- List of former sovereign states
This page attempts to list the many extinct sovereign states, countries, nations, empires or territories that have ceased to exist as political entities, grouped geographically and by constitutional nature.
Criteria for inclusion
The criteria for inclusion in this list is similar to that of the List of states with limited recognition. To be included here, a polity must have claimed statehood and either:
- had de facto control over a territory, a population, a government, a capacity to enter into relations with other states, or
- have been recognised as a state by at least one other state.
Ancient and medieval states
States and territories grouped by geographical location
- In the Nordic countries, unions were personal, not unitary
- Icelandic Commonwealth
- Grand Duchy of Finland in personal union with imperial Russia
- Finnish Democratic Republic
- Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic in southern Finland
- Kingdom of Finland
- Kingdom of Iceland
- Kalmar Union - (the three Scandinavian kingdoms; dissolved)
- Union of Denmark-Norway - (dissolved)
- Union of Sweden and Norway - (dissolved)
- Frankish Empire (appr. 400-768/987)
- Carolingian Empire (751-877)
- Duchy of Brittany (851-1532)
- Kingdom of France (987-1792) (1814/15-1848)
- French First Republic (1792–1804)
- First French Empire (1804–1814/15)
- French Second Republic (1848–1852)
- Second French Empire (1852–1870)
- French Third Republic (1870–1940)
- Vichy France (1940–1944)
- French Fourth Republic (1946–1958)
- Kingdom of Corsica (1736)
- Corsican Republic (1755–1769)
- Anglo-Corsican Kingdom (1794–1796)
- County of Foix
- Republic of Goust
- Free States of Menton and Roquebrune (1848–1860)
- Holy Roman Empire (843-1806)
- Confederation of the Rhine (1806–1813)
- German Confederation (1815–1866)
- North German Federation (1867–1871)
- German Empire (1871–1918)
- Weimar Republic (1919–1933)
- Nazi Germany (Third Reich 1933-1945)
- Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), Bundesrepublik Deutschland (BRD) (also called West Germany 1949-1990) succeeded the German Reich in 1949, expanded in 1957 and 1990
- German Democratic Republic (1949–1990) (also called GDR, DDR, East Germany or Eastern Germany), its states acceded to Federal Republic of Germany in 1990
- Alsace-Lorraine (1918)
- Alsace Soviet Republic (1918)
- Anhalt (Duchy 1863-1918)
- Baden (Grand Duchy - 1806-1918)
- Bavaria (Kingdom - 1806-1918)
- Bremen (Free city until today)
- Frankfurt (Free city 1815-1866)
- Hamburg (Free city until today)
- Kingdom of Hanover (1814–1866)
- Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) (Electorate, 1803–1807, 1813–1866)
- Lübeck (Free city 1226-1937)
- Prussia (1525-1947)
- Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
- Saxony (Kingdom - 1806-1918)
- Württemberg (Kingdom - 1806-1918)
- Cisalpine Republic (1797–1802)
- Cispadane Republic (1796–1797)
- Republic of Cospaia (1440-1826)
- Sovereign Principality of Elba (1814–1815)
- Kingdom of Etruria (1801–1807)
- Italian Republic (Napoleonic) (1802–1805)
- Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic) (1805–1814)
- Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (1815–1866)
- Duchy of Lucca (1815–1847)
- Duchy of Mantua (1273-1707)
- Duchy of Massa and Carrara (15th century-19th century)
- Duchy of Milan (1395-1797)
- Duchy of Modena (1452-1796, 1815–1859)
- Kingdom of Naples (1285-1816)
- Duchy of Parma (1545-1859)
- Papal States (752-1870)
- Roman Republic (19th century) (1849)
- Kingdom of Sardinia (1324-1861)
- Kingdom of Tavolara (1836-1934?)
- Transpadane Republic (1796–1797)
- Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1569–1801, 1815–1859)
- Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1815–1860)
- Free Territory of Trieste (1947–1954)
- Republic of Venice (697-1797)
Modern United Kingdom
- Kingdom of England (927-1707)
- Kingdom of Wessex (508-927)
- Kingdom of Scotland (843-1707)
- Kingdom of Mann and the Isles (875-1266)
- Kingdom of Mann (1333–1399)
- Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1800)
- Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1649–1660)
- Principality of Wales (1216–1283)
- Kingdom of England (927-1707)
- Kingdom of Ireland ( -1171)
- Lordship of Ireland (1171-1541)
- Kingdom of Ireland (1541–1801)
- Kingdom of Osraige
- Kingdom of Aidhne
- Kingdom of Mide
- Kingdom of Uí Failghe
- Kingdom of Tara
- Kingdom of Dublin
- Kingdom of Breifne
- Kingdom of Leinster
- Kingdom of Connacht
- Kingdom of Munster
- Irish Free State (1922–1937)
- Prince-Bishopric of Liège (972-1795) annexed by France in 1795.
- United Belgian States (1789–1790)
- Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (1581–1795) (Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden/Provinciën) Independence from Spain after Eighty Years' War in 1581, conquered by Napoleon 1795.
- Batavian Republic (1795–1806) (Bataafse Republiek) France's vassal state.
- Kingdom of Holland (1806–1810) (Koninkrijk Holland/Royaume d'Hollande) Ruled by Louis Bonaparte, annexed by France 1810.
