List of companies in the nuclear sector
Here is a list of all large companies which are active along the nuclear chain, from uranium mining, processing and enrichment, to the actual operating of nuclear power plant and waste processing.
Company name Country of origin Category Brief description of business Nucleoelectrica Argentina Argentina Electricity Nucleoelectrica Argentina SA (NASA) is Argentina's state-owned nuclear electricity company, headquartered in Buenos Aires. NASA operates 2 nuclear power plants in Argentina; Atucha I near Buenos Aires, and Embalse in the northwest of Argentina. A third plant, Atucha II is planned to become operational in 2010. By then, total electric potential will be 1,750 MWe. The Argentinian government also envisages a fourth reactor, to enter operation in 2015. Wild Horse Australia Mining WildHorse is an Australian based, international uranium company focused on the development of supplies to the United States and Europe. The company aims to have uranium production by 2010 from its projects in the United States and Central Eastern Europe. Besides, the company has a portfolio of development and exploration projects, amongst others in South America. WildHorse primarily identifies and selects projects suitable for in situ recovery (ISR) uranium mining.
Wildhorse owns and operates two uranium mining sites in the US (Wyoming): Bison Basin Project and Sweetwater Project; 4 sites in Hungary: Pécs Project, Bátászék Project, Dinneyeberki Project and Máriakéménd Project; One project coming up in Poland (Sudetes Mountains) and one uranium mining concession in Paraguay: Paraná Basin.
Electrabel Belgium Electricity Electrabel is a leading European energy company and number one on the Benelux market. It is part of GDF SUEZ, an international industrial and services group, that was formed with the merger of Gas de France and Suez, completed in July 2008.
For its generating activities Electrabel makes use of various technologies and different fuels. This diversity makes the generating capacity less vulnerable to market fluctuations. Electrabel now relies primarily on thermal power stations fuelled by natural gas, along with nuclear power stations. 38% of Electrabel's power generating capacity is nuclear (6,300 MW). Nuclear power generators are situated in Belgium and France. In 2009, 40 MW of nuclear capacity was added to the Tihange Nuclear Power Station plant in Belgium.
Eletrobras Brazil Electricity Eletrobras is a major Brazilian power utility, generating almost 40% of Brazil's total electric power. Eletrobras operates 30 hydroelectric, 51 thermoelectric and 2 nuclear plants, throughout the country. Total capacity of the Eletrobras facilities are 32,402 MW, of which 2,000 MW nuclear. Additional 1,350 MW in nuclear capacity is being developed (Plant Angra 3) to become operational in May 2015. Another 4 plants of 1,000 MW each are foreseen in the Northeast and Southeast to become operational between 2019 and 2025.
The Brazilian Federal government owns 53.9% of the common shares, and 15.5% of the preferred shares of Eletrobrás. Other large shareholders are the Brazilian Development Bank, local development funds and other governmental institutions.
Bulgarian Energy Holding Bulgaria Electricity In February 2008, the Bulgarian government decided to merge the activities of the country's dominant power utility NEK, its dominant gas company Bulgargaz, its largest coal mines Maritsa East, the country's largest thermal power plant Maritsa East Two, as well as its sole Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant into the new Bulgarian Energy Holding EAD (BEH EAD). It was incorporated on September 18, 2008 and is 100% state-owned, controlled by the Bulgarian Ministry of Economics and Energy.
The nuclear branch of BEH EAD (Kozloduy NPP) has a generation capacity of 3,760MW, spread over six reactors. Four of these reactors are currently closed for non-compliance with EU safety requirements. Bulgaria wants to replace 2,000MW of generating capacity at its Kozoloduy nuclear plant by 2014 in order to service a fast-growing economy and increase energy exports to the rest of south-east Europe.
Therefore, a new, €4 billion 2,000 MW nuclear power plant is planned at Belene. In January 2008 Atomstroyexport, a Russian company, gained the bid for 49% of the shares of Belene, and will provide two 1,000MW third-generation reactors for the Belene plant. On 3 September 2008, the development activities in Belene were officially opened. In December 2008, NEK and RWE established a joint-venture for the development of the Belene nuclear power project.
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Canada Construction Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is a nuclear technology and services company. AECL provides o.a. R&D support, construction management, design and engineering and waste management of CANDU reactors and products. AECL has offices in Canada, China, Argentina, Romania, South Korea and the United States. Activities are currently only undertaken in Canada and South Korea. AECL is 100% owned by the Government of Canada. In May 2009, the government - after an 18-months evaluation of the company's general and financial management by National Bank Finance - stated that it would be in the interest of Canada to restructure AECL and separate its commercial business activities from its research and technology arm. When and how this process will be initiated is yet unknown. Bruce Power Canada Electricity Bruce Power is Canada's first private nuclear power generator. It is a partnership among Cameco Corporation, TransCanada Corporation, BPC Generation Infrastructure Trust, a trust established by the Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System, the Power Workers’ Union and The Society of Energy Professionals. Bruce Power is located in Canada, approximately 250 kilometres northwest of Toronto. The generative capacity of Bruce Power consists of two stations, Bruce A and B, which each hold four CANDU reactors. Six of those are currently operational and combine to produce more than 4,700 MW. The company is in the process of refurbishing the remaining two units at Bruce A, which will provide another 1,500 MW. As of July 2009, Bruce Power has decided not to pursue the development of additional generators formerly planned as Bruce C. In November 2008, Bruce Power presented a feasibility study for nuclear power generation in Saskatchewan, Alberta in which it proposes the development of a 1,000MW nuclear power plant. Ontario Power Generation Canada Electricity Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is an Ontario-based electricity generation and sales company. OPG is 100% owned by the Province of Ontario and its generating assets include: 3 nuclear, 5 fossil, 65 hydroelectric and 2 wind generating stations. OPG also owns two other nuclear generating stations which are leased on a long-term basis to Bruce Power. OPG owns and operates 10 nuclear units at the Pickering and Darlington Nuclear Generating Stations, with a combined generating capacity of 6,600MW. This amounts to 31% of the company’s total generating capacity (21,729MW).
OPG also owns two other nuclear generating stations which are leased on a long-term basis to Bruce Power L.P. In June 2008, OPG was selected by the Ontario government to be the operator of two new nuclear units at its Darlington site. The new units will provide over 2,000MW capacity and are expected to go in service by 2018 and 2019.
China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group (CGNPC) China Electricity China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding (CGNPC) is the Chinese state-owned nuclear power company that forms the core enterprise of the China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group (CGNPG), which comprises more than twenty wholly owned or controlling subsidiaries.
CGNPG has currently 4,000 MW installed generating capacity (Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station and Ling Ao Nuclear Power Station - Phase I). Over 10,000 MW generating capacity is still under construction on four sites (LNPS Phase II, Liaoning Hongyanhe Phase I, Yangjiang Nuclear Power Station Phase I and Ningde Nuclear Power Station Phase I).
In addition, CGNPG also exercises equity ownership of around 1,000 MWe of installed generating capacity of conventional power facilities such as pump storage and thermal power stations, and are developing clean energy projects such as wind- and hydropower.
China plans to build as 32 nuclear plants by 2020, with total installed nuclear power capacity of 40,000 MW. Therefore it is effectively creating international partnerships, amongst others with Kazachstan and France. A key alliance is being forged with Kazatomprom, which swapped shares in a uranium mine for fuel processing and electricity generation assets owned by CGNPC and China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC). France's AREVA recently made a €8 billion deal to sell two nuclear reactors, and French energy provider EDF signed a deal for creating a joint venture to build two nuclear reactors.
China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) China Electricity China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) is a Chinese state-owned energy company, composed of over 100 subsidiary companies and institutes. CNNC is for 45% owner of China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding (CGNPC).
Current installed capacity owned by CNNC is more than 6,000 MW: Qinshan Nuclear Power Station (300 MW), Qinshan Nuclear Power Phase II Project (600 MW), Qinshan Phase III nuclear Power Project (owned by subsidiary TQNPC; 1,450 MWe) and Jiangsu Nuclear Power Corporation (50% owned by CNNC), consisting of four 1000 MW units.
Additional 13,300 MW capacity is planned for 3 projects: development of 6 nuclear power units of 1000 MW for the Zhejiang Sanmen Nuclear Power Project is approved, of which the first units will be put into operation in 2011; the Extension Project of Qinshan NPP Phase II (additional 1,300 MW); and development of the Yangjiang NPP Phase I (six units of 1,000 MW or larger).
China Nuclear Engineering & Construction Corp (CNECC) China Construction China Nuclear Engineering and Construction Corporation (CNECC) is the Chinese state-owned construction company of nuclear power utilities. CNECC is the exclusive builder of China's six operating nuclear power stations.
CNECC has an investment agreement with China Huaneng Group (one of China's largest electric power providers) and Tsinghua University, for the construction of a 200 MW high-temperature, gas- cooled reactor for nuclear power generation. Construction started in December 2006 and generator is expected to go into formal operation by the end of 2010. CNECC injects 35% of the capital.
Škoda Works Czech Republic Construction / Nuclear fuel cycle Škoda Praha is a Czech company that is active in design, quality inspection, equipment testing and operation of nuclear power plants.
Currently Škoda Praha is the main contractor for the technological part of the construction of the Temelin NPP (2,000 MW) in the Czech Republic, and for the Mochovce NPP (1,760 MW) in the Slovak Republic. Since the early 1970s, Skoda Praha has been involved with the construction of de Jaslovske Bohunice NPP in Slovakia (1,760 MW), Dukovany NPP in the Czech Republic (1,760 MW), Nord III and Nord IV NPP in Eastern Germany (1,760 MW) and Paks NPP in Hungary (1,760 MW).
Since January 2004, Czech energy company ČEZ is 100% owner of Skoda Praha; the Czech government owns 70% of ČEZ' shares.
Fortum Finland Electricity Fortum is a Finnish energy company, 51% owned by the Finnish state, with activities in the Nordic countries and Baltic States. Activities cover the generation, distribution and sale of electricity and heat as well as the operation and maintenance of power plants. Currently, 23% of Fortums generating capacity (3,089 MW) is nuclear; however, 37% of all electricity generated by the company came from the nuclear facilities in 2008. Fortum has concrete plans to increase its hydro and nuclear power generation capacity.
