North Malabar

North Malabar

ഉത്തര മലബാര്‍ (വടക്കേ മലബാര്‍) കളരി പയറ്റിന്റെ നാട്

  • The land of Kalari Martial Art
  • മത മൈത്രിയുടെ നാട്
  • The land known for Secularism
—  geographical/historical area  —
sunrise in North Malabar
North Malabar
Location of North Malabar
in Kerala, Pondicherry
Coordinates 11°41′38″N 75°32′13″E / 11.69389°N 75.53694°E / 11.69389; 75.53694Coordinates: 11°41′38″N 75°32′13″E / 11.69389°N 75.53694°E / 11.69389; 75.53694
Country India
State Kerala, Pondicherry
Assembly constituency 24
Civic agency Northern Range (Kerala) and Mahé Sub-Division (Pondicherry)
Population

Density

4,800,000(approx.) [1] (2001)

819 /km2 (2,121 /sq mi)

Literacy 94.52%% 
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area 264 square kilometres (102 sq mi)

North Malabar (Malayalam: വടക്കേ മലബാര്‍), is a historic as well as geographic distinction in India used to refer the area covering; present Kasaragod and Kannur Districts, Mananthavady taluk of Wayanad District and Koyilandy & Vatakara taluks of Kozhikode District in modern Kerala and the entire Mahé sub-Division of Pondicherry State.

Majority of North Malabar (except Mahé ) remained as one of the two administrative divisions of Malabar District (an administrative district of British India under Madras Presidency) till 1947 and later part of India's Madras State till 1956. Mahé remained under French jurisdiction until 13 June 1954. On November 1, 1956, the state of Kerala was formed by the States Reorganisation Act merging the Malabar District, Travancore-Cochin [excluding four southern taluks, which were merged with Tamil Nadu], and the of Kasaragod taluk of South Kanara District.

The area of North Malabar begins at Korapuzha in the south and ends at Manjeshwaram in the north of Kerala and traditionally comprises erstwhile princely principalities and fiefdoms of Kolathu Nadu, Kadatha Nadu and southern parts of Tulu Nadu.

Even during ancient and early medieval periods, North Malabar retained her distinct political identity. Cheras at no point of time could impose their full control on this zone and in many sense have features which set it apart from rest of Kerala culturally.

Contents

Culture, Geography and its Folk

The socio-cultural background and geography of this area have many distinctions in contrast to remainder of Kerala.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8] The demographic distribution comprise of native Hindus, native Mappila-Muslims, native Jains and migrant-Christian communities and is characterized by distinct socio-cultural customs and behavior. The people of North Malabar have striven to preserve their distinct and unique identity and heritage from ancient times , through colonial times into modern political India. Until early twentieth century there were cultural taboos among various communities from North Malabar for their women in marrying from souther n territories.[9][10]Even in modern times it is not uncommon to see “alliances from Malabar region preferred” in matrimonial columns of native North Malabar families irrespective of their ethno-religious background within this area. Interestingly, traditionally North Malabar has remained the fountain source for erstwhile aristocracy to many southern territories of Kerala through displacement and adoptions including the Travancore Royal Family. The Northern Malabar identity and pride is often possessively guarded by its natives of all ethnic and religious background , giving the impression akin to a sacerdotal supremacy.

Korapuzha river - The Entrance to North Malabar Region - was considered as the cordon sanitaire between the North Malabar and South Malabar in the erstwhile district of Malabar
Theyyam - The ancient ritual art of North Malabar

Some peculiar social and cultural and historical features are:

1. In pre-democratic era, Marumakkathayam-matriliniality was more widely prevalent among the natives of North Malabar thus including the Muslim community and the Nambudiri community of Payyanur in addition to the other traditional matrilinial communities such as Nayars and Thiyyas. Even the practice of matriliniality was distinctly different and was predominantly matrilinial virilocal. Unlike other parts of erstwhile matrilinial-Kerala, polyandry was a strict taboo in North Malabar and exceptional customs such as Putravakaasham (purse/estate grants to children of male members) were occasionally allowed in matrilineal-North Malabar.[11][12]

2. The landlords of Malabar during colonial and pre-colonial times were the largest landlords of Kerala and the political authority during this time was decentralized in contrast to southern principalities; with the station of Kolathiri although immensely respected was politically titular. Interestingly, the Kolathiri Kings of North Malabar had the ritualistic status of Perumaal and thereby his official dignities (sthanis) retain their dignity all over Kerala excepting the Rajarajashwara temple at Taliparamba. In addition, the lineages in North malabar claim and assert superior ritual-rank clan by clan to their equivalent clans from southern principalities.

