Black-and-white ruffed lemur

Black-and-white ruffed lemur[1]
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Lemuridae
Genus: Varecia
Species: V. variegata
Binomial name
Varecia variegata
(Kerr, 1792)
Subspecies

V. v. variegata (Kerr, 1792)
V. v. editorum (Osman Hill, 1953)
V. v. subcincta (A. Smith, 1833)

Varecia variegatta distribution[3]
orange = V. v. subcincta;
green = V. v. variegata;
blue = V. v. editorum
Synonyms

V. v. variegata:

  • vari Muirhead, 1819
  • varius I. Geoffroy, 1851[4]

The black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata) is the more endangered of the two species of ruffed lemurs, both of which are endemic to the island of Madagascar. Despite having a larger range than the red ruffed lemur, it has a much smaller population that is spread out, living in lower population densities and reproductively isolated. It also has less coverage and protection in large national parks than the red ruffed lemur. Three subspecies of black-and-white ruffed lemur have been recognized since the red ruffed lemur was elevated to species status in 2001.[3]

Together with the red ruffed lemur, they are the largest extant members of the family Lemuridae, ranging in length from 100 to 120 cm (3.3 to 3.9 ft) and weighing between 3.1 and 4.1 kg (6.8 and 9.0 lb).[5] They are arboreal, spending most of their time in the high canopy of the seasonal rainforests on the eastern side of the island. They are also diurnal, active exclusively in daylight hours. Quadrupedal locomotion is preferred in the trees and on the ground, and suspensory behavior is seen during feeding. As the most frugivorous of lemurs, the diet consists mainly of fruit, although nectar and flowers are also favored, followed by leaves and some seeds.[6]

The black-and-white ruffed lemur has a complex social structure and is known for its loud, raucous calls.[3] It is unusual in that it exhibits several reproductive traits typically found in small, nocturnal lemurs, such as short a gestation period, large litters and rapid maturation.[6] Along with the red ruffed lemur, they are the only primates to build nests.[3] In captivity, they can live up to 36 years.[7]

Contents

Taxonomic classification

The black-and-white ruffed lemur is one of two species within the genus Varecia, and has three subspecies. Of the three subspecies, the white-belted black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata subcincta) is found furthest to the north,[8] the southern black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata editorum) is found furthest to the south,[9] and the black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) has a geographic range between the other two subspecies.[10]

  • Family Lemuridae
    • Subfamily Lemurinae
      • Genus Lemur: the ring-tailed lemur
      • Genus Eulemur: brown lemurs
      • Genus Varecia: ruffed lemurs
        • Black-and-white ruffed lemur, Varecia variegata
          • Variegated black-and-white ruffed lemur (or pied black-and-white ruffed lemur), Varecia variegata variegata
          • Southern black-and-white ruffed lemur (or Hill's black-and-white ruffed lemur), Varecia variegata editorum
          • Northern black-and-white ruffed lemur (or white-belted black-and-white ruffed lemur), Varecia variegata subcincta
        • Red ruffed lemur, Varecia rubra
    • Subfamily Hapalemurinae: bamboo lemurs

Anatomy and physiology

The black-and-white ruffed lemur is black with white areas on its limbs head and back. Its neck has a mane and the face has a muzzle like a dog's. Males and females look the same.

Threats in the wild

The black-and-white ruffed lemur is preyed upon by the Henst's goshawk (Accipiter henstii), fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox), ring-tailed mongoose (Galidia elegans) and brown-tailed mongoose (Salanoia concolor). Nesting behavior poses the greatest risks for predation, especially mammalian predators.