The environmental impact assessment (EIA) for a new 1,000–1,800 MW nuclear power unit to be built adjacent to the existing two units in Loviisa, Finland was rounded off in 2008. In February 2009, Fortum applied for a decision-in-principle to construct a new nuclear power plant unit in Loviisa, Finland. Through shareholdership in Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO), Fortum also participates for 25% (equivalent to 400 MW) in the country's fifth (new) nuclear unit on the existing site Olkiluoto, to become operational in 2012. In Sweden, Fortum participates in the upgrades and capacity addition of the Forsmark and Oskarshamn NPPs to be carried out between 2009 and 2014. Fortum's share in this project is approximately 290 MW.
Fennovoima Finland Electricity Fennovoima is a new Finnish energy company, founded in 2007. The company aims at constructing a new 1,500–2,500 MW nuclear power plant in Finland and produce reasonably priced electricity for its owners. Therefore, Fennovoima will submit its application for the Decision-in-Principle to the Finnish Government in January 2009. The operation of the plant is scheduled to start in 2018-2020. Fennovoima is 34% owned by E.ON Nordic, and 66% by Power Company SF, which is a Finnish power company in which regional and local energy companies have approximately a 55 % share, and industrial and trade enterprises approximately a 45%.
Fennovoima is currently undertaking studies (a.o. Environmental Impact Assessments) on various possible locations for the new plant: Kristinnankaupunki, Pyhäjoki, Ruotsinpyhtää and Simo. At the potential site locations the company has entered into land rental agreements and land purchase pre-agreements.
Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) Finland Electricity Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) is a Finnish electricity generating public company owning and operating two nuclear power plant units on the west coast of Finland. The company is owned by a consortium of power and industrial companies. The biggest shareholders are the Finnish companies Pohjolan Voima (about 58%) and Fortum (about 26%).
The company owns and operates two nuclear power plant units, Olkiluoto 1 and Olkiluoto 2 (OL1 and OL2) at Olkiluoto in Finland, with each a capacity of 860 MW.
A third € 3 billion nuclear power plant unit (OL3, 1,600 MW) is under construction at Olkiluoto and expected to become operational in 2012. In April 2008 TVO submitted its Decision-in-Principle (DiP) application for the construction of a fourth nuclear power plant unit at Olkiluoto (OL4) to the Finnish Government. In October 2008 the environmental impact assessment was completed; construction of the unit is scheduled for the decade starting in 2010 and power production by the end of the decade.
Besides its nuclear activities, TVO is 45% shareholder in the Meri-Pori coal-fired power plant (565 MW), owned and operated by Fortum Power and Heat Oy. And the company has a 1 MW wind power plant next to the Olkiluoto plants.
Areva France Electricity; Construction; Mining; Nuclear Fuel Cycle Areva is a French energy group with manufacturing facilities in 43 countries and a sales network in more than 100 countries. The company describes itself as “the world leader in nuclear power and the only company to cover all industrial activities in this field”. Areva offers its customers technological solutions for highly reliable nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution.
Within the Areva group, nuclear services operations are handled by Areva NP, in which Areva has a 66 percent and Siemens a 34 percent stake. Areva NP has designed 100 nuclear power plants over the world, most of all in Europe and also in Argentina (Atucha), Brazil (Angra), South-Africa (Koeberg), China (Daya Bay / Ling AO), South Korea (Uljin).
Advanced Nuclear Fuels (ANF), a wholly owned subsidiary of Areva NP GmbH, is based in Lingen in Germany, with facilities in Duisburg and Karlstein. The Duisburg facility produces cladding and structural tubes for PWR and BWR markets worldwide with an annual production capacity that recently exceeded 2,000 kilometers.
The Karlstein facility produces spacers, upper and lower tie plates for fuel assemblies and BWR water channels. The components manufactured are used for fuel fabrication at Areva NP's fuel manufacturing plants.
The Lingen facility produces UO2 powder, pellets, fuel rods and fuel assemblies for PWRs and BWRs.
Areva owns mining properties in Canada (McClean, McArthur River and Cigar Lake), Kazakhstan (Muyumkum - a joint project with Kazatomprom - and Torkuduk) and Niger (Cominar, Somair and Imouraren). In June 2007, Areva acquired UraMin, a South-African uranium mining company. UraMin has uranium mining permits in South Africa, Namibia and the Central African Republic. UraMin has also obtained exploration permits and activities in Mozambique, Chad, Nigeria, Senegal and Canada.
Bouyges Construction France Construction Bouygues Construction is part of the French family-owned Bouygues group, which has 5 main arms: Construction, Property Development, Road Works, Media and Telecoms. Buoygues Construction mainly builds ports, roads, bridges, tunnels, dams and other public constructions, but has also been involved in building, maintaining and dismantling nuclear power plants.
Bouygues Construction has been involved in the construction of several first-generation nuclear power plants in France (Bugey, Saint-Alban, Chooz). In 2005, the company won the € 100 million+ civil engineering contract for Finland’s Olkiluoto 1,600 MW NPP.
And in 2006, Bouygues Construction gained a € 300 million+ contract for the construction of Flamanville NPP (1,600 MW), due to finish in 2011.
In 2007 Bouygues Travaux Publics formed a 50/50 partnership with Vinci Construction Grands Projets for the creation of a new and safe confinement for the Chernobyl reactor. The € 432 million project is performed on behalf of the Ukrainian state-owned company ChNPP, and financed by an international fund administered by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). Work will start at the end of 2007 and will last 53 months.
In 2007, Bouygues also finished the including the Laser Mégajoule nuclear test centre near Bordeaux, and two radioactive waste storage tunnels for Andra, and acquired a 21% stake in Alstom, the French nuclear turbine maker.
In 2008, Bouygues has opened its eyes for the British market for nuclear energy after John Hutton, the UK secretary of state for business, announced an escalation in the government’s energy programme.
EdF France Electricity; Construction The EDF Group is a leading player in the European energy industry, present in all areas of the electricity value chain, from generation to trading, and increasingly active in the gas chain in Europe. Worldwide electricity generating capacity - from nuclear power, hydropower, conventional fossil-fired power and renewable energies - is 127.1 GW, of which 65.8 GW is nuclear (62%). Production in 2008 was 609.9 TWh. The EDF Group's industrial cooperation with one of the predecessor companies of EnBW (see business description 23) has intensified with the EDF Group taking equity in EnBW in 2000. The EDF Group now has a 45.01% stake in the company.
EDF operates 58 reactors spread over 19 different sites: Gravelines, Penly, Paluel, Chooz, Cattenom, Flamanville, Nogent-sur-Seine, St. Laurent-des-eaux, dampierre, Fessenheim, Chinon, Belleville, Chivaux, Bugey, Blayais, Saint-Alban, Cruas, Tricastin and Golfech. Additionally EDF has two decommissioned sites: Brennilis and Creys-Malville, and the company works on France's first EPR nuclear power plant (Flamanville 3), and is commissioned for the construction of the second EPR plant, to be developed from 2012.
In August 2008, EDF and CGNPC set up the 30%-70% joint-venture TNPC for the construction and operation of two NPPs in Taishan, Guangdong Province, to come on stream in 2013 and 2014. Earlier, EDF assisted CGNPC (see business description 9) with six nuclear power plants in Daya Bay and Ling Ao, China.
In December 2008, EDF acquired 49.99% of Constellation Energy's nuclear assets in the US, consisting of 5 reactors with installed capacity of 3,900 MW. The acquisition took the form of the set-up of a new joint-venture, Unistar Nuclear Energy (UNE), finalized in November 2009. UNE has the objective of developing 4 nuclear energy plants in the US.
In February 2009, the acquisition of British Energy Group (UK) was finalized. Its subsidiary British Energy Generation owns and operates amongst others eight nuclear power stations (Dungeness B, Hartlepool, Heysham I and II, Hinkley Point B, Hunterston B, Sizewell B and Torness), which have a combined capacity of 8,700 MW. The existing nuclear power stations have been running for 24 years (on average) and the newest - Sizewell B - was commissioned in 1995. All but one of its nuclear plants is slated for retirement in the next 15 years. EDF plans to build at least four additional nuclear units on their existing sites in the UK, of which the first should come on stream in 2017. In November 2009, UK's Centrica acquired 20% stakes in British Energy from EDF. Under the transaction, EDF and Centrica will also form a separate 80/20 joint venture to pursue the planned programm to build four new NPPs in the UK.
In August 2009, EDF and Enel announced the development of a 50/50 joint-venture for the construction and operation of at least four EPR nuclear power plants in Italy.
Advanced Nuclear Fuels Germany Nuclear fuel cycle See parent company Areva. Babcock Noell Germany Construction Babcock Noell GmbH (BNG) is active in the product areas of nuclear service, nuclear technology, magnet technology and environmental technology throughout the world, modernising and retrofitting nuclear power plants. Babcock Noell is part of the Babcock Borsig Service Group, which is a full subsidiary of Belfinger Berger Power Systems. BNG is involved in the construction of nuclear power plant Olkiluoto in Finland, but also with the generation of renewable energies as in the offshore wind park Roedsand in the Danish Baltic Sea.
BHR (formerly EHR, acquired by Bilfinger Berger in May 2006) is another branch of the Bilfinger Berger Group that has nuclear activities. The company is specialised in the equipment of thermal and nuclear power plants with high-pressure and high-temperature piping systems and components. BHR is currently involved with the construction of the NPP Atucha 2 in Argentina (owned by Nucleoelectrica Argentina), where it delivered the primary piping systems. BHR is also taking part in NPP Olkiluoto 3 in Finland. For the shutdown of the nuclear power station of Caorso (Piacenza) in Italy, BNG plans and supplies a PHADEC plant (PHosphoric Acid DEContamination) for the decontamination of radioactively contaminated steelwork components.
EnBW Energie + EnBW Kernkraft Germany Electricity See parent company Energie Baden-Württemberg (EnBW). E.ON Germany Electricity With just under € 87 billion in sales and roughly 93,500 employees, E.ON is one of the world's largest investor-owned power and gas companies. Headquartered in Düsseldorf, Germany, the company is vertically integrated and active in the entire value chain of the power and gas business.