- In other former Comecon countries
- Serbian Principality (768-960)
- Kingdom of Croatia (925-1527)
- Serbian Grand Principality (1091–1217)
- Serbian Kingdom (1217–1346)
- Serbian Empire (1346–1371)
- Moravian Serbia (1371–1402)
- Serbian Despotate (1402–1459)
- Kingdom of Bosnia (1377–1463)
- Republic of Ragusa (1358-1808)
- Principality of Serbia (1817–1882)
- Kingdom of Serbia (1882–1918)
- Illyrian Provinces (1809–1816)
- Principality of Montenegro (1852–1910)
- Kingdom of Montenegro (1910–1918)
- State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (1918)
- Republic of Prekmurje (1919)
- Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918–1943)
- Free State of Fiume (1920–1924)
- Independent State of Croatia (1941–1945)
- Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1943–1992)
- Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992–2003)
- Serbia and Montenegro (2003–2006)
- Ottoman Empire (c.1281-1923)
- Lazistan Former part of Georgia, now part of Turkey
- Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (February 1918-May 1918)
- Republic of Mountainous Armenia (April 1921-July 1921)
- Caucasian Albania (4th century BCE - 8th century CE)
- Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan (1918–1920)
- Caliphate of Córdoba
- Crown of Aragon
- Crown of Castile
- Emirate of Granada
- Kingdom of Asturias
- Kingdom of Galicia
- Kingdom of León
- Kingdom of Navarre
- Suebic Kingdom of Galicia
- County of Barcelona
- County of Empúries
- County of Pallars Sobirà
- County of Urgell
- Principality of Catalonia
- Taifa of Almería
- Taifa of Badajoz
- Taifa of Córdoba
- Taifa of Denia
- Taifa of Lisbon
- Taifa of Málaga
- Taifa of Murcia
- Taifa of Seville
- Taifa of Toledo
- Taifa of Valencia
- Taifa of Zaragoza
- Taifa of Lleida
- Taifa of Tortosa
- Republic of Catalonia
- Visigothic Kingdom
- Couto Mixto
- In Afghanistan
- Durrani Empire (1747–1823)
- Kingdom of Iraq
- Ottoman Empire (c.1281-1923)
- Persian Soviet Socialist Republic in Gilan (Iran)
- Republic of Ararat
- Republic of Mahabad
- In Arab countries:
- United Suvadive Republic
- Kingdom of Mysore
- In the Far East
- In Southeast Asia
- Pattani kingdom
- Kingdom of Sarawak
- Sultanate of Johore
- Sultanate of Maguindanao
- Sultanate of Malacca
- Sultanate of Mataram
- Sultanate of Rajah Buayan
- Sultanate of Sulu
- North Vietnam
- South Vietnam
- In Burma
- Pyu city-states (c. 100 BC–c. 840 AD)
- Mon kingdoms (9th–11th, 13th–16th, 18th c.)
- Bagan Dynasty (849–1287, 1st Empire)
- Ava (1364–1555)
- Pegu (1287–1539, 1747–1757)
- Mrauk U (1434–1784)
- Taungoo Dynasty (1486–1752, 2nd Empire)
- Konbaung Dynasty (1752–1885, 3rd Empire)
- Shan States (1287–1557)
- Arakan (1287-1784)
North and Central America
Name Location Origin Fate Notes Indigenous peoples of the Americas The whole of North America (including the Inuit of the Arctic). Native Americans in the United States and the First Nations of Canada had established varying levels of governmental organization before contact with Europeans. The most advanced civilizations of North America were represented by the indigenous peoples in Mexico and Central America. All the native peoples were eventually incorporated into the United States, Mexico, Canada and Central America, but many retain various levels of self-government and autonomy within those nations. Cahokia Illinois, Missouri, Indiana, Kentucky and parts of Ohio. The population of the town at Cahokia exploded circa 1050 AD, indicating the establishment of a large "chiefdom". The population of Cahokia dispersed in the 14th Century, indicating the decline of the Cahokia "chiefdom". Other political bodies existed in the Mississippian culture; the Mississippian culture article has a list of Known Mississippian Chiefdoms. Huron Confederacy Central Ontario. Confederacy of five Iroquoian tribes and several smaller groups. Controlled trade in corn and furs in the upper Great Lakes area and sporadically through the Ottawa and St. Lawrence River valleys. The Hurons were dispersed by the Iroquois in 1649. Many fled to the northern Lake Michigan region and Quebec, while a large group joined the Iroquois. Iroquois Confederacy Upstate New York and surrounding areas. Formed before European contact; arguably as early as 31 August 1142, though also likely sometime in the 15th to the 17th Century. The Treaty of Canandaigua, signed in 1794, established relations between the United States government and the Iroquois; the treaty is still in force, though the Confederacy is no longer effectively an independent nation. Cherokee Nation Originally in the southeastern United States, primarily Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina, and parts of Alabama and Tennessee. Parts of The Nation (and its government structures) ended up in present-day Oklahoma. The original Cherokee Nation was unified from an interrelated society of city-states in the late 18th century. They enjoyed relatively peaceful relations with the Spanish, British, French, and later (with the exception of the Chickamauga factions), to the USA. The modern Cherokee Nation, the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians are the three federally recognized tribal successors to the original Cherokee Nation, being somewhat autonomous within the United States. Vermont Republic State of Vermont. Organized by Ethan Allen and others in 1777 from territory claimed by New York and New Hampshire. Admitted as a state to the United States of America in 1791. They were originally a part of British North America via the newly conquered province of Quebec. Originally known as Republic of New Connecticut, it had the first written national constitution in North America. State of Franklin Northeastern part of the Washington District, North Carolina (easternmost Tennessee). Seceded from North Carolina 23 August 1784. Government was largely abandoned and the area officially re-incorporated into North Carolina in 1789. Applied for admission to the United States as a separate state. Whether Franklin considered itself independent of the United States is unclear. State of Muskogee Western Florida, near Tallahassee, might claimed parts of Georgia (U.S. state) and Alabama. Creek and Seminole Indians under English adventurer William Augustus Bowles declared independence in 1799. Annexed by Spain in 1803. First Mexican Empire All of modern day Mexico, parts of modern day United States (California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Texas with parts of Colorado, Wyoming, Kansas and Oklahoma) and Central America (without Panama). After independence from the Kingdom of Spain, Mexico decided on a monarchical system of government, backed by Mexican conservatives and some liberals. A European prince was sought, but Spain prohibited any from taking the throne. Agustín I, in the meantime, was proclaimed emperor of Mexico in 1821. In December 1822, Generals Antonio López de Santa Anna and Guadalupe Victoria wrote and signed the Plan of Casa Mata, an agreement between the two generals, amongst other Mexican generals, governors, and high-ranking governmental officials, to abolish the monarchy and replace it with the United Mexican States, which was done in 1823. Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico, head of the Second Mexican Empire, adopted Agustin's grandsons. Their descendants live in exile. West Florida Gulf Coast of the United States, parts of present-day Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Rebelled and declared independence on 3 September 1810. The Republic lasted only 90 days. Formal reannexation was complete by 10 December 1810. Applied for admission to the United States as a separate state, but the U.S. refused to recognize it as such. Republic of Indian Stream Pittsburg, New Hampshire Formed 9 July 1832 in territory claimed by both the United States and Great Britain, where the treaty description of the border was unclear. Voted to annex to the United States in 1835, Britain relinquished claim in January 1836, and U.S. jurisdiction was acknowledged around May 1836. Republic of Texas Texas and some surrounding territory. Seceded from Mexico in 1836. Voluntarily annexed to the United States of America and admitted as a state in 1845. Annexation to the U.S. triggered the Mexican-American War the next year 1846. California Republic California, though based in Northern California. American settlers declared independence from Mexico in June 1846. Claimed by U.S. Navy for the United States of America in July 1846, and admitted as a state in 1850. The Republic was in Sonoma, California 30 miles north of San Francisco and has not covered a large area that became the present-day state of California in 1850. Alta California Southern California, centered in San Jose and Santa Barbara. After U.S. occupation of Los Angeles in 1846, the Californios revolted and defeated an American force on 30 September 1846, and organized a government and an army. Signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo accepting American sovereignty over California on 2 February 1848. By November 1846, the Californios had gained back control of all the territory south of San Francisco, leaving America in control of just San Diego and Monterey. Confederate States of America Southeastern United States of America, from Texas to Virginia. Political factions in the "border states" of Kentucky and Missouri declared themselves parts of the Confederacy and controlled small portions of those states early in the war. The major Indian tribes in Oklahoma signed an alliance with the Confederacy, and participated in its military efforts. Seceded from United States of America in 1861. Reintegrated into United States of America in 1865. Reconstruction ended in 1876, US troops withdrew as an occupation force in 1877. South Carolina was the first state to secede on Dec 20, 1860. Second Mexican Empire Modern day Mexico Mexico's second monarchy was formed when Napoleon III set Maximilian I, of the House of Habsburg, on the throne of Mexico in 1864. His consort was Carlota of Mexico, a Belgian princess. France occupied Mexico, starting in 1861. Many Mexicans, including the nobility, backed his government. Maximiliano's rule was blemished by constant conflict. Liberals found backing from United States after the Civil War in 1865, and the French withdrew in 1867, leaving Maximilian and his supporters on their own. Maximilian was captured and, on orders of Benito Juárez, executed in the Cerro de las Campanas near Querétaro. Republic of Manitoba Manitoba Founded in June 1867 by Thomas Spence at the town of Portage la Prairie in Rupert's Land or the "Northwest Territories". By late spring 1868, the Republic had been informed by the Colonial Office in London that its government had no power. The Province of Manitoba was organized within Canada on 12 May 1870, and promised the Metis people of Manitoba an autonomous government. The Great Republic of Rough and Ready Northern California Hoping to avoid paying a recently-introduced tax on new mining claims, in April 1850 residents of the town of Rough and Ready drew up articles of secession, forming the "Great Republic of Rough and Ready." The new country lasted only three months, until an Independence Day change of heart convinced the miners to vote themselves back into the union. Dominion of Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador. A former Crown Colony which had rejected confederation with Canada in 1869, the Dominion of Newfoundland was established on 26 September 1907. Newfoundland entered into confederation with Canada on 31 March 1949, becoming a province. In 1934, Newfoundland voluntarily gave up self-government and reverted to direct control from London. Olmec nation In and around Veracruz and Tabasco. Arose approximately 1200 BC. Decline through approximately 400 BC. First people to use zero. Toltec kingdom/empire Central Mexico. sometime after 750. Destroyed by Chichimeca ("barbarian") invasions around 12th Century AD. Aztec Empire Central Mexico, might extended northward to present-day U.S. by the Mexican border, and southward towards Central America (El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras). 1325, founded Tenochtitlan (present-day Mexico City). 1521, conquered by Hernán Cortés. When he and his crew first arrived in 1519, it was thought to be the world's largest city. Tlaxcala nation Tlaxcala, Mexico, north of Mexico City. unknown (present in 1521). Absorbed by Spanish conquest into New Spain. Never conquered by Aztec Empire, assisted Hernán Cortés in his campaign against the Aztecs in 1520. Zapotec kingdom Oaxaca and surrounding areas of southern Mexico. unknown (present in 1521). Submitted to Spain in 1551 after previous resistance against the Spaniards. Maya civilization Southern Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and Belize. Political structures formed by about 250 AD. Last Mayan kingdom conquered on 13 March 1697 by the Spaniards, and later the British in Belize. Mayan political structures tended to center around the person of the king; even when one king conquered another, the result was usually a tributary arrangement, and the identity of the conquered kingdom persisted. Northern America Viceroyalty of New Spain and Captaincy General of Guatemala Withdrew from Spain on November 6, 1813. It became the Mexican Empire. The United Provinces of Central America seceded from Mexico one year later (1814). Republic of the Rio Grande Mexican states of Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas, and the U.S. state of Texas along the Rio Grande river. Withdrew from Mexico on 17 January 1840. General Canales, commander of the forces of the Republic of the Rio Grande, accepted a command in the Mexican Army on 6 November 1840. The Republic of the Rio Grande claimed territory north to the Nueces River and the upper Medina River, territory also claimed by the Republic of Texas by 1845. Republic of Yucatán Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico (The modern states of Yucatán, Campeche and Quintana Roo) were later separated from the state of Yucatán. Declared independence 1840, due to dislike of centralization of Mexican government. Resolved differences with central government and rejoined partially to Mexico in December 1843 with self-government. Rejoined Mexico to obtain assistance against Mayans in the Caste War of Yucatán, treaty signed 17 August 1848. Republic of Yucatán declared neutrality in Mexican-American War 1846-48. United Provinces of Central America Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica with a southern portion of Chiapas, Mexico. Formed in aftermath of independence from Spain in 1823. Confederation dissolved civil war in 1840. Attempts were made to reunite in 1842-44, 1852, the 1880s, 1896–98 and 1921-22. Chan Santa Cruz Quintana Roo Territory. Formed during the Caste War of Yucatán, named about 1850. The eponymous capital was conquered by Mexico on 5 May 1901, though low-level fighting persisted for another 10 years. Withdrawal of British recognition and end of trade with Belize in 1893 led to eventual reconquest by Mexico. Republic of Sonora Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora Declared an independent state by filibuster William Walker January 10, 1854. Disestablished May 8, 1854. After he was captured William Walker was put on trial in California and acquitted by the jury.
