.ameinfo.com/news/Company_News/E/EIAST/. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
- ^ "Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Foundation - His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum". Mbrfoundation.ae. http://www.mbrfoundation.ae/English/Pages/sheikhmohammedbio.aspx. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
- ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Imf.org. 2006-09-14. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=103&pr.y=12&sy=2008&ey=2015&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=186&s=NGDP_R%2CNGDP_RPCH%2CNGDP%2CNGDPD%2CNGDP_D%2CNGDPRPC%2CNGDPPC%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CPPPSH%2CPPPEX%2CPCPI%2CPCPIPCH%2CPCPIE%2CPCPIEPCH%2CLUR%2CLP%2CGGR%2CGGR_NGDP%2CGGX%2CGGX_NGDP%2CGGXCNL%2CGGXCNL_NGDP%2CGGXONLB%2CGGXONLB_NGDP%2CGGXWDN%2CGGXWDN_NGDP%2CGGXWDG%2CGGXWDG_NGDP%2CNGDP_FY%2CBCA%2CBCA_NGDPD&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
- ^ "وب سایتهای ایرنا - Irna". http://www2.irna.ir/en/news/view/menu-236/0702153662195331.htm. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
- ^ The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,,-6740455,00.html. [dead link]
- ^ "Snopes.com". Snopes.com. http://www.snopes.com/inboxer/outrage/unvote.asp. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
- ^ "Muslims condemn Dutch lawmaker's film - CNN.com". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/europe/03/28/islam.film/index.html. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
- ^ [dead link]
- ^ "Malaysian National News Agency". Bernama. http://www.bernama.com.my/bernama/v3/news.php?id=247167. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
- ^ "Malaysian National News Agency". Bernama. http://www.bernama.com.my/bernama/v3/news.php?id=247227. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
- ^ http://www.indianmuslims.info/comment/reply/17638
- ^ [dead link]
- ^ ’’Human Rights Brief’’ United Nations Update Accessed 10 March 2009.
- ^ Fatema Mernissi: Islam and Democracy, Cambridge 2002, Perseus Books, p. 67.
- ^ Ann Mayer, “An Assessment of Human Rights Schemes,” in Islam and Human Rights, p. 175. Westview 1999, Westview Press.
- ^ Robert Carle: "Revealing and Concealing: Islamist Discourse on Human Rights,” Human rights review, vol:6, No 3 April–June 2005.
- ^ How to Put U.N. Rights Council Back on Track Human Rights Watch, November 2, 2006.
- ^ The UN Human Rights Council Human Rights Watch Testimony Delivered to the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, July 25, 2007.
- ^ Multicultural odysseys: navigating ... - Google Books. Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=yySlh_dSElQC&pg=PA308. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
- ^ Mahathir attack on Jews condemned CNN October 17, 2003.
- ^ Mahathir airs virulent anti-Semitism The Taipei Times, Friday, Oct 17, 2003
- ^ Condemned by West, Malaysia apologises for Judaism attack Jerusalem Post October 17, 2003.
- ^ a b Muslim reaction to Mahathir speech BBC 18 October 2003.
- ^ Islamic Anti-Semitism New York Times 18 October 2003.
- ^ WEBB - building the web. www.webb.az. "OIC Convention on Combating International Terrorism". Oicun.org. http://www.oicun.org/articles/55/1/OIC-Convention-on-Combating-International-Terrorism/1.html. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
- ^ a b Organisation of the Islamic Conference: Improve and Strengthen the 1999 OIC Convention on Combating International Terrorism Human Rights Watch 11 March 2008.
- ^ Ben Saul: Branding Enemies: Regional Legal Responses to Terrorism in Asia ‘’Asia-Pacific Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, 2008’’ Sydney Law School Legal Studies Research Paper No. 08/127, October 2008.
- ^ Patrick Goodenough: UN Anti-Terror Effort Bogged Down Over Terrorism Definition CNSNew.com, September 2, 2008.
- ^ The OIC's blind eye to terror The Japan Times 9 April 2002.
- ^ ‘Islamophobia Worst Form of Terrorism’ Arab News May 17, 2007.