E.ON owns a nuclear capacity of 11,141 MW, making up 15% of the company's total generating capacity (74 GW). In 2008, nuclear energy accounted for 24% of all electricity produced. Since summer 2008 nuclear energy has also been part of the company's technology initiative "Innovate.on". The objective is to advance the cutting-edge 1,250 MW boiling water reactor (BWR) in cooperation with AREVA (for AREVA, see business description 16).
E.ON (partly) operates eleven nuclear power stations in Germany, France and the Netherlands: Brokdorf (1,410 MW), Brunsbüttel (771 MW), Emsland (1,329 MW), Grafenrheinfeld NPP (1,275 MW), Grohnde NPP (1,360 MW), Gundremingen B and C (2x 1,284 MW), Isar 1 and 2 (878 MW and 1,400 MW), Krümmel (1,346 MW) and Unterwesen (1,345 MW). Würgassen and Stade are decommissioned plants.
E.ON Central Europe is studying whether to become involved in a project to build and operate a nuclear power station in Belene, Bulgaria. E.ON Nordic is upgrading its nuclear facilities to increase their generating capacity. E.ON Nordic is underlining its long-term ambition for growth in Finland by participating for 34% in Fennovoima, a nuclear development project of 1,500-2,500 MW. It is also striving to strengthen its market positions in Finland, Denmark, Norway, and possibly Sweden.
In January 2009, E.ON and RWE (see company description 25) announced the set-up of a 50-50 joint-venture for the development of at least 6GW nuclear generating capacity in the United Kingdom. In April 2009, this joint-venture - Horizon Nuclear Power - acquired land at Wylfa and Oldbury for their nuclear development project.
Energie Baden-Württemberg (EnBW) Germany Electricity Energie Baden-Württemberg AG (EnBW) with headquarters in Karlsruhe is the third-largest energy company in Germany. EnBW is divided in three business segments: Electricity, Gas and Energy and Environmental Services. EnBW is 45% owned by Electricité de France (EdF), 45% by Oberschwäbische Eletrizitätswerke (OEW), and five regional electricity cooperatives. Only 1.84% of the shares are in free float.
Total electricity generating capacity of EnBW is 15,000 MW, of which 4,846 MW is nuclear (32%). Subsidiary EnBW Kernkraft GmbH operates 10 power plants in Germany, of which 3 are nuclear plants (Philippsburg (2,384 MW), Obrigheim, Nekarwestheim). EnBW has decided to phase out the use of nuclear power; € 4.5 billion has been earmarked for investments in non-nuclear plants to compensate for the impending loss of nuclear power. Nevertheless, in October 2009, the company was involved in a swap of nuclear energy rights with E.ON (see company description 22) and EDF (company description 18).
Nukem Germany Nuclear fuel cycle Nukem GmbH together with its subsidiary Nukem Inc., markets nuclear (reprocessed) fuel components and specialty products utilities worldwide. Since the 1970s, Nukem has transitioned from playing a modest role in uranium brokerage to becoming one of the world's largest intermediaries in the international nuclear fuel market.
Today, its sources include the mining operations of Navoi Mining and Metallurgical Company in Uzbekistan, Kazatomprom in Kazakhstan, and Tenex in Russia. The company markets nuclear fuel components to utilities in North and South America, Western Europe and the Far East.
Effective April 1, 2006, the private equity firm Advent International has taken over Nukem from RWE.
RWE Germany Electricity; Construction RWE AG operates as a lean Group Centre and is based in Essen. Within the RWE Group in Continental Europe RWE Power AG is one of the largest European power producers. RWE Power bases its generation on a broad range of energy sources: coal, lignite, nuclear fuel and gas.
Since the beginning of the 1960s, RWE Power has been operating nuclear power stations, currently at Biblis, Lingen and Gundremmingen. In 2008 RWE's total electricity generating capacity was 45.2 GW, of which 6,295 MW was nuclear (14%). In the same year, 22% of the company's total in-house electricity production was nuclear.
In December 2008, RWE and the Bulgarian state-owned electricity company NEK agreed upon a 49%-51% joint venture for the construction of a new nuclear power plant in Belene, Bulgaria. In October 2009, RWE ended the cooperation, as financing of the project was not found. RWE is still with a 9.15% stake involved in the plans for construction of 2x 720 MW nuclear power plants in Romania, led by the Romanian state-owned electricity company SNN.
In January 2009, RWE and E.ON UK (see company description 22) set up the joint venture Horizon Nuclear Power, with the objective to deliver around 6GW of new nuclear build in the United Kingdom, with the first station coming online at around the end of the next decade. In April 2009, the JV secured land for project development at Wylfa, on Anglesey, and Oldbury, in Gloucestershire.
In January 2009, RWE acquired Dutch energy company Essent (deal finalized in September 2009). The acquisition did not include Essent's 50% stake in EPZ, that operates the Borssele nuclear power plant.
Siemens Power Generation Germany Construction Siemens Energy is one of the premier companies in the international power generation sector providing leading-edge power and energy solutions. It develops and builds power plants and power-generating components. The business portfolio is broken down into the six divisions Oil & Gas, Fossil Power Generation, Renewable Energy, Energy Service, Power Transmission and Power Distribution.
The Fossil Power Generation Division develops process instrumentation & control systems for all types of power plants, including nuclear. The division has stakes in joint ventures such as AREVA NP (Siemens stake: 34 percent) and in the leading Russian power plant supplier Power Machines (Siemens stake: 25 per cent).
Siemens Energy has also received orders from diverse power companies to refurbish and upgrade the turbine-generator units. For example from Florida Power & Light Company, a subsidiary of FPL Group, Inc., to refurbish its St. Lucie and Turkey Point nuclear power plants to increase power output. Additionally, Siemens was awarded a contract in June 2008 to upgrade FPL Energy’s Point Beach nuclear units in Wisconsin.
Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL) India Electricity Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited is a Public Sector Enterprise under the administrative control of the Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India. The company generates about 3% of the total electricity production of the country.
NPCIL is currently operating 17 nuclear power units at six locations with a total installed capacity of 4,120 MW: Tarapur Atomic Power Station Units 1-4 (4 Units, total 1,400 MW), Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Units 1-4 (740 MW), Madras Atomic Power Station Units-1&2 (440 MW), Narora Atomic Power Station Units-1&2 (440 MW), Kakrapar Atomic Power Station Units-1&2 (440 MW) and Kaiga Atomic Power Station Unit-1 to 3 (660 MW).
The units under construction - with a total future capacity of 2,660 MW - are: Unit-4 of the Kaiga Atomic Power Project (220 MW, into operation 2010), Units-5&6 of the Rajasthan Atomic Power Project (2x 220 MW, into operation 2009/2010) and Unit-1&2 of the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant (2x 1,000 MW, into operation 2010/2011).
Ansaldo Nucleare Italy Electricity; Construction Ansaldo Energia is Italy's leading producer of thermoelectric power plants, operating on international markets for customers ranging from public administration to independent power producers and industrial clients. Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A. is owned by Ansaldo Energia, which belongs to the Finmeccanica-Group, Italy's leading high technology group and a major player worldwide. Ansaldo Energia has excellent credentials, with an installed capacity of over 166,000 MW in more than 90 countries.
Ansaldo Nucleare is in charge of Ansaldo Energia's nuclear business, and conducts studies and develops solutions for innovative nuclear power stations, as well as offering a range of technologies and products addressed to the dismantling of nuclear installations and the treatment of radioactive waste. Ansaldo Nucleare is located in Genova, Italy.
Ansaldo Nucleare currently works on engineering, construction, operations assistance, waste management and decommissioning projects at nuclear plants worldwide: Cernavoda NPP Unit 1&2 (Romania), Circe Experimental Facility (Italy), Megapie Experimental Facility (Switzerland), Tianwan NPP (China), Superphénix FBR (France), Chernobyl NPP (Ukraine), Madzamor NPP (Armenia), Khmelnitsky (Ukraine), Covra (Netherlands), JRC-ISPRA (Italy), STEL Saluggia (Italy), Garialiano and Caorso NPPs (Italy). The company is further involved in the development of new generation nuclear reactors EPP (European Passive Plant).
In March 2008, Ansaldo Nucleare signed a major agreement with Westinghouse Electric Co. for the design and supply of innovative components to be installed on the first of a new generation of nuclear plants to be built in China at Sanmen in Zhejiang province (around 400 km south of Shanghai).
Enel Italy Electricity; Construction Enel is Italy's largest power company and Europe’s second listed utility by installed capacity. The company operates a wide range of hydroelectric, thermoelectric, nuclear, geothermal, wind-power and photovoltaic power stations. Enel is active in 23 countries on 4 continents and as a net installed generating capacity of 95,400 MW. Nuclear generative capacity amounts to 5,680 MW (6% of total installed capacity). Enel's two main shareholders are the Ministry of Economy (13.9%) and the Cassa depositi e Prestiti (17.4%). The floating capital amounts to around 68.7% of the total.
Enel currently has nuclear activities in six countries:
Russia: On March 14, 2007, Enel signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Rosatom Nuclear Energy State Corporation (see company description 38), for the joint development of new nuclear power plants.
France: In May 2005, Enel signed a Memorandum of Understanding with EDF (see company description 18) to acquire a 12.5% stake in the French Flamanville EPR project with an installed capacity of 1,600 MW). Enel also has the option to acquire a 12.5% stake in the next five EPR projects in the series planned in France.
Slovakia: In February 2005, Enel acquired 66% of Slovenské elektrárne (SE), the second-largest in Central and Eastern Europe, with a generation capacity of 6,000 MW, of which two nuclear power stations: Bohunice V2 Nuclear Power Plant and Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant (1,760 MW). In 2013 completion of the Mochovce NPP Units 3&4 is expected (2x 880 MW).
Spain: In October 2007, Enel and partner Acciona successfully completed their Joint Tender Offer over Endesa, Spain’s largest utility with a large presence in Latin America (see company description 42). In February 2009, Enel acquired the 25% of Endesa that was owned by Acciona, which brought Enel's share to 92%. Endesa has 3,640 MW installed nuclear capacity in Spain.
Romania: participation in a consortium for the construction of two reactors.
Italy: In August 2009, Enel and EDF (see company description 18) established the 50-50 joint-venture Sviluppo Nucleare Italia Srl, with the objective to develop and operate at least 4 new nuclear power plants in Italy, of which the first should become operational no later than 2020.