Name Location Origin Fate Notes Republic of Acre present-day state of Acre, Brazil. Created 1899 declaring independence from Bolivia. Annexed by Brazil in the Treaty of Petrópolis. Three attempts at independence in 1899, 1900, and 1903. Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia present-day Eastern Patagonia in Argentina, and the Araucanía in Chile. Created 1860 by the French lawyer Orelie-Antoine de Tounens who was appointed king by indigenous Mapuches. It never controlled its vast territory and was an unrecognized state. Lost the only portion of land under its control, Perquenco, in 1862 to Chile. The micronation was allied with Napoleon III of France. Kingdom of Chimor Indigenous people of northern Peru and Ecuador. unknown (present in 1531). Incorporated into the Inca Empire in the 1470s. Chimors or the Chim migrated from Colombia over 1,000 years ago. Confederation of the Equator States of Pernambuco and others in the northeast of Brazil. unknown, might been formed in 1821. Incorporated into the Brazilian Empire in November 1824. Gran Colombia present-day Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama. Created 1819 during wars for independence from Spain. Broke apart in 1830, formally dissolved in 1831. Successor states were Colombia, which included present-day Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Its official name was República de Colombia: there never was a state called "Greater Colombia" or "Gran Colombia"; this is an addition by later historians in order to distinguish it from the present-day Republic of Colombia. Although the literal translation is "Great Colombia", historians have traditionally chosen to translate it as "Greater Colombia". Inca Empire large parts of modern Ecuador, Peru, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, north and north-central Chile, and southern Colombia. around 1197 Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire. Its capital was in Cuzco, Peru. Juliana Republic present-day Santa Catarina state of Brazil. Created as a separatist state from the Empire of Brazil on July 24, 1836. Dissolved as a result of the War of the Farrapos on November 15, 1839. The land was disputed with Paraguay and Uruguay. Liga Federal present-day Uruguay and the Mesopotamia region of Argentina, also known as the state of Parana. 1830's. It was reannexed to Argentina and Brazil (now Uruguay). The land was disputed with Paraguay and Uruguay. Peru-Bolivian Confederation Approximately present-day Peru and Bolivia, plus some of northern Chile and other territories. Created 1836 through union of Republic of North Peru, Republic of South Peru, and Bolivia. Dissolved as a result of the War of the Confederation, 1839. Another conflict, the War of the Pacific followed in the 1870s. The Chileans defeated the Bolivians and Peruvians. Chile annexed the Arica and Tacna provinces in 1881, but returned Tacna to Peru in 1928. Riograndense Republic present-day Rio Grande do Sul state of Brazil. Created as a separatist state from the Empire of Brazil in 1836. Dissolved as a result of the War of the Farrapos in 1845. Was disputed between Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay.
- See also: List of Great Lakes kingdoms and East African City-States
- Republic of Salè 1610-1627
- Republic of Bou Regreg 1627-1668
- Ashanti Empire fell to the United Kingdom in 1900
- Aro Confederacy fell to the United Kingdom in 1902
- Basutoland - 1868, to the United Kingdom
- Benin, fell in 1897 to the United Kingdom
- Buganda became Uganda
- Bunyoro made a British protectorate in 1897
- Burundi fell to Germany in 1899
- Dahomey conquered by France in 1894
- Fante Confederacy, 1874, to the United Kingdom
- Fulani Empire - annexed by France and the United Kingdom in 1903
- Ghana, (9th to 13th centuries, fell to Almoravids)
- Great Zimbabwe
- Pemba, Tanzania
- Rwanda 1894 to Germany
States and territories grouped by type
Former colonies, possessions, protectorates and territories
These were all colonies, most of which were renamed after their independence.
- Afars and Issas - French territory between 1967 and 1977, called French Somaliland before that. Became independent as Djibouti.
- Basutoland - Since 1868 a British protectorate, later colony (governed from South Africa). Became independent as Lesotho in 1966.
- Bechuanaland - Since 1884 a British protectorate, later colony (governed from South Africa). Became independent as Botswana in 1966.
- Belgian Congo - Belgian colony from 1908 until 1960, when the it became independent as the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo.
- British America - British interests in North America (now generally parts of the USA and Canada) until 1783 when Britain accepted the USA as independent. The Maritime Provinces of Canada are the descending colonies of what was then the British Colonies of America.
- British East Africa - British territory. Became Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda. Had own currency (British East African Shilling). Territory broke into new countries in 1960.
- British Guiana - became Guyana in 1966, disputed by Venezuela.
- British Honduras - became Belize in 1981, disputed by Guatemala.
- British India - became India and Pakistan in 1947 (and Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971).