3. Prevalence and adherence to a variant of malayalam calendar

4. Unique ritualistic art-forms like Theyyam and Thidambu Nritham.

5. The major festival of Hindus in this region is Vishu instead of Onam (which is the major festival of Hindus in rest of Kerala). In North Malabar, Vishu is celebrated as New Year. Because, the Kollavarsham month Medam (Malayalam: മേട മാസം) - which is parallel to first Tamil month Chithirai (Malayalam: ചിത്തിര മാസം) - is the first month of the year for natives of North Malabar. Vishu festival is spread to two days Cheriya (small) Vishu and Valiya (main) Vishu. Unlike rest of Kerala it is not uncommon to see Hindu natives of this region cook and eat non-veg food during their festivals including Vishu & Onam and sometimes even in marriage households.

6. People from all religions participate in major festival of Temples, Mosques and Churches. Few examples are : Nadapuram Mosque, Mahe Church, Moonnu Pettumma Palli Pappinisseri and Theyyam ritual art.

7. Unlike rest of Kerala, natives of North Malabar mix Coconut paste with Sambar (Malayalam: സാമ്പാര്‍)- the most common dish of South India.[13][14][15]

8. North Malabar cuisine is noted for its variety of dishes like chutneys, pancakes, steamed cakes and various dishes such as Kalathappam (Malayalam: കലത്തപ്പം), Kinnathappam (Malayalam: കിണ്ണത്തപ്പം), Uruttu Chammanthi (Malayalam: ഉരുട്ട് ചമ്മന്തി), Poduthol (Malayalam: പൊടുത്തോല്‍), Pathiri (Malayalam: പത്തിരി), Chatti Pathiri (Malayalam: ചട്ടി പത്തിരി), moodakadamban. The bakery-cuisine is well developed and has led to large segments of natives engaged in popular bakeries in Chennai, Bangalore, Mumbai, Coimbatore, Mysore, Pune and Southern Kerala.

9. People are characterized by a stronger sense of socio-political aspirations often leading to larger number of political violence in the area.

10. Textile, Beedi, hand-weaving, plywood and coir represent important industries and cashew, Cinnamon (Asia's largest farm) and pepper are important cash crops.

11. Dichotomy : North malabar represent on of the earliest and largest pockets of exposure to other cultures in Kerala through Chalukyas, Hoysalas, Tuluvas, Rashtrakutas, Kodavas, Tulus, Arabs, Persians, Portuguese, Dutch, French, British, and through early employment and migrations in government and military services from the time of its incorporation in Madras Presidency and yet conservatively possessive of its identity preferring a "geographical endogamy" culture.

Nadapuram Masjid Pond - An indigenously designed pool

12. North Malabar represents the only geographical entity where a quasi-independent Islamic Kingdom viz. Arakkal (Malayalam: അറയ്ക്കല്‍ രാജവംശം) existed as a nominal vassal of the Kolathiri rulers.

Arakkal Museum - Reminds nobleness of the only Islamic Kingdom in Kerala

Calendar system

The version of Malayalam calendar or Kollavarsham practiced in central/south Kerala excepting North Malabar began on August 25 825 A. D and the year commences with Simha-raasi (Leo) and not in Mesha-raasi (Aries) as in other Indian calendars. Although there are several accounts, current, recorded and heresay about the commencement of the Kollam era , however in erstwhile North Malabar / Kolathunadu, the Kollam era is reckoned from the next month, Kanya-rasi (Virgo) (September 25) instead. This variation has two interesting accounts associated with it.[16]

(1) The traditional text Kerolopathi attributes the introduction of Kollam era to Shankaracharya. So if you convert the word Aa chaa rya vaa ga bhed ya (meaning Shankaracharya's word/law is unalterable) in to numbers in the Katapayadi notation it translates into 0 6 1 4 3 4 1 and these written backwards gives the age of the Kali yuga on the first year of the Kollam era. Kali day 1434160 would work out to be September 25, 825 A.D which corresponds to the beginning of Kollam era in North Malabar, i.e. the first day of the Kanya-raasi (Virgo) .

(2) The second account is that Kollam era commenced in Malabar from the date on which the then King of Kerala, Cheraman Pallibana Perumal adopted the religion of Islam and set sail from the port of Pantalaayani-Kollam in North Malabar.