Electric Power Development Company (J-Power) Japan Electricity; Construction Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. is also known as J-Power and headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. J-POWER operates 59 hydro-electric power plants, seven coal-fired and one geothermal power station with a total output capacity of 16,985 MW and a transmission network of about 2,400 kilometers of power lines.
J-POWER has engaged in various studies on the development of nuclear power since 1954. Based on its accumulated nuclear power generation technologies and know-how, J-POWER is working on the Ohma project. Since May 2008 J-Power started construction of the Ohma Nuclear Power Plant, located at Ohma-machi Shimokita-gun, Aomori Prefecture. J-POWER has set the start of its operation for November, 2014. The capacity is expected to be 1,383 MW, using an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) with low enriched uranium and mixed oxide of uranium and plutonium (MOX: Mixed Oxide Fuel).
Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) Japan Electricity Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc. (TEPCO) was established in 1951. and is the fourth energy company worldwide, after EDF, E.ON and RWE. TEPCO is divided in five business segments: Electric Power; Information and Telecommunications; Energy and Environment; Living Environment and Lifestyle-Related; and Overseas. In 2008, TEPCO had a total power generation capacity of 63,980 MW, of which 17,308 MW nuclear (27%).
TEPCO is the largest nuclear operator in Japan, with 17 reactors (17,308MW) generating capacity at three locations: Fukushima Daiichi (4,696 MW), Fukusima Daini (4,400 MW) and Kashiwazaki-Kariwa (8,212 MW).
TEPCO is developing 4 new nuclear units with total generating capacity of 5,530 MW : Fukushima Daiichi Units 7&8 (2x 1,380), expected start of operations in 2014 and 2015; and Higashidori Units 1&2 (2x 1,385), expected start of operations in 2015 and 2018.
Overseas TEPCO’s consulting business has expanded with technical support for a new nuclear power plant in the United States.
Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power (KHNP) Korea Electricity Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co. (KHNP) is the largest among the six power generating subsidiaries that separated from Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) in April 2001. KHNP operates nuclear power plants and several hydroelectric power generation facilities, providing approximately 40% of the national power supply.
KHNP operates 20 nuclear power units at Kori, Yonggwang, Ulchin and Wolsong, and another 8 are under construction. Out of the 20 operational units, 4 are CANDU-6 reactors at the Wolsong Nuclear Power Site. The nuclear power plants have an installed capacity of 17,716 MW which count for 97% of KHNP’s total power generation. Furthermore, KHNP has 8 nuclear plants currently under construction.
KHNP is involved in several overseas projects. KHNP has tried to promote Korean-style nuclear power plants, but changed its key business into unit package services. In China KHNP now offers operation/construction technology support at Guangdong Nuclear Power Plant; Qinshan nuclear power plant phase 2 & 3 and for the so-called Power Investment group (23 companies). In Romania KHNP offers advisory services for process management of the Cernavoda Unit 2. In December 2009, the company exported its nuclear activities for the first time, to Jordan.
Recently the KHNP has extended its business targets towards Canada, Morocco, The Republic of South Africa, Finland, Thailand and the Middle East. In December 2009, KHNP started cooperating with Areva (see company description 16) on the development of uranium mining in Niger.
Lietuvos Energija Lithuania Electricity See parent company National Electric Power Company LEO LT, AB. Atomstroyexport (ASE) Russia Construction See parent company Rosatom Nuclear Energy State Corporation. Inter RAO EES Russia Electricity Inter RAO UES is a fast growing power supplier with a number of generation and distribution assets in Russia and abroad. The total installed capacity of electric power stations under the Company's control is 7,476 MW, of which 815 MW nuclear (10.9%). In 2008, the company's total electricity generation was 23,354 KWh, of which 8.8% was from nuclear sources.
Inter RAO UES was founded in 1997 as a subsidiary of RAO UES, to sell electricity generated outside of Russia on foreign markets and to open trading subsidiary companies abroad. One of the first projects was delivering electricity generated by Ignalinskaya Nuclear Power Plant (Lithuania) to the Republic of Belarus and the Kaliningrad Region of the Russian Federation. In 2003 Rosenergoatom Concern acquired 40% of Inter RAO UES’ shares.
As a part of the electric power industry reform (and reorganization of RAO UES of Russia) the reorganization of CJSC Inter RAO UES resulted in OJSC Inter RAO UES acquiring a number of energy companies in 2008. Rosatom (see company description 38) owns 42.49% of Inter RAO UES' shares, and Energatom Concern holds 14,85% share of Inter RAO UES. The Company currently heads a group of more than 20 companies based in fourteen countries in Europe and Asia, for example in Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova and Ukraine.
Under an agreement with the Armenian government (in 2003), the Company has acquired rights to manage 100% of the Armenian Nuclear Power Plant’s stock for 5 years. In December 2008 in Yerevan, the Company signed a new five year contract.
OMZ Izhora Russia Construction The Russian OMZ (Uralmash-Izhora Group, also called United Heavy Machinery Group) is the largest heavy industry company in Russia. The Group’s operations are organised into four main business segments:
Nuclear power plants; Specialty steel (of which a significant part is used internally as an input for the equipment for nuclear power plants); Machinery equipment manufacturing, and Mining equipment. The nuclear power segment of OMZ offers primary circuit equipment for nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors, which are currently installed in 47 NPP units in Russia, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Finland and other countries, whereas five foreign NPP units under construction are being outfitted with OMZ equipment, including NPP Tienwan (China), unit 1&2 and NPP Kudankulam (India) units 1&2.
The Izhora Plants operates mainly for the NPPEQ segment and the only Russian producer of shells for nuclear reactors. Rosatom Nuclear Energy State Corporation hopes for positive outcome of the talks for incorporating Izhora Plants into Atomenergomash, a Rosatom company set up for ensuring complex designing, supply, installation and maintenance of equipment for NPPs.
Czech subsidiairay Skoda JS, part of OMZ's nuclear segment, offers engineering, production and servicing associated with the components for nuclear power plants. To date, Škoda JS has manufactured and supplied 24 sets of so-called VVER nuclear reactors to nuclear power plants in several countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Among the main current projects are the Czech Bohunice and Dukovany NPP; Slovakia's Mochovce NPP; CEZ's Temelin NPP and Belene NPP in Bulgaria.
Rosatom Russia Electricity; Construction; Mining; Nuclear Fuel Cycle Rosatom Nuclear Energy State Corporation is the successor of the Russian ministry of the nuclear complex. Headquartered in Moscow, state-owned company Rosatom now controls nuclear power holding Atomenergoprom, nuclear weapons companies, research institutes and nuclear and radiation safety agencies. It also represents Russia in the world in the field of peaceful use of nuclear energy and protection of the nonproliferation regime.
All nuclear power activities are provided by the in 2007 formed nuclear power company Atomenergoprom (AEP). The company will research, design, build, operate, maintain and decommission nuclear power plants while mining, converting, enriching and fabricating nuclear fuel for them in Russia and abroad. Atomenergoprom includes nuclear power plant operator Energoatom, nuclear fuel producer and supplier TVEL, uranium trader Tekhsnabexport (Tenex), nuclear facilities constructor Atomenergomash, nuclear constructor for overseas projects Atomstroyexport (ASE) and the Uranium Mining Company (UMC).
Energoatom Concern has been reorganized into an open joint stock company at November 1, 2008. All shares were given to Atomenergoprom OJSC. Today, the united generating company Energoatom Concern OJSC comprises ten Russian NPPs, which operate 31 power units with a total capacity of 23,242 MW: Balakovo (3539 mW); Beloyarsk (596MW); Bilibino (20MW); Volgodonsk (1059MW); Kalinin (2795MW); Kola (1326MW); Kursk (2561MW); Leningrad (3913MW); Novovoronezh (1672MW) and Smolensk (1991M). These produce 17% of the electricity generated in the country. In February 2008 the federal target plan (FTP) to 2020 was endorsed. As well as the 4,800 MWe capacity now under construction, a further 12,000 MWe is planned for completion mostly by 2016, and then another 16,000 to 22,000 MWe proposed by 2020. A total of US$ 486 billion is to be invested by 2020 on the projects listed. In 2010, construction of the Baltik NPP in the region of Kalinigrad is to commence.
TVEL’s activities include development, fabrication and sales (including export sales) of nuclear fuel. TVEL Corporation consists of 14 enterprises, including mining enterprises, major production entities and supporting infrastructure companies. The company is one of the world leading manufacturers of nuclear fuel, which runs 73 commercial (17% of global market) and 30 research reactors in 13 countries worldwide.
Techsnabexport - which operates on the world market under the brand name Tenex - is involved in a wide range of nuclear fuel cycle products and services. The company is one of the world's largest suppliers of nuclear fuel, and has subsidiaries in Germany, South Korea and Japan.
Techsnabexport also obtains uranium by dismantling the Russian nuclear weapon arsenal. This uranium is (partly) sold to Cameco (Canada). The two companies signed a binding memorandum of understanding in March 2007, that allows Cameco to pursue future joint ventures in uranium exploration, development and production, making Cameco the first foreign miner in Russia to explore for uranium.
ARMZ (Atomredmedzoloto) Uranium Holding is wholly owned by Atomenergoprom has been authorized to take equity and operational control of Russia's three operating uranium mines (Priargunsk, Khiagda, and Dahur mining companies). ARMZ has planned several new mines and has joint ventures in Kazakhstan, Namibia, and Canada. ARMZ total uranium output in 2007 was 3,527 tonnes.
One of the planned new mines is the Elkonsky deposit in the far eastern Russian republic of Sakha: promising a mine production of 5,000 tonnes per year, with estimated reserves of almost 320,000 tonnes.
ARMZ is currently engaged in two Kazakhstan joint ventures in uranium mining: Zarechnoye joint venture, in which Kazatomprom is its partner. The second of ARMZ's Kazakh joint ventures is called Akbastau, which plans to mine the Budenovskoye deposit. Kazatomprom holds 50%, while ARMZ holds 25% plus one share.
In March 2008, the Uranium Holding ARMZ and Russian-Namibian company VTB Capital Namibia (Pty) Ltd signed a memorandum to fix their intention to set up a joint company for uranium exploration and mining in Namibia. An agreement has been signed with Cameco for mutual exploration activities in Canada and northern Russia. Furthermore ARMZ is planning to participate in projects in Mongolia and Ukraine.