- British North America - Some British interests in North America after the territory of the 13 former colonies became recognized as a new independent country, the USA, in 1783 (note: the colonies in question were, at the time of independence, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia; the land of the nominally newly independent territory included a number of Native American nations; also, entities that were already no longer colonies before independence included East Jersey, West Jersey, New Netherlands, New Sweden, and Plymouth Colony.)
- Congo Free State - Name of the state owned from 1884 by King Léopold II of Belgium, later mostly annexed by his country in 1908, then known as Belgian Congo.
- Dahomey - This African kingdom was acquired by France. In 1904, it was made part of the French West African federation. It became independent in 1960, changing its name in 1975 to Benin.
- Danish West Indies - Danish colony, sold in 1917 to the United States. Now known as the United States Virgin Islands.
- Dutch Guiana - became Suriname in 1975.
- French Equatorial Africa - A French federation of colonies, formed in 1910, containing the colonies of Gabon, Middle Congo, Chad and Ubangi-Shari. Each of these states became independent in 1960 (Ubangi-Shari as the Central African Republic).
- French Indochina - French territory until 1949. Became independent as Cambodia, Laos and Việt Nam in 1954.
- French Somaliland - became Afars and Issas then independent Djibouti in 1977, disputed by Somalia.
- French Sudan - A French colony, part of the French West African federation since 1904. In 1959 it formed the independent Mali Federation together with Senegal, which fell apart in 1960, after which the country was renamed Mali.
- French West Africa - dissolved into Mali, Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Niger, Guinea, Dahomey, Mauritania.
- German East Africa - became Tanganyika, now part of Tanzania, went to British rule during World War I (1914–18).
- German New Guinea - protectorate from 1884 until conquered by Australia in 1914, now part of Papua New Guinea.
- German South-West Africa - A German colony from 1884 to 1915, after which it became South African held territory until 1990, when the country became independent as Namibia by 1990.
- Gold Coast - A British colony since 1874, it became independent as Ghana in 1957.
- Hong Kong - colony of the United Kingdom, sovereignty transferred to the People's Republic of China on July 1, 1997, as a "Special Administrative Region".
- Insular Government of the Philippines - A territorial government in the Philippines under United States sovereignty. Succeeded in 1935 by the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, still under United States sovereignty.
- Indian princely states: over 550 principalities which were protectorates of the British crown were merged with the successor states of British India in the years after independence in 1947.
- Italian East Africa - Italian colonies of Eritrea and Italian Somaliland together with occupied Ethiopia. Italy invaded and occupied Ethiopia from 1936 to 44.
- Italian North Africa - became Libya in 1956, occupied by British and French troops after Italy's defeat in World War II.
- Macao - colony of Portugal, sovereignty transferred to the People's Republic of China on December 20, 1999, as a "Special Administrative Region".
- Middle Congo - A French colony, previously named French Congo, became independent as the Republic of the Congo in 1960.
- Minorca - British colony returned to Spain in 1810. Nearby Majorca and the Balearic Isles was occupied by Napoleonic France from 1801 to 15, also returned to Spain.
- Netherlands East Indies - A collection of Dutch colonies, officially since the end of the Napoleonic Wars, up to 1799 controlled by the Dutch East India Company but occupied and administered by the British in an interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars under the authority of the Kew Letters. Became independent as Indonesia in 1945.
- Netherlands Guiana - became Suriname, with parts of British Guiana and French Guyana disputed in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
- Netherlands New Guinea - adjacent to the Netherlands East Indies until 1949, became part of Indonesia in 1963 as Irian Jaya.
- New France was conquered by the United Kingdom; various parts of it later became part of Canada and the United States.
- New Granada - A Spanish colony made up by present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela (which then included Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago). It was established in 1717 and dissolved in 1810 when Venezuela declared its independence.
- New Hebrides - An Anglo-French condominium until 1980. Became independent as Vanuatu.
- New Netherlands - A Dutch colony in the present-day United States, mainly in and around the state of New York. It was conquered by England in 1664.
- New Spain - The Spanish empire, from 1521 to 1821, the Americas with borders from California to the Carolinas, from Curaçao to Costa Rica, and from Colombia to Chile. The colony included Guam and the Philippines in Asia until 1898, Cuba and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean until 1898, parts of West Africa like Western Sahara, Liberia/Sierra Leone and Equatorial Guinea; and Oceania such as Micronesia and Solomon Islands. Spain briefly ruled over Portugal and its Portuguese colonies like Brazil, and throughout Africa and Asia from 1550 to 1648.
- Northern Rhodesia - became Zambia in 1964.
- Nyasaland - British protectorate, previously called British Central Africa, it was renamed Nyasaland in 1907. It became part of a federation with Rhodesia in 1953, and became independent as Malawi in 1964.
- Okinawa was part of the United States Pacific Trust Territory from 1945 to 1972, when the island chain (Ryukyu Islands) was returned to Japan.
- Orange River Sovereignty - became the Orange Free State in 1854.
- Oubangui-Chari, also spelled Ubangi-Shari - part of French Equatorial Africa (above), became Central African Republic in 1961.
- Panama Canal Zone - US administered until 1979. Became part of Panama.
- Commonwealth of the Philippines - a territory of the USA, which became independent in 1946 as the Republic of the Philippines.
- Portuguese East Africa - became Mozambique in 1975.
- Portuguese Guinea - became Guinea-Bissau in 1975.
- Portuguese India (including Goa, Daman and Diu) - became part of India in 1961.
- Portuguese Timor - The eastern side of the island of Timor was a Portuguese colony until 1975, when independence was declared as East Timor. Indonesian troops seized the country, but the country was finally declared independent in 2002.
- Portuguese West Africa - became Angola in 1975.
- Rhodesia - name for Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) while unilaterally claiming independence, 1965-1979.
- Rio Muni - Former Spanish colony, then part of territory of Spanish Guinea until 1968. Became independent as Equatorial Guinea.
