Empress Xiaoshengxian

Empress Sheng Xian
Spouse Yongzheng Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
Posthumous name
Empress Xiaoshen Cixuan Kanghui Dunhe Chenghui Renmu Jintian Guangshen Xian 孝聖慈宣康惠敦和誠徽仁穆敬天光聖憲皇后
Born 1692
Died 1777 (aged 84–85)

Empress Xiao Sheng Xian (Chinese: 孝聖憲皇后; Manchu: Hiyoošungga Enduringge Temgetulehe Hūwanghu) (1 Janury 1693-2 March 1777) was a consort of the Yongzheng Emperor and mother of the Qianlong Emperor.



Empress Xiao Sheng Xian neé Niohuru (鈕祜祿氏) was the daughter of líng zhù, Baron Liang Rong, of the Manchu bordered yellow banner corps[1]. They were descendents of a cousin of Prince Eidu, Eideng (额亦腾). Lady Niohuru entered Prince Yinzhen's household in 1705 and was given the title of Gege, Manchu for Lady. In 1711 she gave birth to Prince Hongli, the future Qianlong Emperor.

In 1722 the Kangxi Emperor died and her husband ascended the throne as the Yongzheng Emperor. Niuhuru was granted the title of "Consort Xi" (Chinese: 熹妃) in 1723. In 1730 she was granted the title of the "Noble Consort Xi" (Chinese: 熹貴妃). The following year Yongzheng's empress died and Lady Niuhuru was put in charge of the womens quarters.

Empress Dowager

In 1735 Yongzheng died and her son Hongli ascended the throne as the Qianlong Emperor. She was thus granted the title of the "Empress Dowager Chong Qing" (Chinese: 崇慶皇太后).

The Qianlong Emperor often visited his mother. Niuhuru always joined the Emperor on his trips to the North and the South. By all accounts the Dowager Empress was widely respected. When she became too old for travelling, the Emperor stopped and travelled again after her death. The Emperor had great respect for his mother and would often seek her advice. Her sixtieth birthday was lavishly celebrated, poems read in her honour and sacrifices made to the gods by the Emperor and the entire court. He even made a concubine of the Wuya clan his Empress only because she was in favour with the Dowager Empress.

Niuhuru died in 1777 at the age of 85 years. She was interred in a separate tomb admidst the western Qing tombs.

Titles Held from Birth to Death

Banquet for the Empress Dowager Xiao Sheng with the Qianlong Emperor serving his mother
  • 1692-1705: Niuhuru (鈕祜祿氏)
  • 1711-1723: Lady (格格)
  • 1723-1730: Consort Xi (熹妃)
  • 1730-1735: Noble Consort Xi (熹貴妃)
  • 1735-1777: Empress Dowager Chong Qing (崇慶皇太后鈕祜祿氏)

Titles Granted Posthumously

  • Empress Xiào Shèng Cí Xuān Kāng Huì Dūn Hé Chéng Huī Rén Mù Jìng Tiān Guāng Shèng Xiàn (孝圣慈宣康惠敦和诚徽仁穆敬天光圣宪皇后)


  1. ^ Draft history of the Qing dynasty, 《清史稿 卷一百六十七 表七》.


  • The Last Emperors "A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions", Evelyn S. Rawski. ISBN 0-520-22837-5
  • Daily Life in the Forbidden City, Wan Yi, Wang Shuqing, Lu Yanzhen ISBN 0-670-81164-5
  • Splendors of China's Forbidden City "The glorious reign of Emperor Qianlong" ISBN: 1858942039
  • Draft history of the Qing dynasty《清史稿》卷二百十四.列傳一.后妃傳.世宗孝聖憲皇后.
  • China, The Three Emperors 1662-1795. ISBN:1-903973694 (hardback), edited by Evelyn S. Rawski and Jessica Rawson.
  • http://www.royalark.net/China/manchu8.htm, about the the Aisin Gioro family tree


Chinese royalty
Preceded by
Ulanara, Empress Jing Xian
Empress of China
Succeeded by
Empress Xiao Xian Chun
Preceded by
Uya, Empress Gong Ren
Empress Dowager of China
1735 - 1777
Succeeded by
Empress Xiaoherui

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