Nikolaus August Otto
Born 10 June 1832
Holzhausen an der Haide
Died 26 January 1891(aged 58)
Nationality German Occupation Inventor Known for internal-combustion engine
Nikolaus August Otto (14 June 1832, Holzhausen an der Haide, Nassau - 26 January 1891, Cologne) was the German inventor of the first internal-combustion engine to efficiently burn fuel directly in a piston chamber. Although other internal combustion engines had been invented (e.g. by Étienne Lenoir) these were not based on four separate strokes. Though the concept of four strokes had been theorised in 1861 by Alphonse Beau de Rochas, Otto was the first to make it practical.
Otto was the son of a farmer: his father also ran the local post office. He served an apprenticeship in commerce and following his apprenticeship worked as a business man in Frankfurt am Main and in Cologne. After relocating to Cologne he quit his office job in order to construct small gas engines, starting out by seeking to improve on the existing design of Étienne Lenoir. Otto met another engineer Eugen Langen in 1864. The technically trained Langen recognized the potential of Otto's development, and one month after the meeting, founded the first engine factory in the world, NA Otto & Cie. At the 1867 Paris World Exhibition their improved engine was awarded the Grand Prize .
The Otto & Langen engine was a free piston atmospheric engine (the explosion of gas was used to create a vacuum and the power came from atmospheric pressure returning the piston). It consumed less than half the gas of the Lenoir and Hugon engines and so was a commercial success. The principle of operation was described by the Italian inventors Eugenio Barsanti and Felice Matteucci in their British Patent no 1625 of 1857, though they never produced a marketable example.
Otto later turned his attention to the 4-stroke cycle (as described in a pamphlet by Alphonse Beau de Rochas in 1862 ). It is this engine (the Otto Silent Engine), and not the Otto & Langen engine, to which the Otto cycle refers. This was the first commercially successful engine to use in-cylinder compression (as patented by William Barnett in 1838).
Otto married Anna Gossi and the couple produced seven recorded children. His son Gustav Otto grew up to become an aircraft builder.
The Otto cycle
The Otto engine was designed as a stationary engine and in the action of the engine, the stroke is an upward or downward movement of a piston in a cylinder. Used later in an adapted form as an automobile engine, four strokes are involved: (1) downward intake stroke—coal-gas and air enter the piston chamber, (2) upward compression stroke—the piston compresses the mixture, (3) downward power stroke—ignites the fuel mixture by electric spark, and (4) upward exhaust stroke—releases exhaust gas from the piston chamber. Otto only sold his engine as a stationary motor.
According to recent historical studies, the Italian inventors Eugenio Barsanti and Felice Matteucci patented a first working efficient version of an internal combustion engine in 1854 in London (pt. Num. 1072). It is claimed that the Otto engine is in many parts at least inspired from this precedent invention , but, as yet there is no documentation of knowledge about the Italian engine by Otto. The concept of the four-stroke engine was also patented (October 26, 1860) by the Austrian Christian Reithmann for one year and by the French Alphonse Beau de Rochas (January 16, 1862).
- History of the internal combustion engine
- German inventors and discoverers
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Nikolaus Otto — Naissance 14 juin 1832 Holzhausen Décès 28 janvier … Wikipédia en Français
Nikolaus Otto — Nicolaus August Otto Nicolaus August Otto (* 10. Juni 1832 in Holzhausen an der Haide/Taunus; † 26. Januar 1891 in Köln) war ein Autodidakt und der Erfinder des nach ihm benannten Ottomotors. Er absolvierte nie ein Hoc … Deutsch Wikipedia
Nikolaus August Otto — Nikolaus Otto Nikolaus Otto Naissance 14 juin 1832 Holzhausen Décès 28 janvi … Wikipédia en Français
OTTO (N.) — OTTO NIKOLAUS (1832 1891) Ingénieur allemand né à Holzhausen et mort à Cologne. Tandis qu’Alphonse Beau de Rochas formule la théorie du cycle à quatre temps pour le moteur à explosion (1862), Nikolaus Otto construit en Allemagne, très… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Otto (surname) — Otto is a surname, and may refer to Catherine Otto, author of echocardiography textbooks Dr. Douglas Otto, American school superintendent Felix Otto (born 1966), German mathematician Frei Otto (born 1925), German architect Gustav Otto (1883–1926) … Wikipedia
Otto (disambiguation) — Otto is a given name of Germanic origin. Otto may also refer to: Contents 1 Companies 2 Fictional characters 3 Places … Wikipedia
Otto (film) — Otto Pour les articles homophones, voir Oto et auto. Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Otto est un prénom d origine germanique, également usité en Espagne et en Italie (où il… … Wikipédia en Français
Otto engine — This article is about the stationary engine. For a discussion of related thermodynamic principles, see Otto cycle. This is a video montage of the Otto engines running at the Western Minnesota Steam Threshers Reunion (WMSTR), in Rollag, Minnesota … Wikipedia
Nikolaus August Otto — Nicolaus August Otto Nicolaus August Otto (* 10. Juni 1832 in Holzhausen an der Haide/Taunus; † 26. Januar 1891 in Köln) war ein Autodidakt und der Erfinder des nach ihm benannten Ottomotors. Er absolvierte nie ein Hoc … Deutsch Wikipedia
Otto-Motor — Leistungsstarker Ottomotor: DTM V6 Rennmotor von 1996. Der Ottomotor ist ein nach Nikolaus August Otto benannter Verbrennungsmotor, bei dem der Kraftstoff während des Ansaugvorganges in die angesaugte Luft eingebracht wird, was ein zündfähiges… … Deutsch Wikipedia