- Ruanda-Urundi - UN Trusteeship (Belgian) until 1962. Became independent as Burundi and Rwanda.
- Kingdom of Sarawak - Independent 1842, became a British protectorate 1888-1946.
- Protectorate of South Arabia - Federation until 1967, consisting of British colony of Aden and numerous protectorates. Became independent as People's Republic of Yemen (from 1970 People's Democratic Republic of Yemen) known as 'South Yemen'.
- South-West Africa - In 1915, South Africa occupied the German colony of South-West Africa, which it held under mandate until 1922, after which they remained ruling the territory until its independence in 1990 as Namibia (since 1994 also including Walvisbaai).
- Southern Rhodesia - British colony, unilaterally declared itself independent as Rhodesia in 1965, renamed Zimbabwe Rhodesia 1979, then gained international recognition as Zimbabwe 1980.
- Spanish East Indies - Spanish colony in the Philippines and in Micronesia until 1898. After the Spanish-American War, portions were ceded to the United States while the rest were sold to Germany.
- Spanish Guinea - became Equatorial Guinea. Consisted of two former colonies of Rio Muni and Fernando Po.
- Spanish Sahara - now generally known as Western Sahara, but claimed by and divided between Morocco and Mauritania in 1976, later entirely by Morocco. The issues of sovereignty and international recognition have yet to be resolved.
- The Straits Settlements - British colony until 1946. Singapore became independent, the rest united with the Federated Malay States and the five Unfederated Malay States to form Malayan Union.
- Tanganyika - British territory until 1961. From then independent until 1964, when it became part of Tanzania.
- The colonies of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Upper Canada and Lower Canada (later, the Province of Canada), Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland, plus the territory of Rupert's Land, spent much time reorganizing themselves into various patterns; they all eventually became part of Canada.
- West Indies under various European colonial rulers: Britain, France, Portugal, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Netherlands, Prussia/Germany, Austria, Courland, Scotland (before 1707), England (over Newfoundland), the Knights of St. John (Malta); and the United States.
- Various concessions.
These states are now dissolved into a number of states, none of which retain the old name.
- Austria-Hungary - This double monarchy was formed in 1867 from the Habsburg empire, having an Austrian and a Hungarian part. In 1918, the empire was split into Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia (itself later dismembered), Poland and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; itself later dismembered). Also the Lemko-Rusyn Republic, ceded to Poland.
- British India was partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan in 1947. The secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971 brought a third country into existence.
- Federal Republic of Central America also incorrectly known in English as United States of Central America-- independent 1823; fell apart into separate states in civil war 1838-1840.
- Czechoslovakia - State created from parts of Austria-Hungary, which dissolved after World War I. During 1939 - 1945 was dismembered into Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and Slovak State. In 1993 the country voluntarily split into two parts, the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
- Gran Colombia - Simón Bolívar forged this state from parts of the Spanish Empire. It split into Venezuela, New Granada and Ecuador. In 1863 New Granada changed its name to Colombia, and Panama gained its independence from it in 1903.
- Ireland before the British incorporated them in 1800, and when Ireland became an autonomous country in 1919, it was known as the "Four Provinces of Ireland" before 1922, when the Irish Free State was established.
- Mali Federation - In 1959 formed by Senegal and French Sudan, both parts of French West Africa, as an independent nation. It fell apart in 1960 into Senegal and Mali.
- Peru-Bolivian Confederacy - A union formed in 1836 by Peru and Bolivia and which lasted until 1839.
- Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (or The Commonwealth of the Two Nations) partitioned in 1772, 1793 and 1795 in three rounds among Russia, Prussia and Austria. These lands are further distributed today among Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia.
- Senegambia - Loose confederation between African countries of Senegal and Gambia that existed from 1982 to 1989.
- Serbia and Montenegro - Loose state union of the two remaining republics of the former Yugoslavia that was founded in 2003. Both countries became independent following the May 2006 referendum which decided in favor of the secession of Montenegro.
- Soviet Union, more formally known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (or USSR). Formed in 1922. Dissolved 1991-1992 into its constituent republics: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.
- United Arab Republic - A union formed by Egypt and Syria in 1958, later to include North Yemen in 1960. It was dissolved in 1961, though Egypt used the name until 1971. Other Pan-Arab unity agreements with Iraq and Jordan of the 1950s failed.
- United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1830) (Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden/Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas) created during the Congress of Vienna in 1815, dissolved to Belgium (revolted 1830), Luxembourg (left 1835, but the personal union with the King as Grand Duke ceased to exist since 1890) and Netherlands.
- United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1822) (Reino Unido de Portugal, Brasil e Algarves/Royaume-Uni de Portugal, Brésil et des Algarves) created in 1815 when Brazil was upgraded to the rank of Kingdom, once the Portuguese royal family was living in Rio de Janeiro since 1809. This Country was dissolved in 1822 when Brazil became independent.
- West Indies Federation - Federal state created by the United Kingdom in 1958 which encompassed most of its possessions in the Caribbean. The federation collapsed after Jamaica voted to separate.
- Tu'i Tonga - Lost states such as Samoa, Fiji, and other parts of Polynesia to foreign European powers (that is, Britain, France, Germany and the United States) by 1900.
- Yugoslavia - State created from parts of Austria-Hungary and Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro in 1918. Re-created after World War II dissolved in 1991. (Slovenia and Croatia declared independence in June 1991, Macedonia in September 1991, Bosnia and Herzegovina in April 1992. In 1992 Serbia and Montenegro founded a new country, FR Yugoslavia, that was later, in 2003, renamed into Serbia and Montenegro. Serbia and Montenegro itself was dismembered into its constituent republics of Serbia and Montenegro in June, 2006. Kosovo would later break away from Serbia to form its own nation.
These country names have been replaced. Only major and/or famous cases are listed, there are thousands of relatively obscure former names.