Thavam Church Cherukunnu proclaimes the presence of Christians in North Malabar since ancient days

Dialects

There are several dialects of Malayalam prevalent in North Malabar and loan words , excluding the huge number of words from Sanskrit and Tamil, originated mostly due to the centuries long interactions between the native population of North Malabar and the trading (horse and spice trading) powers of the world. These included trading contacts with Arabia, Persia, Israel, China, South Canara , Mysore, Kodagu and European colonial powers for several centuries. Some of these dialects are Kasaragod Malayalam, Mappila dialect of Malayalam etc. In modern times younger generation from North Malabar in particular and Malabar in general often face ridicule and taunt from their peers with other Malayalam dialects in schools and colleges and often face immense pressure and are co-erced to feel ashamed of their dialect. The youth of North Malabar and Malabar in general are trying their best to preserve this language and strive to conserve their dialects from the influence of supplanted text book Malayalam for conversation. However majority of the young-adult Keralites from other provinces who are ignorant of the rich melting culture of Malabar dialects are uncomfortable with this form of Malayalam and increased awareness of the rich heritage of Malabar dialects and their phonetic, semantic and syntax may be the way to future .

Bekal Fort - The new destination of European Tourists to India
Some influences are enumerated
Loaned from Usages
Hebrew Shalom/salaam aayi meaning died (lit. entered the state of peace).
Arabic Bejaar meaning anxiety; Matlab meaning consequence; Barkat/Varkkat meaning Value are few examples
Portuguese Veeppa meaning “basket“,
Cryptic Sanskrit tendencies In North Malabar fish curry is referred to as Malsya-curry (from the Sanskrit word Matsya for fish) rather than southern usages of Meen-curry. Similarly, feeling hungry is Paikkunnu rather than southern usages of Vishakkunnu. Other examples are annam instead of Choru (cooked rice), Dhani instead of kaashukaaran (rich man), the word amba (mother) for cow , gauli (lizard) etc.

Historic immigrations into North Malabar

The 3 important waves of immigrations of historic significance are enumerated below:

Tulu Brahmin immigration

In 1617 A.D Kolathiri Raja, Udayavarman, wished to become Kshatriya by performing Hiranyagarbham. Since the Namboothiris were not prepared, Udayavarman brought 237 families of ShivallyTulu Brahmins from Gokarna and settled them in five counties namely Cheruthazham, Kunniriyam, Arathil, Kulappuram and Vararuchimangalam of North Malabar.[17] For the 237 families to worship, Sree Raghavapuram temple (Hanuman Kavu) at Pilathara was assigned and they considered it as their village temple. The 93 Edukunchi families out of it had the hereditary trusteeship of Cheruthazham Sreekrishnapuram temple, 62 Gunavantham families that of Arathil Sreebhadrapuram temple and the 82 Vilakkoor families that of Udayapurath Haripuram temple. These 237 families adopted the customs of local Nambudiri Brahmins and came to be referred to as Embranthiris.

Para-sailing in Progress at Payyambalam - A new initiative

Christian immigration

The landlords in North Malabar were the largest land-holders in Kerala, however the introduction of Kerala Land reforms bill in 1957 sent these landlords into panic driven selling spree of their dry lands and forest lands. This was followed by immigration of the Knanite-Christians into the North Malabar Region in search of virgin land to cultivate and to get relief from the poverty and financial strain caused by the Second World War under the direction of Prof. V.J. Joseph Kandoth , Bishop Mar Alexander Chulaparambil.[18][19] The Diocese of Kottayam bought 1,800 acres (7.3 km2) of land in the Kasargod area in 1942. The new venture was announced in all the parishes of southern Kerala and applications were invited and each family was allotted 11.5 acres (47,000 m2) of land 1943. The emigrants from all southern Kerala parishes reached cochin by boat and from there by train to Shornur and Kanhangad. A team of priests, especially of the O.S.H. Society and laymen were sent ahead to prepare the ground and to receive them on their arrival and the local area name was changed from Echikkol to Rajapuram.In the same pattern of the project of Rajapuram the diocese organized another settlement at Madampam near Kannur. The Diocese bought 2,000 acres (8.1 km2) of land and 100 families migrated to the new area on May 3, 1943. The settlement was called Alexnagar after the name of Bishop Mar Alexander Chulaparambil. Madathumala in Kasargod District at its eastern border with the Karnataka state was the venue of a third settlement of 45 families. The land was purchased on September 26, 1969 and the settlement inaugurated on February 2, 1970 was dedicated to Bl. Virgin Mary, and was called Ranipuram. Though there were initial difficulties due to wild animals, Ranipuram gradually prospered and today there is also a Government tourist center at Ranipuram. The Diocese of Kottayam made also arrangements with the Latin Ordinaries to have pastoral ministry and liturgical celebration according to their own Syro-Malabar Rite. Presently, one third of the Knanaya Catholic population is in the Malabar area.