- ^ a b "Ihsanoglu urges OIC Member States to accord greater attention to Muslim minority issues". Patanipost.com. http://www.patanipost.com/090418OIC.html. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
- ^ a b "Welcome to Patani Post! PULO President invited to speak at OIC meeting 18–19 April 2009". Patanipost.com. http://www.patanipost.com/OIC090419.html. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
- ^ a b "Thailand | Amnesty International". Amnesty.org. http://www.amnesty.org/en/region/thailand. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
- ^ http://www.islamonline.net/English/News/2005-10/20/article08.shtml
- ^ "Welcome to Patani Post! OIC Resolution - Kampala". Patanipost.com. http://www.patanipost.com/OicResolution.html. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
- ^ "Thailand | Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. http://www.hrw.org/asia/thailand. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
- ^ OHCHR calls for restraint in Indian-administered Kashmir
- ^ Eight Countries Seek OIC Membership
- ^ ‘Pak will match India weapons’
- ^ Arab News
- ^ Former Secretaries-General–OIC.
- Ankerl, Guy Coexisting Contemporary Civilisations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva, INUPress, 2000, ISBN 2-88155-004-5
- Al-Huda, Qamar. "Organisation of the Islamic Conference." Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. Edited by Martin, Richard C. Macmillan Reference, 2004. vol. 1 p. 394. 20 April 2008
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) MembersAfghanistan · Albania · Algeria · Azerbaijan · Bahrain · Bangladesh · Benin · Burkina Faso · Brunei · Cameroon · Chad · Comoros · Côte d'Ivoire · Djibouti · Egypt · Gabon · Gambia · Guinea · Guinea-Bissau · Guyana · Indonesia · Iran · Iraq · Jordan · Kuwait · Kazakhstan · Kyrgyzstan · Lebanon · Libya · Maldives · Malaysia · Mali · Mauritania · Morocco · Mozambique · Niger · Nigeria · Oman · Pakistan · Palestine · Qatar · Saudi Arabia · Senegal · Sierra Leone · Somalia · Sudan · Suriname · Syria · Tajikistan · Turkey · Tunisia · Togo · Turkmenistan · Uganda · Uzbekistan · United Arab Emirates · Yemen ObserversCountries and territoriesMuslim communitiesInternational organizations
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Pakistan and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation — Flag of Pakistan Logo of the Organisation of Islamic Coopera … Wikipedia
Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation — Map of the World showing the member states of the OIC. The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation has 57 member states. Member State Joined Notes … Wikipedia
Islamic University of Niger — Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Economy GDP, GDP/capita, Exports, Imports Education The Islamic University of Niger (officially the Oum Al Qura University of Niger) is an Islamic university based in Say, Niger. Contents … Wikipedia
Islamic University in Uganda — Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Economy GDP, GDP/capita, Exports, Imports Education Islamic University in Uganda (IUIU) Motto O Lord, Advance Me In Knowledge … Wikipedia
Islamic fundamentalism — Part of the Politics series on Islamism … Wikipedia
Organisation für Islamische Zusammenarbeit — منظمة التعاون الإسلامي Munaẓẓamat at Taʿāwun al islāmī Flagge der Organisation für Islamische Zusammenarbeit … Deutsch Wikipedia
Organisation of the Islamic Conference — Infobox Geopolitical organization name = Collapsible list title = Organization of the Islamic Conference ar. منظمة المؤتمر الإسلامي ar icon fr. Organization de la Conférence Islamique fr icon linking name = the Organization of the Islamic… … Wikipedia
Islamic Relief — Humanitäre Organisation in Deutschland e.V. (IRD) ist eine deutsche Nichtregierungsorganisation und wurde 1996 in Köln gegründet. Neben dem Hauptsitz in Köln gibt es noch weitere Niederlassungen in Berlin und Essen. Islamic Relief Humanitäre… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Islamic Dawa Party — حزب الدعوة الإسلامية Leader Nouri al Maliki … Wikipedia
Organisation non-gouvernementale — Pour les articles homonymes, voir ONG. Une organisation non gouvernementale ou ONG est une organisation d intérêt public qui ne relève ni de l État ni d une institution internationale. Les ONG n ont pas le statut de sujet de droit… … Wikipédia en Français