- Abyssinia was a name formerly used for most of Ethiopia
- Dahomey was a name formerly used for Benin until 1975
- Burma - Renamed Myanmar in 1989. The United States and some other nations do not recognize the ruling military junta of Myanmar and hence do not accept the legitimacy of the name change, continuing to use the name Burma in official communications.
- Central African Empire - temporary phase (1976–1979) in the existence of the Central African Republic.
- Ceylon - English name of Sri Lanka until 1972. Always known as "Sri Lanka" in the native Sinhalese Language.
- Empire of China - temporary phase (1915–1916) in the existence of the Republic of China.
- Irish Free State - renamed Éire (in Irish) and Ireland (in English) in 1937. Adopted the description Republic of Ireland in 1949.
- Ivory Coast - requested to be known as its untranslated name of Côte d'Ivoire in 1986. (Many languages keep on using their own translations of the name: Spanish: Costa de Marfil, Portuguese: Costa do Marfim, German: Elfenbeinküste, Dutch: Ivoorkust, Estonian: Elevandiluurannik)
- Democratic Kampuchea - Name of Cambodia from 1975 to 1979, before reverting to the original (1949 to 1975) name.
- Dominion of India (a.k.a. "Union of India") existed between 1947 and 1950. It became a republic in 1950 and took the name Republic of India.
- Khmer Republic - Name of Cambodia from 1970 to 1975.
- New Connecticut - Briefly, in 1777, the name of what became the Vermont Republic.
- Persia - Name of Iran in the west until 1935. Locally it has always been called Iran.
- Mesopotamia - Name of Iraq until 1930.
- Rhodesia - From 1965 until 1980 when it became Zimbabwe.
- Siam - Name of Thailand until 1939.
- Transjordan - Renamed to Jordan in 1946.
- Trucial States - Became United Arab Emirates in 1971.
- United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland renamed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in 1927 (26 of Ireland's 32 counties left the UK in 1922).
- Upper Volta - Name of Burkina Faso until 1984.
- Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes renamed into Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929.
- Federal Republic of Yugoslavia renamed into Serbia and Montenegro in 2003.
- Zaire - Name of Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1971 to 1997.
Nominally independent homelands of South Africa
- Bophuthatswana - Declared independent in 1977, reincorporated in 1994.
- Ciskei - Declared independent in 1981, reincorporated in 1994.
- Transkei - Declared independent in 1976, reincorporated in 1994.
- Venda - Declared independent in 1979, reincorporated in 1994.
These nations declared themselves independent, but failed to achieve it in fact or did not seek permanent independence and were either re-incorporated into the mother country or incorporated into another country.
- Republic of Acre - Declared independence from Bolivia in 1899. Annexed by Brazil in 1903.
- Biafra - Declared its independence from Nigeria in 1967. Defeated and reincorporated in 1970.
- California - declared independence from Mexico in June 1846, claimed by U.S. Navy for United States in July 1846.
- California - Mexico's commander in California, Pío Pico, abandoned the Californios, Mexicans living in California, who organized an army to defend themselves from the United States. The Californios defeated an American force in Los Angeles on September 30, 1846, and signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo accepting American sovereignty over California on February 2, 1848.
- Carpatho-Ukraine - declared independence from Czechoslovakia in 1939, but was annexed by Hungary within a few days.
- Cartagena Canton - the haven city of Cartagena, Spain seceded from the First Spanish Republic in 1873.
- Chechnya - Virtually independent from Russia from 1996 as Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, however the country was recognized only by Taliban. After terrorist attacks in 1999 the republic was returned to Russia's control in the Second Chechen War.
- Confederate States of America - Declared its independence from the United States in 1861, reincorporated, 1861-1865.
- Corsican Republic - Seceded from Genoa in 1755, annexed by France in 1769.
- Anglo-Corsican Kingdom (1794–1796)
- Independent State of Croatia (1941–1945)
- Crimea, declared independence from Ukraine in 1992 but soon settled for being an autonomous republic within Ukraine.
- Cruzob, achieved independence from Mexico in 1856, but was reannexed in 1901.
- Ezo - declared independence from Japan in 1868 after the defeat of the forces of the Tokugawa shogunate during the Boshin War until it was reincorporated into Japan in 1869
- Republic of Formosa - Lasted from May to October 1895 after the island was ceded by China to Japan and the local gentry and officials declared a tributary republic in a failed attempt to avert Japanese annexation.
- Italian Social Republic (1943–1945)
- Katanga - Declared its independence of the newly formed Republic of the Congo in 1960, was incorporated again in 1963.
- Manitoba - short-lived republic led by Thomas Spence, declared after the Hudson's Bay Company gave up Rupert's Land and before the government of Canada took control (1867).
- Red River Rebellion - provisional government in Rupert's Land, led by Louis Riel in (1869–1870).
- Republic of the Rio Grande ('Republic of Texas') declared independence in 1840, brought back into Mexico by force less than a year later, encompassed the land of the Mexican states of Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, and parts of the United States state of Texas.
- Republic of Texas - Gained its independence from Mexico in 1836. Annexed by the United States in 1845.
- Principality of Trinidad - Declared independence in 1893, claimed by United Kingdom in 1895, but incorporated by Brazil.
- Republic of Prekmurje (1919)
- Ukrainian People's Republic - declared independence after the Russian Revolution of 1917, but fell to the Soviet Union in 1920.
These nations, once separate, are now part of another country. (At present cases of voluntary accession are included)
- Republic of Alsace-Lorraine - Formed after the collapse of the German Empire at the end of World War I, 11 days later it was occupied by and incorporated in France.
- British Somaliland - became part of Somalia, but has since asserted its independence as the Somaliland republic.
- Regency of Carnaro in 1919 and Free State of Fiume 1920-1924, two short-lived states in the port city of Fiume/Rijeka proclaimed by Gabriele D'Annunzio. Following World War I, the city was disputed between Italy and Yugoslavia, and eventually captured by Italy in 1921. The city passed to Yugoslavia after World War II and is now in Croatia.