A Tea Estate in Mananthavady - Where Nature's beauty excels

In addition, taking advantage of the selling spree of landlords of Malabar in general and more particularly the larger landlords of North Malabar, several other Travancore Christian families also immigrated into Malabar to purse agriculture. These migrations peaked during 1960-71.

Immigration of teaching staff

The number of large land owning private-Tharavad-owned schools proliferated in North Malabar in the first half of twenth century in colonial Malabar due to (1) the lure for government grant-in-aid for such enterprises from 1939 (2) corporate expansion of land owning Tharavads (3) to decrease European engineered proletysing of depressed classes. These schools often had teaching staff from educated family members.[20] In democratic Kerala however many of these schools evolved as public and government enterprises and lead to recruitment of teachers from southern provinces which led to the immigration of teaching staff of all ethno-religious backgrounds , many of whom preferred to settle in the area permanently.

Main Campus Entrance of Kannur University at Mangattuparambu (Wiki Map : [5])

Historic emigrations to Southern Kerala

The 3 important waves of emigrations of historic significance are enumerated below:

Dispersement of erstwhile ruling elite

During the period of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan from 1766 to 1792 multiple military invasions, plunder and systematic forcible conversions were performed in North and South Malabar alike.[21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41] Fearing forcible conversion, a significantly large section (Chieftains and Brahmins) of Malabar chose to take refuge in the erstwhile Kingdom of Travancore as Travancore had an alliance (Treaty of Mangalore) with the English Company according to which "an aggression against Travancore would be viewed as equivalent to declaration of war against the English". Thus at various time points between 1766 to 1792 all female members and many male members of different royal families of North and South Malabar (Chirackal, Parappanad, and Calicut), and chieftains families (Punnathoor, Nilambur, Kavalapara, Azhvanchery Thamprakkal (titular head of all Namboothiri Brahmins) ) took asylum in Travancore and temporarily settled down in different parts of Travancore. Even after the fall of Tipu Sultan's regime in Srirangapatnam, some of the Malabar nobility, wholly or partly, preferred to stay back in Travancore because of fear of atrocities on return. The prominent aristocratic lineages in southern Kerala that claim their origin from Malabar through displacement during this period are (1) Neerazhi Kovilakam, (2) Gramathil Kottaram, (3) Paliyakkara, (4) Nedumparampu, (5) Chempra Madham, (6) Ananthapuram Kottaram, (7) Ezhimatoor Palace, (8) Aranmula Kottaram, (9) Varanathu Kovilakam, (10) Mavelikkara, (11) Ennakkadu, (12) Murikkoyikkal Palace, (13) Mariappilly, (14) Koratti Swaroopam, (15) Kaippuzha Kovilakam, (16) Lakshmipuram Palace, and (17) Kottapuram.

Muzhappilangad Beach - The only Drive-in-Beach of Kerala

Adoptions of erstwhile ruling elite

The Kolathiri rulers of North Malabar has been a constant source for providing heirs to the Travancore Royal Family by permitting some of its matrilineal branches of members to make settlements outside Malabar and be adopted. The first adoption took place around 1315 whereby the two princesses of the Kolathiri family were installed as Senior and Junior Rānis of Attingal, with the titles of Āttingal Mootha Thampurān and Āttingal Elaya Thampurān respectively. Adoptions into the Travancore Royal Family followed in 1684, 1688, 1718, 1748 and 1788 until the 19th century. The celebrated Mārthanda Varma the Great was a result of the 1688 adoption and his successor Dharmarājā who fought and defeated Tipu Sultan of Mysore was an offspring of the 1718 adoption. The weak Balarama Varma who ruled after Dharmarājā in the early 19th century belonged to the 1748 line. The famous Maharanis Gowri Lakshmi Bayi and Gowri Parvati Bayi belonged to the 1788 line as did the Maharajahs Swāthi Thirunāl, Uthram Thirunāl, Āyilyam Thirunāl, Visākham Thirunāl and Moolam Thirunāl.

