Upper Amazon Arawakan

Upper Amazonian Arawakan
Inland Northern Maipuran
Northern Amazon
Linguistic classification: Arawakan
  • Northern
    • Upper Amazonian Arawakan
Western Nawiki
Eastern Nawiki
Central (Orinoco)
Ethnologue code: 415-16

The Upper Amazon Maipurean languages, aka North Amazonian or Inland Northern Maipuran, are Arawakan languages of the northern Amazon in Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, and Brazil.


Kaufman (1994)

Kaufman (1994) gives the following breakdown (Aikhenvald's names of branches in parentheses):

  • Western Nawiki (Colombian)
    • Wainumá group (†)
      • Wainumá (†)
      • Mariaté (†)
      • Anauyá (†)
    • Piapoko group
      • Achagua (Achawa)
      • Piapoco
      • Amarizana (†)
      • Caviyari (Cabiyarí) (†?)
    • Warekena group
      • Guarequena (Warekena)
      • Mandahuaca (Mandawaka)
    • Río Negro group (†)
      • Jumana (Yumana) (†)
      • Pasé (†)
      • Cawishana (†)
    • Yucuna group
      • Yucuna (Jukuna)
      • Guarú (†)
  • Eastern Nawiki (Upper Rio Negro)
    • Tariana
    • Karu group
      • Kurripako (aka Ipeka-Tapuia-Curripako)
      • Baniwa (Carútana-Baniwa)
      • Katpolítani-Moriwene-Mapanai (Kadaupuritana)
  • Resígaro (†?)
  • Central Upper Amazon (Orinoco) (†)
    • Baré group (†)
      • Marawá (†)
      • Baré (†)
      • Guinao (†)
    • Yavitero group (†)
      • Yavitero (†)
      • Baniva (Baniwa)
      • Maipure (†)
  • Manao (Middle Rio Negro) (†)
    • Manao (†)
    • Kariaí (Cariyai) (†)

He leaves the following Upper Amazon languages unclassified:

  • Shiriana (Xiriâna, Yabaána (†), Waraikú (Araikú) (†), Wiriná (†)

Aikhenvald (1999)

Aikhenvald (1999) classified a couple languages Kaufman left out (Shiriana, Yabaâna), but leaves several of his Western Nawiki languages and branches unclassified. Several languages—Maipure, Resígaro, Cawishana, Mandahuaca, and Guarequena—are moved. She treats the Yucuna, Karu (Baniwa), and Bare groups as single languages.

  • Western Nawiki (Colombian)
    • Maipure (†)
    • Resígaro (†?)
    • Achagua (Achawa)
    • Piapoco
    • Caviyari (Cabiyarí) (†?)
    • Yucuna (Jukuna) (dialect: KadaupuritanaGuarú]] (†))
  • Eastern Nawiki (Upper Rio Negro)
    • Tariana
    • Baniwa (Carútana-Baniwa) (dialects: Curripako, Catapolítani)
    • Guarequena (Warekena)
  • Central Upper Amazon (Orinoco) (†)
    • Mandahuaca (Mandawaka)
    • Yabaâna (†)
    • Baré (†) (dialect: Guinao)
    • Yavitero (†)
    • Baniwa of Guainia (Abane)
  • Manao (Middle Rio Negro) (†)

Unclassified (†): Wainumá (qtj), Mariaté (qtw), Anauyá (qjb), Amarizana (qah), Jumana (Yumana) (qtl), Pasé (qoj), Kariaí (Cariyai) (qce), Waraikú (Araikú) (qm3), Wiriná (qg7). Cabre was found in the area of the Western Nawiki languages, but only a few words are known. The "Ponares language" listed in Ethnologue may have been Piapoco or Achagua.

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