Joint Stock Company Atomstroyexport (ASE) was established in 1998 by the Decision of the Ministry of Atomic Power with a view to expanding the export activity of Russian manufacturing companies. ASE is also active in decommissioning nuclear plants. With the acquisition of the decommissioning activities of Nukem (see company description 24), ASE strengthened its presence in this market.
ASE has constructed several nuclear power plants of which the following are still in operation (as of 2006): Kozloduy III in Bulgaria; Paks in Hungary; Loviisa in Finland; В-1 Bohunice, В-2 Bohunice and Mochovce in Slovakia; Dukovany and Temelin in Czech Republic; the "Shelter" Object, Russia (Chernobyl NPP) and Rheinsberg NPP, Germany,.
At this moment Atomstroyexport has the following projects: commissioning of two power units of Tianwan NPP in China, and construction of Kudankulam NPP in India, Bushehr NPP in Iran and Belene NPP in Bulgaria. In August 2008, the company also tendered for the construction rights of 2 new NPPs in Temelin, Czech Republic.
Slovenske Elektrarne Slovakia Electricity See parent company Enel. GEN Energia Slovenia Electricity GEN Energija is a legal successor of Eels Gen, one of the entities who invested in Nuclear Power Plant Krško (NEK). Eels Gen was the company for financing and management of companies, its only partner being Eels. Eels Gen stepped out of Eels in February 2006 and became a state property, to finally being established as an independent company by changing the memorandum of association and the name to GEN energija d.o.o. In this way GEN Energija has been transformed to a company for energy engineering.
The group GEN Energija d.o.o. joins power plant Krško (NEK), thermal power plant Brestanica (TEB) and the power plants “Savske elektrarne Ljubljana” (SEL). At the same time it participates in establishment of the company “Hidroelektrarne na spodnji Savi”. Marketing and sales management of electric energy are in the hands of subsidiary company GEN-I.
Nuclear power plant NEK is equipped with a Westinghouse Pressurised Light Water Reactor of 2.000 MW thermal power. NEK generates over five billion kWh of electrical energy per year, which represents approximately 40% of the total electricity produced in Slovenia. The equity capital of NEK is divided into two equal business shares owned by the members GEN energija, d.o.o., Krško and Hrvatska elektroprivreda d.d., Zagreb. NEK generates and supplies electricity exclusively for the members: it is their right and obligation to take 50 percent of the total available capacity and net electric power.
Eskom South Africa Electricity Eskom Holdings, a state owned enterprise, generates, transports and distributes approximately 95% of South Africa’s electricity – making up 60% of the total electricity consumed on the African continent. Eskom is the world’s eleventh-largest power utility in terms of generating capacity, ranks ninth in terms of sales, and boasts the world's largest dry-cooling power station. Eskom’s operations are located in South Africa, with its head office being located in Johannesburg. Eskom Enterprises also has operations on the African continent, with other offices in Uganda, Nigeria and Mali.
Eskom owns and operates a number of coal-fired, gas-fired, hydro and pumped storage power stations, as well as one nuclear power station: Koeberg. It generated 11,780 GWh of electricity in 2007. Koeberg Power Station (1,800 MW) is the only nuclear power station on the African continent. It is situated at Duynefontein, 30 km northwest of Cape Town in South Africa on the Atlantic coast.
Eskom wants to double the generation capacity, and made plans for a new nuclear power plant. It was due to announce the winning bidder for the first nuclear contract in December 2008, but the agreed loans didn't provide a satisfactory safety net for Eskom to realise its nuclear ambitions immediately. Despite the freeze, nuclear power is still the long-term goal for Eskom.
Endesa Spain Electricity Endesa is the leading electricity company in Spain, the main electricity company in Chile, Argentina, Columbia and Peru and is also present in Brazil. It is a significant player in the energy sector of the European Mediterranean region, especially Italy, and it is active in other European countries. Furthermore, it has maintained a growing presence in Spain's natural gas market, and achieved an important level of development in the renewable energy sector.
In early October 2007, Enel (see company description 30) and partner Acciona successfully completed their Joint Tender Offer over Endesa, in which they acquired 67% and 25% of Endesa respectively. In February 2009, Enel acquired Acciona's shares in Endesa, and now owns 92% of the share capital. The remaining 8% of capital is in free float.
At the end of 2008, the electricity companies controlled by Endesa had an overall installed capacity of 39,656 MW, and generated 149,830 GWh of power. 3,641 MW of installed capacity is nuclear (9.2%).
Generation assets of Endesa working on nuclear fuel are all set in Spain:
Almaraz I (stake held by Endesa: 36%, installed capacity: 981.6 MW); Almaraz II (stake held by Endesa: 36%, installed capacity: 987.9 MW);
Asco I (stake held by Endesa: 100%, installed capacity: 1,032.5 MW); Asco II (stake held by Endesa: 85%, installed capacity: 1,027.2 MW);
Santa Maria de Garona (stake held by Endesa: 50%, installed capacity: 466.0 MW); Trillo I (stake held by Endesa: 1%, installed capacity: 1,067.5MW); Vandellos II (stake held by Endesa: 72%, installed capacity: 1,087.1 MW).
Iberdrola Spain Electricity; Construction; The Iberdrola Group has operations in Spain, the UK, the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Greece, Portugal, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Guatemala, Bolivia, Chile and Venezuela. The Iberdrola group currently has a total installed capacity of 42,605 MW, of which 3,344 MW nuclear (8%). In April 2007, Iberdrola acquired Scottish Power, which added generating capacity of 6,000 MW in the UK. In June 2007, the company acquired Eastern Energy (US), which added no generative capacity.
Nuclear plants operated by Iberdrola in Spain are:
Sta. María de Garoña (stake held by Iberdrola: 50%, installed capacity: 466 MW); Trillo I (stake held by Iberdrola: 49%, installed capacity: 1,067 MW); Almaraz (stake held by Iberdrola: 52%, installed capacity: 1,969 MW); Ascó II (stake held by Iberdrola: 15%, installed capacity: 1,027 MW); Cofrentes (stake held by Iberdrola: 100%, installed capacity: 1,092 MW); Vandellós II (stake held by Iberdrola: 28%, installed capacity: 1,087 MW).
In the UK, Iberdrola is partnering with GDF-Suez and SSE, for the development of three potential new nuclear power stations.
IBERDROLA Ingeniería, the largest power plant engineering company in Spain, is now building nuclear plants for outside clients in France, Russia, Slovakia, Mexico and Brazil. IBERDROLA Ingeniería y Construcción is currently developing projects worth more than €800 million in Latin America in the nuclear, renewables and electricity transmission and distribution networks sectors.
The company is primarily involved in projects in Mexico, Brazil and Venezuela. One of the most important, awarded by the state-owned Comisión Federal de Electricidad (CFE) company, is aimed at increasing the output of the Laguna Verde nuclear plant in Mexico by 20% from 675 MW to 817 MW. Also in the nuclear sector, the IBERDROLA group subsidiary is replacing the steam generators and providing maintenance and inspection services at the Angra I nuclear plant for the Brazilian company Electronuclear. This project was finalized in October 2009, and Iberdrola still providing servicing and refuelling support for the facility. The IBERDROLA subsidiary is also carrying out safety-related projects in Ukraine and Russia, upgrades and improvements in Russia, Slovakia and Sweden and provisioning for new plants in France. In addition, the company recently won a tender worth €30 million to build a cutting edge treatment plant for radioactive waste in Bulgaria.
Vattenfall Sweden Electricity Vattenfall AB - fully owned by the Swedish state - is the parent company of the Vattenfall Group. With its registered office in Stockholm, it is a Swedish public limited liability company. Vattenfall’s core business is to produce and provide electricity and heat to customers throughout Europe; Germany, Poland, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. From January 2009, a new Group organisational structure has been implemented, in which a third Business Group,
Pan-European, has been established, comprising three new Group-wide business units: Wind, Nuclear and Engineering. In 2008 the electricity generation of Vattenfall Group was 205.9 TWh, of which 46.2 TWh (22%) nuclear. In July 2009, Vattenfall acquired Dutch energy company Nuon, which became the Business Unit Vattenfall Benelux.
Vattenfall AB has two nuclear power plants: Ringhals and Forsmark. Ringhals nuclear power plant is the largest power plant in Scandinavia. Ringhals has four reactors - three pressurised water reactors and one boiling water reactor, commissioned between 1975 and 1983, producing 20 per cent of all electricity use in Sweden. In the period up until 2012, SEK 13 billion (€1,179 million) is being invested in regeneration, improved safety, reduced environmental impact and increased output. Ringhals AB is owned by Vattenfall (70.4%) and E.ON (29.6%). Vattenfall also has stakes in the two German nuclear power plants, Brunsbüttel and Krümmel
Forsmark has three boiling water reactors, commissioned between 1980 and 1985, that generate some 25 billion kWh of electricity in a normal year. SEK 6 billion (€544 million) is being invested in increased production capacity in Forsmark. Forsmark Kraftgrupp AB is a subsidiary of Vattenfall AB. The company was founded in 1973 by Vattenfall AB and Mellansvensk Kraftgrupp AB. The current owners are Vattenfall (66%) Mellansvensk Kraftgrupp (25.5%) and E.ON Kärnkraft Sverige (8.5%).
Vattenfall Business Group Central Europa is involved in lignite mining trough its Business Unit Mining and Generation. Nuclear fuel procurement within the Vattenfall Group is handled by the subsidiary Vattenfall Nuclear Fuel. The uranium is procured from mines in Australia, Namibia and Russia.
Axpo Switzerland Electricity Axpo Group is a leading Swiss energy supply company. Axpo Group and the cantonal electricity utilities form an uninterrupted value chain from the production to the transmission, trading and distribution to the end customer. With its power plants in North-Eastern and Central Switzerland, Axpo and its partners supply electricity to 3 million people. Axpo has 50% of the production capacities installed in Swiss nuclear power plants. Axpo's nuclear energy generation amounts to on third of total generation.
Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG (NOK) is a subsidiary of Axpo and its Nuclear Energy Division owns a nuclear power plant, Beznau. Together with the other two nuclear power plants, the Leibstadt partner plant (KKL) managed by NOK and Mühleberg Nuclear power plant (KKM),
Axpo intends to replace the ageing nuclear power plants Beznau I/II and Mühleberg (decommissioning is expected to commence in 2020) at existing locations in order to ensure a secure power supply for Switzerland. In 2007 BKW and Axpo started planning to build a replacement for Mühleberg by founding a joint planning company in order to pool resources and leverage synergies. In December 2008 Axpo Group and BKW FMB Energy together submitted two framework permit applications for the replacement of the nuclear power plants Beznau I and II as well as Mühleberg.
Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke (NOK) Germany Electricity See parent company Axpo Holding AG. BKW FMB Energie AG Switzerland Electricity BKW FMB Energy Ltd. comes from the former Bernische Kraftwerke AG (BKW) and Force Motrice Berne SA (FMB), together also referred to as BKW. The BKW production portfolio covers hydroelectric power plants, a nuclear power plant, and renewable energy plants (solar power, wind, small hydroelectricity plants and biomass). In 2008 the volume generated by nuclear power plants including purchase contracts was 5,884 GWh, 22.7% of the company's total generation.
BKW has holdings and purchasing rights for the following plants: Leibstadt AG, Cattenom (purchasing rights) and Fessenheim (purchasing rights). In addition BKW's Division Energy Switzerland (ES) owns the Mühleberg Nuclear power plant KKM.
In 2007 BKW and Axpo started planning to build a replacement for Mühleberg by founding a joint planning company in order to pool resources and leverage synergies. In December 2008 Axpo Group and BKW FMB Energy together submitted two framework permit applications for the replacement of the nuclear power plants Beznau I and II as well as Mühleberg, to go into operation after 2020.
Atel Holding Switzerland Electricity; Construction Atel Holding AG, based in Olten, Switzerland, generates energy, and provides services related to energy production, trading and sales as well as energy technology throughout Europe. Atel operates hydro-power stations, thermal power stations(including nuclear) and wind farms in Switzerland, Italy, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Germany. Atel has interest in two nuclear power stations: 40% in Gösgen (1,020MW) and 32% in Leibstadt (1,165 MW) in Switzerland. Atel stepped up preparations for a new nuclear power station in the wake of the new energy policy adopted by the Federal Council in spring 2007, which states that new and replacement nuclear power plants are essential in order to guarantee energy security in Switzerland, and In June 2008, the company suddenly announced plans to build a new nuclear power station, in Niederamt, Solothurn.
As of January 2009, Atel Holding Ltd. and EOS S.A. joined forces in the newly set up company Alpiq Holding AG. Alpiq also maintains and services nuclear power plants, supplies components and general services, and plan and build new plants. Additional services include disposal, dismantling, and radiation protection, evaluation of technical systems and pipelines for nuclear facilities.
In 2008, Atel purchased 78,759 GWh, and generated 17,568 GWh, of which 32.5% nuclear. In that year EOS (Switzerland) produced 3,439 GWh of energy of which 461 GWh (13.4%) was from nuclear sources. The combined company Alpiq has 29.3% of energy generation from nuclear sources.
Alpiq is owned by several Swiss minority shareholders - Elektra Birseck in Münchenstein (EBM), Elektra Baselland Liestal (EBL), the Canton of Solothurn (KtSO), Aziende Industriali di Lugano (AIL), IBAarau (IBA) and Wasserwerke Zug (WWZ) - whereas EDF owns 25%. Alpiq will be active in both Switzerland and Europe with power generation, transmission, sales and trading and energy services. The company will be active with 26 sales companies in 29 European countries.
Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) Thailand Electricity Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) was established on May 1, 1969. It presently is the state enterprise under the Ministry of Energy. Total assets of EGAT and it’s subsidiaries were 431,046,920,850 Baht (€ 9,2 billion) in 2007.
EGAT builds, owns and operates several types and sizes of power plants across the country with a combined installed capacity of 15,035.80 MW, accounting for about 59 percent of the country's 25,646.99 MW generating capacity. EGAT does not own nuclear power plants, but has plans to develop one, which has to be operational in 2020. In November 2008 EGAT signed a contract with US-based consulting company Burns and Roe Asia to conduct a feasibility study for the country's first nuclear power plant.
British Energy (BE) United Kingdom Electricity See parent company EDF. British Nuclear Fuel United Kingdom Construction British Nuclear Fuels Limited was set up in 1971 and became a public limited company in 1984 as British Nuclear Fuels plc, wholly owned by the UK government. On April 1, 2005 the company was reorganised. British Nuclear Fuels plc was renamed British Nuclear Group Sellafield Ltd. A new holding company was established and adopted the British Nuclear Fuels plc name, operating largely through its major British Nuclear Group subsidiary. The following years BNFL sold most of its subsidiaries.
The sale of Westinghouse Electric Company to Toshiba Corporation was completed on 16 October 2006. The sale for the Reactor Sites Management Company to EnergySolutions was completed on 26 June 2007. During 2006/07 BNFL also completed the sale of the US subsidiary BIL Solutions Inc. which, together with the sale of British Nuclear Group America in 2005/06 and the Westinghouse sale completed the exit from the United States. The sale of the Project Services business to VT Group plc was completed on 18 January 2008.
Today, the activities of British Nuclear Fuels plc cover nuclear site decommissioning and clean-up as well as technology services and solutions across the nuclear fuel cycle. The Group comprises the following businesses: Sellafield Ltd and Nexia Solutions (Now National Nuclear Labarotory Ltd.). Each of these has its own management team and is responsible for its own profitability.
The Sellafield (West Cumbria) and Capenhurst (Cheshire) sites are owned by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) and are managed and operated by Sellafield Ltd on their behalf. At these sites Sellafield Ltd is carrying out some of the most innovative and complex nuclear decommissioning in the world. To help fund nuclear clean-up, revenue from their commercial fuel recycling and manufacturing operations is managed by International Nuclear Services (INS). Today, the Capenhurst site safely stores uranic materials prior to their long-term re-use within the nuclear fuel cycle.
In November 2008 the NDA transferred its Sellafield share to a new Parent Body. Nuclear Management Partners Ltd (NMP) - a consortium representing companies from the US, France and the UK - has been awarded a multi-billion pound contract to clean up the most intricate nuclear complex in the world.
Nexia Solutions has recently (10 November 2008) changed its name to National Nuclear Laboratory Limited. It provides technology services and solutions across the nuclear fuel cycle. It delivers nuclear research, development and scientific services to customers.
Urenco Group UK / Germany / Netherlands Nuclear fuel cycle Urenco is an independent international energy and technology group with its head office based in Marlow, UK. It operates in a pivotal area of the nuclear fuel supply chain, made up of four key processes: mining, conversion, enrichment and fabrication. Urenco is firmly positioned in the enrichment stage, currently fulfilling around 23% share of the global enrichment market. In 2007 Urenco had a turnover of €1,023.8 million.
Urenco currently achieves this in Europe through its main operating subsidiary, Urenco Enrichment Company Limited (“UEC”) and UEC’s three operating subsidiaries which own and operate enrichment plants in the UK (Capenhurst), Germany (Gronau) and the Netherlands (Almelo). In the US, another Urenco subsidiary, Louisiana Energy Services LLC (“LES”), is currently constructing an enrichment plant (the National Enrichment Facility) in New Mexico, which is expected to become operational in 2009.
Urenco also owns a 50% interest in Enrichment Technology Company Limited (“ETC”), a joint venture company jointly owned with Areva.
Dominion Resources United States Electricity Dominion Resources is a power and energy company headquartered in Richmond, Virginia. Dominion - through its three daughter companies Dominion Virginia Power, Dominion Generation and Dominian Energy - supplies electricity, natural gas, and other energy services to Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and eastern North Carolina. Dominion also has generation facilities in Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois, Connecticut and Massachusetts.
Dominion has a generative capacity of around 27,500 MW, of which around 6,060 MW is nuclear capacity (22%). About 40% of electricity generated is from nuclear resources. Nuclear power stations of Dominion Generation are: Kenauwee (556 MW, north eastern Wisconsin); Millstone (2,103 MW, Connecticut); North Anna (1,806 MW, Central Virginia); Surry (1,598 MW, southeastern Virginia)
Duke Energy United States Electricity Duke Energy is an electric power company in the United States with around 35,000 MW of electric generating capacity in the US, and 4,000 MW in Latin America. Additionally Duke Energy runs natural gas distribution in Ohio and Kentucky.
Duke Energy runs three nuclear power plants: two in South Carolina (Catawba and Oconee), and one in North Carolina (McGuire). Together these three nuclear power plants have a capacity of 5,000 MW (13% of total capacity). Duke Energy plans building a fourth 2,234 MW nuclear power plant in Cherokee County, South Carolina, and submitted the application for the 2-unit NPP in December 2007.
General Electric United States Electricity; Construction; Nuclear fuel cycle General Electric is one of the biggest companies in the world. They are active in several domains like financial services, media & entertainment, technical infrastructure (amongst others aviation), consumer articles, but also energy infrastructure.
GE Energy has an installed base of steam and heavy-duty gas turbines of over 10,000 units, representing over 1,000,000 MW of installed capacity in more than 120 countries. GE Energy offers amongst others nuclear energy solutions, including:
• building and operating nuclear plants all over the world (more than 60 plants and three new ones under construction);
• nuclear reactor & performance services;
• designing and manufacturing the nuclear fuel;
• and uranium enrichment services.
NRG Energy United States Electricity NRG Energy is an American power generating company owing 44 power generating facilities, most of them in the United States, but also in Australia and Germany. These facilities represent a net potential of 24,000 MW a year, of which 1,175 MW is from nuclear sources (5%).
NRG operates only one NPP: the South Texas Project with two nuclear plant units in Bay City (USA). NRG Energy owns 44% of the 1,175 MW facility. (Other owners are CPS Energy and Austin Energy.) In February 2008, NRG and Toshiba founded the joint venture Nuclear Innovation North America (NINA), with the purpose to develop two new nuclear units at Bay City. NRG has a 88% stake in this joint venture. The units (3&4, approximately 2,700 MW) are expected to become operational in 2014.
