Table of muscles of the human body: Neck

Scheme of muscles of neck (left side, platysma muscle dissected)

Contents

This article lists the muscles found in the human neck.

Muscles of the human body: Overview
Head  |  Neck  |  Torso  |  Upper limbs  |  Lower limbs


Legend

quadriceps femoris
     rectus femoris
     vastus lateralis
     vastus intermedius
     vastus medialis
Example of formatting used in tables to denote muscles and muscle groups.

The following tables of muscles have seven columns:

  • Muscle, simply the name of the muscle
  • Origin, the fixed attachment point of one end of the muscle that does not move during a muscle contraction (usually a bone)
  • Insertion, the opposite attachment point, which does move when the muscle contracts (usually a bone)
  • Artery, the main vessel that feeds blood to the muscle
  • Innervation, the main nerve that supplies motor control to the muscle
  • Action, the visible result of the muscle contraction/relaxation (see biomechanics and human kinetics for more)
  • Antagonist, a muscle with the equal but opposite action

Often, a muscle is divided into other muscles; for example, the quadriceps femoris muscle is further subdivided into the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius and vastus medialis. In these cases, the name of the muscle group is italicized and the component muscles are indented. An example appears to the right.

For more information on many of the terms used within these tables, see anatomical terms of location, anatomical terms of motion, medical terminology, list of human anatomical features and outline of human anatomy.


Cervical

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
platysma inferior clavicle and fascia of chest mandible cervical branch of the facial nerve (CN VII) Draws the corners of the mouth inferiorly and widens it (as in expressions of sadness and fright). Also draws the skin of the neck superiorly when teeth are clenched Masseter, Temporalis
sternocleidomastoid manubrium sterni, medial portion of the clavicle mastoid process of the temporal bone, superior nuchal line occipital artery and the superior thyroid artery motor: accessory nerve
sensory: cervical plexus
Acting alone, tilts head to its own side and rotates it so the face is turned towards the opposite side.

Acting together, flexes the neck, raises the sternum and assists in forced inspiration. ||

Suprahyoid

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
digastric anterior belly - digastric fossa (mandible); posterior belly - mastoid process of temporal bone Intermediate tendon (hyoid bone) anterior belly - mandibular division of the trigeminal (CN V) via the mylohyoid nerve; posterior belly - facial nerve (CN VII) Opens the jaw when the masseter and the temporalis are relaxed.
stylohyoid styloid process (temporal) greater cornu of hyoid bone facial nerve (CN VII) Elevate the hyoid during swallowing
mylohyoid mylohyoid line (mandible) median raphé mylohyoid branch of inferior alveolar artery mylohyoid nerve, from inferior alveolar branch of mandibular nerve [V3] Raises oral cavity floor, elevates hyoid, depresses mandible
geniohyoid symphysis menti hyoid bone C1 via hypoglossal nerve carry hyoid bone and the tongue upward during deglutition

Infrahyoid/Strap

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
sternohyoid manubrium of sternum hyoid bone ansa cervicalis depress hyoid bone
sternothyroid manubrium thyroid cartilage ansa cervicalis Elevates larynx, may slightly depress hyoid bone
thyrohyoid thyroid cartilage hyoid bone first cervical nerve depress hyoid bone
omohyoid upper border of the scapula hyoid bone ansa cervicalis Depresses the larynx and hyoid bone. Carries hyoid bone backward and to the side

Vertebral

Anterior

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
longus colli Transverse processes of C-3 - C-6 Inferior surface of the occipital bone C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 Flexes the neck and head
longus capitis anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical vertebrae basilar part of the occipital bone C1, C2, C3/C4 flexion of neck at atlanto-occipital joint
rectus capitis anterior atlas occipital bone C1 flexion of neck at atlanto-occipital joint
rectus capitis lateralis upper surface of the transverse process of the atlas under surface of the jugular process of the occipital bone C1

Lateral

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
scalene muscles cervical vertebrae (C2-C7) first and second ribs ascending cervical artery (branch of inferior thyroid artery) cervical nerves (C3, C4, C5, C6, C7 elevation of ribs I&II
     anterior C3-C6 first rib ascending cervical artery (branch of inferior thyroid artery) ventral ramus of C5, C6 When the neck is fixed, elevates the first rib to aid in breathing or when the rib is fixed, bends the neck forward and sideways and rotates it to the opposite side
     medius C2-C6 first rib ascending cervical artery (branch of inferior thyroid artery) ventral rami of the third to eighth cervical spinal nerves Elevate 1st rib, rotate the neck to the opposite side
     posterior transverse processes of C4 - C6 2nd rib ascending cervical artery, superficial cervical artery C6, C7, C8 Elevate 2nd rib, tilt the neck to the same side
Muscles of the human body: Overview
Head  |  Neck  |  Torso  |  Upper limbs  |  Lower limbs


Notes

General references

External links


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