Economic migration in democratic India

In 1956, the State of Kerala was formed on linguistic basis, merging Travancore, Cochin and Malabar regions and the first Kerala Legislative Assembly was formed on March 1, 1957. The subsequent 50 years saw migration of lawyers, politicians, businessmen and government officials from North Malabar to southern cities of Kerala especially Cochin and Trivandrum.However many of these families still retain their link to their natal area through marriage association, partial retention of natal property and often a characteristic sacerdotal North Malabar self-identity.

Folk Arts (Malayalam: നാടന്‍ കലകള്‍)

North Malabar has a very rich and nourishing history for folk-art, culture, traditions and Arts. Of late, the Govt. Kerala has realised the need to promote the folk arts of North Malabar and constituted an institution viz. Kerala Folklore Academy at Kannur in North Malabar.

Some of the major folk and ritual arts of this region are illustrated below:


Theyyam (Thirra)

Theyyam (Malayalam: തെയ്യം) is ritual art performed since ancient days in North Malabar. In this form of art, a man will be fabricated as God’s symbol. In Kadathanadan Area (i.e. Present Vadakara), Theyyam is known as Thirra (Malayalam: തിറ). The performance is conducted on a stage called Theyya-thara in this area. There are around 400 types Theyyams. The weird head-hoods, colourful attires and body painting and dazing performances are amazing. Each type has a distinguishing headgear and costume made out of natural materials like coconut leaves and bark. Musical accompaniments are chenda (Malayalam: ചെണ്ട), elathalam (Malayalam: ഇലത്താളം) and kuzhal (Malayalam: കുഴല്‍) (horn).

Theyyam - A Ritual Art of North Malabar


Thottam Pattu

Thottam Pattu (Malayalam: തോറ്റം പാട്ട്) is vocal ballad sung just before performing Theyyam ritual. These are played in Theyyam temples before the commencement of Theyyam Art.

Thottam Pattu - A invocative prayer as a ritualistic l Art of North Malabar

Kalaripayattu

Kalaripayattu (Malayalam: കളരിപയറ്റ്)is a very famous martial art which was originated from North Malabar. It is known as indigenous martial art of India. This has been developed between the 9th and 12th centuries.

Kalaripayattu - A Martial Art of North Malabar


Vadakkan Pattukal

The Ballads of North Malabar or the Vadakkan Pattukal (Malayalam: വടക്കന്‍ പാട്ടുകള്‍) extol the adventures of brave men and women of North Malabar, set against a feudal and medieval background, the stories celebrate the valour and skills of the renowned characters. The Vadakkan Pattukal reflect the peak of Kerala folk-poetry and these ballads are associated with Kadathanadu of North Malabar. The movie Oru Vadakkan Veeragatha capitalised on the popularity of these stories.

Vadakkan Pattukal - The Ballads of North Malabar


Thidambu Nritham

Thidambu Nritham (Malayalam: തിടമ്പ് നൃത്തം‍) (dance with the replica of the deity) is a ritual dance performed in Temples. This is one among many rich art traditions of North Malabar. It is mainly performed by Namboothiris, and rarely other Brahmin communities.

Thidambu Nritham - A Temple Art from North Malabar


Poorakkali

Poorakkali (Malayalam: പൂരക്കളി) is a ritualistic folk art of North Malabar. This is a traditional art form performed by a group of people chanting the holy verses from 'Ramayana' or 'Bagavata'. This is a type of dance performed by exclusively male members of the society during the nine day Pooram festival in Bhagavathy temples. Payyannur, Trikaripur and nearby places like Vengara, Ramanthali, Karivellur, are very famous for this art form.

Poorakkali - A Folk Art of North Malabar


Kolkali

Kolkali (Malayalam: കോല്‍ക്കളി) is an exclusive traditional art of North Malabar. This is the one and only Folk Art which is performed by two religions viz. Hindus and Muslims. This art is also performed and conducted by Men and Women. Muslim Kolkali is bit different from Hindu's Kolkali. Muslims perform this art as a form of entertainment during social gatherings and marriages. Whereas the Hindus perform this at the temple festivals. With its rapid limb movements and simultaneous chanting of folksong, Kolkali draw the attention of one and all. The players moving in pairs, hit their batons (koles) to the opponent’s one in a methodical way in tune with folksongs sung in an enchanting manner. It is played according to Vaithari or Thalam by the Gurukkal (Teacher).

The typical Kolkali group will contain sixteen to twenty members. One among them will sing the folksong and it will be chorused by rest. Harmonizing with the changes in new generation of the youth, Kolkali like all other folk-art of North Malabar, has also changed its look and style. The famous Kolkali groups are in Kasaragod District.