References

  1. ^ Groves, C. (2005). Wilson, D. E., & Reeder, D. M, eds. ed. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 117. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=12100061. 
  2. ^ Andrainarivo, C., et al. (2008). Varecia variegata. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 6 Oct 2008. Listed as Critically Endangered (CR A2cd v3.1)
  3. ^ a b c d Mittermeier, R.A.; et al. (2006). Lemurs of Madagascar (2nd Edition ed.). Conservation International. pp. 303–320. ISBN 1-881173-88-7. 
  4. ^ Groves, C. (2005). Wilson, D. E., & Reeder, D. M, eds. ed. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. OCLC 62265494. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=12100062. 
  5. ^ Garbutt, Nick (2007). Mammals of Madagascar, A Complete Guide. A&C Black Publishers. pp. 170–173. ISBN 978-0-300-12550-4. 
  6. ^ a b Sussman, R.W. (2003) [1999]. Primate Ecology and Social Structure. Vol. 1: Lorises, Lemurs, and Tarsiers (Revised 1st Edition ed.). Pearson Custom Publishing. pp. 195–200. ISBN 0-536-74363-0. 
  7. ^ Gron, KJ (17 August 2007). "Primate Factsheets: Ruffed lemur (Varecia) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology". Wisconsin Primate Research Center (WPRC). http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/ruffed_lemur. Retrieved 19 September 2008. 
  8. ^ Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V. N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R. A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J. C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. (2008). Varecia variegata ssp. subcincta. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 3 May 2009.
  9. ^ Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V. N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R. A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J. C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. (2008). Varecia variegata ssp. editorum. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 3 May 2009.
  10. ^ Andrainarivo, C., Andriaholinirina, V. N., Feistner, A., Felix, T., Ganzhorn, J., Garbutt, N., Golden, C., Konstant, B., Louis Jr., E., Meyers, D., Mittermeier, R. A., Perieras, A., Princee, F., Rabarivola, J. C., Rakotosamimanana, B., Rasamimanana, H., Ratsimbazafy, J., Raveloarinoro, G., Razafimanantsoa, A., Rumpler, Y., Schwitzer, C., Thalmann, U., Wilmé, L. & Wright, P. (2008). Varecia variegata ssp. variegata. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 3 May 2009.

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Black-and-white Ruffed Lemur — Taxobox name = Black and white Ruffed LemurMSW3 Groves|pages=117] status = CR status ref = IUCN2008|assessors=Andrainarivo, C., et al|year=2008|id=22918|title=Varecia variegata|downloaded=06 Oct 2008 Listed as Critically Endangered (CR A2cd… …   Wikipedia

  • black and white lemur — varis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas taksono rangas rūšis atitikmenys: lot. Varecia variegatus angl. black and white lemur; ruffed lemur vok. Vari rus. вари; лемур вари pranc. lémur vari ryšiai: platesnis terminas – variai …   Žinduolių pavadinimų žodynas

  • Ruffed lemur — Taxobox name = Ruffed lemursMSW3 Groves|pages=Varecia|id=12100059] image caption = Black and white Ruffed Lemur ( Varecia variegata ) regnum = Animalia phylum = Chordata classis = Mammalia ordo = Primates subordo = Strepsirrhini familia =… …   Wikipedia

  • ruffed lemur — Ruffed Ruffed, a. Furnished with a ruff. [1913 Webster] {Ruffed grouse} (Zo[ o]l.), a North American grouse ({Bonasa umbellus}) common in the wooded districts of the Northern United States. The male has a ruff of brown or black feathers on each… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • ruffed lemur — varis statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas taksono rangas rūšis atitikmenys: lot. Varecia variegatus angl. black and white lemur; ruffed lemur vok. Vari rus. вари; лемур вари pranc. lémur vari ryšiai: platesnis terminas – variai …   Žinduolių pavadinimų žodynas

  • ruffed lemur — noun : a large black and white lemur (Lemur varius) having the face framed by thick fringes of long hair on the sides of the head …   Useful english dictionary

  • Red Ruffed Lemur — Taxobox name = Red Ruffed Lemur [MSW3 Groves|pages=117] status = EN status system = iucn3.1 trend = down status ref = IUCN2008|assessors=Andrainarivo, C., et al|year=2008|id=22920|title=Varecia rubra|downloaded=06 Oct 2008 Listed as Endangered… …   Wikipedia

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  • Lémur vari — Lémur à crinière Lémur à crinière ou maki vari …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Lémur à crinière — ou maki vari …   Wikipédia en Français


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