South Carolina Electric and Gas (SCE&G) United States Electricity South Carolina Electric and Gas (SCE&G) is a South Carolina company, generating, transmitting, distributing and selling electricity & gas. SCE&G is the main subsidiary of the holding company Scana Corporation. SCE&G has 23 facilities with total generative capacity of 5,695 MW.
SCE&G is 66% owner of a nuclear plant, V.C. Summer Nuclear Station in Jenkinsville, South Carolina. Santee Cooper owns the remaining 34%. Together with Santee Cooper, SCE&G is planning to build two additional nuclear units (1,117 MW each) at the VC Summer site, in which SCE&G will hold 55% ownership. In 2008, nuclear generation made up 18.5% of SCE&G's capacity and 19.7% of total generation.
The company's strategy is to expand its nuclear capacity to around 40% by 2016 and over 50% of its capacity by 2019. It has amongst others cooperation agreements with the developers of 4 NPPs in Hayiang and Sanmen (China).
Southern Company United States Electricity Southern Company, based in Atlanta, is one of the largest generators of electricity in the United States, serving the southeastern United States. The company participates in all phases of the electric utility business, and owns more than 42,000 MW of electric generating capacity, of which 3,794 MW nuclear (9%).
Southern Nuclear - part of Southern Company - manages and operates six nuclear power units at three locations, via its subsidiaries Alabama Power and Georgia Power. The Farley NPP in Alabama (1,776 MW, 100% owned by Alabama Power), and the Hatch NPP (1,850 MW, 50.1% owned by Georgia Power) and Vogtle NPP (2,430 MW, 45.7% owned by Georgia Power). Together these plants provide more than 20% of Alabama's and Georgia's electricity.
Southern Nuclear has planned additional nuclear capacity on the Vogtle plant; units 3&4, of 1,100 MW each. The units should become operational in 2016/2017.
Unistar United States Electricity Unistar, founded in 2005 and formally organized in August 2007, is a joint venture by Constellation Energy and EDF. Unistar is developing four nuclear plants in the United States: Calver Cliffs 3 in Maryland, Callaway 2 near Fulton (MO), Bell Bend near Berwick (PA) and Nine Mile Point 2 near Scriba (NY). Westinghouse Electric United Kingdom Construction, Nuclear fuel cycle, other Westinghouse Electric offers nuclear fuel, services, technology, plant design and equipment to the nuclear power industry in Europe, Asia and the USA. In fall 2006 Westinghouse Electric UK and BNFL USA, together called Westinghouse was acquired by the Toshiba Group (77%). Other two owners are Shaw Group (UK) and IHI (Japan) Eesti Energia Estonia Electricity Eesti Energia is a state-owned company engaged in the production, sale and transmission of electric and thermal power. The main raw material for energy production – oil shale – is extracted from mines owned by the company. Eesti Energia is also involved in the construction and maintenance of energy systems. The company has over 467,000 private customers and over 25,000 corporate customers. In 2007/08 Eesti Energia produced 9,716 GWh and realised annual sales of € 574.4 million. More than 95% is produced in two power plants using oil shale, and smaller amounts are produced using wind and hydroelectricity.
Eesti Energia is planning to participate with a 22% stake in the new 3,400 MW nuclear plant being developed by the Lithuanian Electricity Organisation. Eesti Energia also considers developing a nuclear power plant in Estonia itself.
National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) India Electricity The National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) is the largest electricity producer in India. Its total installed capacity, including that under joint ventures, is around 33,644 MW. 82% are coal-fired plants and 18% gas-fired. NTPC accounted for 28.5% of the total power generation in India in 2007.
NTPC is listed on the stock exchange, but the Indian government owns 89.5% of its shares.
By 2017, NTPC aims to operate a diversified power generation portfolio, including coal based capacity of around 53,000 MW, 10,000 MW through gas, 9,000 MW through hydro generation, about 2,000 MW from nuclear sources and around 1,000 MW from renewable energy sources.
In February 2009, NTPC and the Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL). signed a Memorandum of Understanding for the development of a joint venture in which NPCIL will have a 51% stake and NTPC 49%. The joint-venture is set to build NPP’s with a cumulative capacity of 2,000 MW. Specific nuclear power projects are not yet decided upon. Later, NTPC is planning to develop nuclear power plans on a commercial basis independently.
National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) Indonesia Other National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) is an Indonesian state-owned agency, under the coordination of the Minister for Research and Technology. It has to conduct research and development on the beneficial applications of nuclear energy in accordance with the laws and regulations. BATAN operates three small-scale research reactors on Java island.
One of BATAN’s tasks is to assess and prepare the national policy in the field of research, development, and the beneficial uses of nuclear energy. BATAN has played an important role in drafting the plans of the Indonesian government, announced in early 2007, to develop four nuclear power plants with an installed capacity of 1,000 MW each. Costs are estimated at around US$ 2.0 billion per plant. The first two units should become operational in 2016 and 2017, while the second two should become operational in 2023 and 2024. The first plant is planned in Muria on Java. No decision has be taken yet on which company will build and operate the NPP’s and financing has not been arranged either.
Lithuanian Electricity Organisation (LEO LT) Lithuania Electricity In December 2007 Lithuania's government reached a deal to merge private and state-owned electricity companies to get the financial firepower to help build a new nuclear power station. The new national electric power company Lithuanian Electricity Organisation (LEO) LT, AB consists of former NDX's grid company VST; state-owned grid company RST and system operator Lietuvos Energija. The parent company is owned 61.7 percent by the state and 38.8 percent by NDX Energija.
The subsidiary Lietuvos Energija AB is functioning as the owner of electricity transmission grid (110-330kV), system operator and the market operator. As of 31 December 2007 the Company had a direct control over three subsidiaries: Energetikos PajAgos UAB, Kauno Energetikos Remontas UAB and Kruonio investicijos UAB. The company owns the Kaunas Hydro Power Plant and the Kruonis Pumped Storage Plant (hydro electric).
In 2007 and 2008, by assignment of the Government of the Republic of Lithuania, Lietuvos Energija already has been carrying out preparatory works for the construction project of a new nuclear power plant in Lithuania. This plant is to replace the Ignalina plant, which has to be shut in 2009 under an agreement with the European Union. The Government has invited Poland, Latvia and Estonia also to take part in the project. In September 2008, LEO LT, AB established a subsidiary UAB Visagino Atominė Elektrinė to which the Company assigned all the works related to the project of construction of a new nuclear power plant in Lithuania.
Within Lithuania concerns are raised around this project by the parliament and NGO’s, which cause uncertainty about it’s further development.
Polska Grupa Energetyczna (PGE) Poland Electricity PGE Polska Grupa Energetyczna S.A. is the largest electricity company in Poland. Polska Grupa Energetyczna was established on 9 May 2007, when the Polish State Treasury made an in-kind contribution to Polskie Sieci Elektroenergetyczne S.A. of 85% of the shares of PGE Energia SA and BOT Górnictwo i Energetyka S.A. In return, the State Treasury took over newly issued shares in the increased share capital of PSE S.A.
Eleven companies became part of Polska Grupa Energetyczna (involved with the sale and distribution of electricity, as well as power plants and a mine) representing a total asset value of some PLN 38 billion. Today, total net annual production is some 52.5 TWh of electricity.
In Poland a lively debate is going on about the idea of developing nuclear power in Poland. “Nuclear power is becoming more and more attractive in terms of economy and ecology, after a long period of stagnation”, according to Hanna Trojanowska, Director of the International Affairs and New Technologies Department of PGE. However, plans for nuclear power plants in Poland are not yet developed, but Poland is invited to take part in the construction of a new nuclear power plant in Lithuania.
Nuclearelectrica Romania Electricity The state-owned Societatea Nationala Nuclearelectrica (SNN) manages two NPP’s in Cernavoda and a fuel plant in Pitesti. Cernavoda-1 started operation in 1996 and Cernavoda-2 in 2007. Both plants are Candu natural uranium and heavy water types, with a capacity of 706.5 MWe each. In 2007 SNN supplied 13% of all electricity generated in Romania and realised a turnover of Lei 909.6 million (€ 252 million) .
In November 2008 a joint venture was concluded between SNN and a number of foreign companies to develop and construct Cernavoda-3 and -4 for a total sum of € 4 billion. The new reactors will both be 720 MWe Candu reactors and are planned to start operation in 2014 and 2015. SNN will participate for 51% in EnergoNuclear, the joint-venture company which will operate the two new plants. Other shareholders will be CEZ (Czech Republic), Electrabel, Enel and RWE Power each holding a 9.15% stake. In addition, Iberdrola and global steel producer ArcelorMittal will each hold a 6.2%.
BHP Billiton UK / Australia Mining The British-Australian company BHP Billiton is the world's largest mining company and one of the largest producers in the world of aluminium, energy coal and metallurgical coal, copper, lead, zinc, diamond, manganese, iron ore, uranium, nickel, silver, gold, cobalt and titanium minerals. The company also has substantial interests in oil, gas and liquefied natural gas.
BHP Billiton owns the Olympic Dam mine, located 560 kilometres north of Adelaide in South Australia. Olympic Dam is a multi-mineral ore body. It is the world's fourth largest remaining copper deposit, fifth largest gold deposit and the largest uranium deposit. Olympic Dam has long term contracts for the sale of uranium oxide concentrates to customers in the United Kingdom, France, Sweden, Finland, Belgium, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Canada and the United States. Currently, BHP Billiton is considering a further major expansion of Olympic Dam to more than double its current production capacity.
BHP Billiton considered to take over Rio Tinto but recently decided not to pursue its pre-conditional offers for the acquisition of Rio Tinto.
Energy Resources of Australia (ERA) Australia Mining See parent company Rio Tinto. Cameco Canada Mining Cameco is a Canadian mining company, and one of the world's largest uranium producer accounting for 19% of world production. Cameco owns and operates mines in Canada and the United States and holds land positions in areas for new uranium discoveries in Canada and Australia. In 2008, Cameco expects to start commercial production of its uranium mining activities in Kazakhstan.
Cameco is 53% owner of Centerra, a company that was set up in Canada in 2004 and incorporated all assets of Cameco Gold, the full subsidiary of Cameco. As a secondary source of uranium, Cameco purchases uranium that is obtained by dismantling the Russian nuclear arsenal. This uranium is supplied by Techsnabexport. The two companies signed a binding memorandum of understanding in March 2007, that allows Cameco to pursue future joint ventures in uranium exploration, development and production, making Cameco the first foreign miner in Russia to explore for uranium.