Kolkali - An evershining Folk Art of North Malabar


Mappila (Muslim) Folklore

The Mappila folklore has deep roots in the region. The major Mappila arts of North Malabar are :

After Malappuram, almost all the famous artists of these Mappila arts are from North Malabar.

Chandragiri Puzha - (Malayalam: പയസ്വിനി) The northern end of this region

List of personalities from North Malabar

  • K. Kelappan - was the founder President of Nair Service Society later he became the Principal of a school run by the society . He fought for social reforms on one hand and the British on the other. He was a great revolutionary, social reformer and crusader for justice to the backward classes. He was called Kerala Gandhi.
  • V.P.Shankaran Nambiar (Industrialist and Businessman) Established first match factory in North malabar in 1946 at Kuthuparamba.
  • P. T. Usha- The first Indian spinner to reach Olympics. Winner of several Gold Medals in Asian Games.
  • Lt Gen Padmanabhan Nambiar Ex Adjutant General Indian Army is from the famous Kadangot Tharavadu
  • Ayillyath Kuttiari Gopalan Nambiar born on October 1904 to March 22, 1977, popularly known as A. K. Gopalan or AKG, was an Indian communist leader.
  • Erambala Krishnan Nayanar (December 1919 - May 2004) born in Kalliasseri, Kannur was a prominent Indian political leader of the Communist Party of India (Marxist). He held the post of Chief Minister of Kerala three times.
  • K.P.P. Nambiar (Founder of Keltron- Kerala Electronics complex Limited. Former Secretary to Government of India, Department of Electronics, New Delhi)
  • T.P.G. Nambiar (Chairman and founder of BPL group -British Physical Laboratories Ltd.)
  • T. V. Chandran (The Great Film Director of Malayalam Film Industry.)
  • Vineeth born on 23 August 1969, a South Indian film actor and classical dancer
  • M. N. Nambiar (1919 —2008) was a film actor in Tamil cinema and had been in the film industry for more than 50 years
  • Kaitheri Ambu Brother in law of Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja. Famous for his daring military exploits.
  • Kannavath Sankaran Minister of Pazhassi Raja who was active in resistance to Mysore and British invaders.
  • Cherusseri Nambudiri (1466–1471) author of Krishnagaattha - a scholar who decorated the royal assembly of Raja Udayavarman of Kolathunaadu
  • Panakkad Nambudiri (1624-1694 AD) from Edakkad and author of Prasna margam a seminal treatise in Horary astrology.
  • Damodaran Nambudiri author of the astrological treatise Muhoorthaabharanam from Thriprangod near Taliparamba.
  • Sreenivasan a famous Malayalam Film Actor and Director.
  • K.P.R. Gopalan (Veteran Communister leader)
  • K.P.R. Rairappan (Another veteran Communister leader)
  • K.K. Vijayan Nambiar - Eminent astrologer.

See also

North Malabar Wiki Links

References

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  3. ^ Eric J. Miller (1954), Caste and Territory in Malabar, American Anthropological Association
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  12. ^ [3]
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  14. ^ Malabar Sambar recipe – All recipes India
  15. ^ []
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  31. ^ Freedom Struggle in Kerala by Sardar K.M. Panicker.
  32. ^ Sakthan Thampuran by P. Raman Menon, Mathrubhoomi Publication, 1989.
  33. ^ Life of Raja Kesavadas by V.R. Parameswaran Pillai, N.B.S. Publications, Kottayam, 1973.
  34. ^ Chronicles and Reports originating from Trippunithura, Calicut, Palghat and other seats of Kerala Royal families and from Temples of Trichur and Carmichael Christian Mission, Varappuzha.
  35. ^ Bhasha Poshini of Chingam 10, 1099 (August, 1923), Article on Tipu Sultan by Sardar K.M. Panicker.
  36. ^ Malabar Kalapam of 1921 by K. Madhavan Nair.
  37. ^ Travancore History by P. Sankrunni Menon.
  38. ^ Tipu Sultan X-rayed by Dr. I.M. Muthanna, Usha Press, Mysore 1980.
  39. ^ Articles, literary works etc. of Elamkulam Kunjan Pillai, Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer, Vadakkumkoor Raja Raja Varma, and Shri Govinda Pillai.
  40. ^ Zamorins in Kerala by K.V. Krishna Iyer.
  41. ^ Tipu Sultan by B.N. Jog.



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