- Chan Santa Cruz Maya state in eastern Yucatán peninsula, recognized as independent nation by British Empire in 1850s; now part of Mexico.
- Cospaia - A tiny republic which lasted for centuries before being divided between Tuscany and the Papal States in 1826.
- Couto Mixto - A tiny border territory that finally became part of Spain.
- Crete - autonomous under Ottoman suzerainty in 1898, unilaterally declared union with Greece in 1908, which was recognized in 1913.
- Eastern Rumelia - province of the Ottoman Empire unified with Bulgaria in 1885
- Germany was enlarged twice since the 1950s, growing from 10 to 16 federal states:
- the Saarland, a French protectorate, joined the Federal Republic of Germany in 1957
- the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) in 1990 joined the Federal Republic of Germany (until then known as 'West Germany'), but not as a whole, divided in five newly recreated states (Bundesländer).
- Far Eastern Republic - puppet of the RSFSR.
- Franceville - Independent in 1889, later governed by France and Britain as part of the New Hebrides; now part of Vanuatu.
- Republic of Hatay
- The Kingdom of Hawaii was unified in 1810 under Kamehameha I, and was recognized by the United States as an independent nation from 1826 until January 17, 1893. Following the overthrow of the monarchy it existed as the independent Republic of Hawaii until annexation by the United States in 1898. Became the Territory, and then the State, of Hawaii.
- Indian Princely States
- Republic of Indian Stream - 1832-1835, now part of U.S.
- Italian Somaliland - Became part of Somalia.
- Kalat - Became part of Pakistan.
- Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic - annexed by Russia, upon the collapse of the Soviet Union became the autonomous Republic of Karelia.
- Manchukuo - Japanese puppet state in Manchuria from 1931 until 1945. Reincorporated into China in 1945.
- Free States of Menton and Roquebrune - Seceded from Monaco in 1848, under nominal protection of the Kingdom of Sardinia, then annexed by France in 1861.
- Moldavia - Now divided among Romania, Moldova and Ukraine.
- Kingdom of Montenegro - annexed to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1922.
- Moresnet - A tiny European territory that endured for a hundred years before definitively becoming part of Belgium.
- Natalia Republic was quickly made into a British colony
- Newfoundland - Existed as an autonomous colony of the United Kingdom from 1855 to 1907, then a sovereign dominion until 1934 when it reverted to a crown colony. It joined in Confederation with Canada in 1949.
- Orange Free State - This country was independent from 1854 to 1900, when it was incorporated into South Africa. It was one of two Boer republics, along with the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic).
- Islands of Refreshment - The islands of Tristan da Cunha were settled in 1810 and declared independence in 1811. Annexed by the United Kingdom in 1815.
- Ryukyu Kingdom - established in 1429, recognized by China as of 1372 as Chūzan; conquered by Japan's Satsuma Domain in 1609; formally annexed in 1879, following the Meiji Restoration.
- Kingdom of Sikkim merged with India in 1975.
- State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs - created in 1918 and joined Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes after existing for just one month.
- South Yemen (People's Democratic Republic of Yemen) and North Yemen (Yemen Arab Republic) in 1990 united to form Yemen
- Islamic Republic of Tatarstan - Annexed by the Russian Federation in 1994.
- Tavolara - Never formally annexed, but occupied by an Italian military base ca. 1962.
- Republic of Texas - Annexed by United States in 1846.
- Tibet - A unified Tibetan empire was created in the 8th century. Mongol conquests in the 13th century made Tibet part of a Mongol-ruled Chinese empire, and four centuries later the Manchu-ruled Qing Dynasty formed a patron-priest relationship with Tibet's spiritual rulers. In 1914, China refused to ratify a treaty which would have granted China suzerainty over "Inner Tibet" and "Outer Tibet," establishing direct rule over the former and leaving the latter autonomous. In 1950, a Chinese army invaded Tibet. The region remains under de facto Chinese control.
- Transvaal Republic (South African Republic) - Independent country before becoming part of the British Empire during the Second Boer War in 1902 and is currently part of South Africa. It was one of two Boer republics, the other was the Orange Free State.
- Transylvania - Semi-independent before becoming part of Austria-Hungary. Became part of Romania after World War I.
- Tuva (also known as Tannu Tuva) - now part of Russia after the dissolution of the USSR
- Vermont Republic - Republic of Vermont existed from 1777 until 1791, when Vermont became the 14th state of the United States.
- Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) - conquered by the North Vietnam in 1975, which then ruled the South through the Vietcong, or Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam. North and South were merged in 1976 to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
- Wallachia - United with Moldavia to form Romania in 1859.
- Republic of Yucatán became part of Mexico
- Zanzibar - Zanzibar merged in 1964 with Tanganyika to become Tanzania. Zanzibar was not annexed, but joined through a free referendum.
- List of countries
- List of Pre-Modern states
- List of historical national capitals
- Historic states
- List of historic states of Italy
- List of historic states of Russia
- List of historic states of Germany
- Former countries in Europe after 1815
- List of largest empires
- List of micronations
- Timeline of European nations
- ^ Californios
- ^ España en el África Atlántica, Volumen 1, Antonio Rumeu de Armas, Ediciones del Cabildo Insular de Gran Canaria, 1996
- ^ Historia general de España y América: Los Trastámara y la unidad española, 1369-1517
- ^ The Opinions of the Badinter Arbitration Committee: A Second Breath for the Self-Determination of Peoples
- ^ http://www.fpif.org/pdf/vol5/09iftibet.pdf
- ^ The Simla Convention (1914) and its appendix identified Tibet as "under the suzerainty of China.....[forming] part of Chinese territory;" China refused to ratify however and instead Britain and Tibet alone signed and ratified three treaties recognizing Tibet's autonomy but not China's claims [Article 2, Note 2]. 
- Harding, Les. Dead Countries of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Aden to Zululand. Scarecrow Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8108-3445-6
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