Besides mining, Cameco is also active in refining and conversion of uranium, fuel manufacturing (the company is a leading provider of processing services required to produce fuel for nuclear power plants). And it generates more than 1,000MW of clean electricity through its 31.6% interest in the Bruce Power L.P. which operates a nuclear generating station in southern Ontario with six reactors.
Uranium One Canada Mining Uranium One Inc. is a Canadian uranium producer which came into being in 2005, with the merger between Aflease Gold, Uranium Resources and Southern Cross Resources. Uranium One produced 828 tonnes uranium oxide in 2007, coming from the Akdala Uranium Mine.
Uranium One further owns and develops uranium mining projects. An overview:
The Corporation has a 70 per cent interest in the Betpak-Dala Joint Venture in Kazakhstan that owns the Akdala Uranium Mine (in operation) and the South Inkai Uranium Project, (commenced pre-commercial production in 2007). The balance of the interest in the Betpak-Dala Joint Venture is owned by KazAtomProm.
The Corporation has a 30 per cent interest in Kyzylkum Joint Venture in Kazakhstan that is developing the Kharasan Uranium Project. The balance of the interest in the Kyzylkum Joint Venture is owned by KazAtomProm (30 per cent) and by a Japanese consortium (40 per cent).
In the United States, Uranium One has applied for a licence to construct and operate an ISR facility at Moore Ranch in the Powder River Basin and at JAB/Antelope in the Great Divide Basin of Wyoming.
In addition, Uranium One owns the Dominion Uranium Project in South Africa and the Hobson – La Palangana ISR project in Texas.
Techsnabexport Russia Nuclear fuel cycle See Rosatom TVEL Russia Mining See Rosatom Rio Tinto UK / Australia Electricity; Mining Rio Tinto is a large British-Australian mining company. The company’s activities span the world with production from every continent. Rio Tinto’s products include aluminium, copper, diamonds, energy products, gold, industrial minerals (borates, titanium dioxide, salt and talc), and iron ore. In 2007 sales revenues amounted to US$ 29.7 billion, resulting in a profit of US$ 7.7 billion.
In November 2007 Rio Tinto acquired the large Canadian aluminium company Alcan. The British-Australian mining company BHP Billiton was trying to take over Rio Tinto, but announced in November 2008 that it will not pursue its pre-conditional offers for the acquisition of Rio Tinto.
Rio Tinto is involved in uranium mining activities through interests in two uranium mining companies: Energy Resources of Australia and Rössing. In 2007 Rio Tinto's uranium production was 5720 tonnes.
Energy Resources of Australia (ERA) is an Australian uranium mining company and one of the largest uranium producers in the world, providing 11 per cent of the world's uranium production. ERA mines uranium ore to produce uranium oxide (U3O8) at the Ranger Mine located 250 kilometres east of Darwin in Australia's Northern Territory. The mine is surrounded by the Kakadu National Park. The Ranger Mine predicted operational life time is extended until 2020. In 2007 ERA produced 5,412 tonnes of uranium oxide and had a record net profit of $76.1 million. The company is exporting to nuclear electricity utilities in Japan, South Korea, Europe and North America.
ERA is a 68.4% owned subsidiary of Rio Tinto Australia, a diversified resource company, and has a management services agreement with Rio Tinto. Earth-Water-Life Sciences Pty Ltd (EWLS), a wholly owned subsidiary of ERA, provides specialist environmental consultancy services to ERA and selected external customers.
The Namibian mining company Rössing owns a large open pit uranium mine. The uranium oxide from the mine is sold through Rio Tinto Uranium to nuclear power utilities in Central Europe, North America and South-east Asia. Rössing is one of the largest open pit uranium mines in the world, with solid reserves which will continue to serve the world nuclear energy industry. The mine currently produces about 7 per cent of the world's uranium. Thanks to new exploration efforts the life-of-mine was extended from planned closure in 2009 to 2021.
In 2007 Rössing produced 3,046 tonnes of uranium oxide, resulting in a net profit of N$ 979 million (US$ 97.5 million).
Rio Tinto owns the majority of shares (69%) in Rössing Uranium Limited. The Namibian Government has a 3% shareholding, but it has the majority (51%) when it comes to voting rights. The Government of Iran owns 15%, a stake that was acquired during the set-up of the company in the early 1970s. The Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) of South Africa owns 10%, while local individual shareholders own a combined 3%. The shareholders have no uranium product off take rights.
Denison Mines Canada Electricity; Mining; Nuclear fuel cycle Denison Mines is a Canadian intermediate uranium producer, which came into being in December 2006, after the merger of Denison Mines Inc. (DMI) and International Uranium Corporation.
Denison owns and operates five uranium mines in the United States and two in Canada, and estimates production from these mines to add to 5.0 million lbs (2,268 tonnes) of U3O8 by 2011. Denison also has an interest in two of the four operating uranium mills in North America (100% ownership of the White Mesa mill in Utah and 22.5% ownership of the McClean Lake mill in Saskatchewan). It is expected that Denisons' 2008 production at White Mesa will yield 1.0 million pounds of U3O8 and 700.00 pounds at McClean Lake mill. Moreover, Denison has a portfolio of exploration projects in Canada, the United States, Mongolia, and indirectly in Australia. Through its 97% ownership of OmegaCorp Limited - an Australian uranium mining company - Denison is also involved in the exploration of the Kariba Uranium Project in Zambia.
Denison Environmental Services (DES) is a division of Denison Mines Inc., formed to assist the mining industry with the final stages of the mining cycle: to provide mine decommissioning and long-term care and maintenance services to closed mining facilities.
Kazatomprom Kazakhstan Mining Kazatomprom is the Kazakh national atomic company set up in 1997 and owned by the state government. The company accounts for 10% of the world uranium production. About 19% of the world uranium reserves are located in Kazakhstan. Kazatomprom controls all uranium exploration and mining as well as other nuclear-related activities, including imports and exports of nuclear materials in Kazakhstan.
Kazatomprom has developed uranium mining activities in various regions in Kazakhstan. In 2007 total annual turnover of Kazatomprom is over US$300 mn. The volume of uranium production in 2007 in Kazakhstan was 6637 tons of uranium, including the share of the National Atomic Company Kazatomprom, joint ventures of Kazatomprom and the Stepnogorsk Mining Chemical Complex, which is managed by Kazatomprom.
Since July 2008 Kazatomprom has generally finalized formation of the transnational vertically integrated company with a complete nuclear fuel cycle. The program task of the Company is to bring production of natural uranium to the level of over 15 000 tons by 2010, this way Kazakhstan will take the first place in the world in this aspect. Kazatomprom planned to start production at six new uranium mines in 2008, and another two in 2009. The main purchasers of Kazakh uranium are China, Japan, the United States and South Korea.
In the Soviet era, Kazakhstan was the production region for the Soviet Union’s nuclear weapons and the country has a major legacy of radioactive wastes from uranium mining, nuclear reactors, nuclear weapons testing, industrial activities, coal mining and oilfields.
The company has forged strategic links with Russia, Japan and China, and has a 10% share in the international nuclear company Westinghouse (United States). On June 3, 2008, Kazatomprom and Cameco (Canada) established a new joint venture, Ulba-Conversion LLP, based on the Ulba Metallurgical Plant. It will be a conversion facility with an annual capacity of 12,000 tons UF6 (approximately 17% of the world conversion capacity). Kazatomprom will own 51% shares of the joint-venture, Cameco 49%.
Paladin Energy Australia Mining Paladin Energy is an Australian mining company developing a number of uranium projects in Australia and Africa:
• The Langer Heinrich Uranium Mine in Namibia became operational in 2007 and has a targeted annual production of 2.6 million pounds U3O8, Paladin Energy announced expansion plans in 2009.
• Kayelekera (Malawi) is the second development project, targeted to start commissioning in 2009.
• Manyingee and Oobgooma (Western Australia) are two projects for longer term development.
In 2007 the company changed its name from Paladin Resources into Paladin Energy. In June 2007 Paladin Energy acquired a majority share (81,9%) in the Australian mining company Summit Resources, which explores for uranium, gold and other minerals in the Mount Isa region of Queensland (Australia). In December 2008 Paladin announced a takeover offer for the Australian mining company Fusion Resources.
Essent Netherlands Electricity Electricity producer that is being taken over by German RWE AG. Delta (together with Essent) owns 50% of EPZ, the company running the Borssele nuclear plant in the Netherlands Delta Netherlands Electricity Electricity producer. Also together with Essent owns 50% of EPZ, the company running the Borssele nuclear plant in the Netherlands Constellation Energy United States Electricity Constellation Energy is a generator of electricity with a diversified fleet of generating units throughout the United States and Canada, totaling approximately 7,100 MW of generating capacity. The company's portfolio includes, nuclear, coal, natural gas, oil and renewable and alternative fuels. Nuclear capacity is 4,099 MW, or 58%. Of actual energy generated by Constellation Energy, 63% comes from nuclear source.
Constellation Energy Nuclear Group, LLC (CENG), is a joint venture between Constellation Energy and EDF Group (see company description 18). CENG operates five reactors at three power stations - Calvert Cliffs NPP in Lusby (1,750 MW); R.E. Ginna NPP in Ontario (581 MW); and Nine Mile NPP in Scriba (1,768 MW). For the expansion of nuclear activities, Constellation also cooperates with the EDF Group in the 50/50 joint venture UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE). In July 2007, UNE submitted an application for the development of Calvert Cliffs Unit 3 (1,600 MW), and in February 2008 applied for the development of Nine Mile Unit 3 (1,600 MW).
Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc. (KEPCO) Japan Electricity Kansai Electric Power Company (KEPCO) is a Japanese energy company, supplying electric power to the Kansai region. KEPCO has a total generative capacity of 39,550 MW from thermal, hydroelectric, nuclear and renewable sources. About 10,000 MW of the company's capacity is nuclear (26%), coming from the three nuclear power plants in Mihama, Takahama, Ohi. In the upcoming 10 years, the company plans to grow its nuclear capacity by 2,000 MW. Currently 41% of electricity generated comes from nuclear sources.
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