Languages with official status in India


Languages with official status in India

The official language of the Indian Union is Hindi with English as an additional language for official work;[1] states in India can legislate their own official languages.[1] Neither the Constitution of India, nor any Indian law defines any national language.[2]

States specify their own official language(s) through legislation. The section of the Constitution of India dealing with official languages therefore includes detailed provisions[3] which deal not just with the languages used for the official purposes of the union,[4] but also with the languages that are to be used for the official purposes of each state and union territory in the country,[5] and the languages that are to be used for communication between the union and the states inter se.[6]

During the British Raj, English was used for most official purposes both at the federal level and in the various states.[7] The Indian constitution adopted in 1950, envisaged the gradual phasing in of Hindi, to replace English over a fifteen-year period, but gave Parliament the power to, by law, provide for the continued use of English even thereafter.[8] But resistance to making Hindi the sole official language has resulted in English being retained for official uses. English continues to be used today, in combination with Hindi (at the central level and in some states) and other languages (at the state level).

The legal framework governing the use of languages for official purpose currently includes the Constitution, the Official Languages Act, 1963, Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) Rules, 1976, and various state laws, as well as rules and regulations made by the central government and the states.

Contents

Official languages of the Union

The Indian constitution, in 1950, declared Hindi in Devanagari script to be the official language of the union.[9] Unless Parliament decided otherwise, the use of English for official purposes was to cease 15 years after the constitution came into effect, i.e., on 26 January 1965.[10] The prospect of the changeover, however, led to much alarm in the non Hindi-speaking areas of India, especially Dravidian-speaking states whose languages were not related to Hindi at all. As a result, Parliament enacted the Official Languages Act, 1963,[11][12][13][14][15][16] which provided for the continued use of English for official purposes along with Hindi, even after 1965.

In late 1964, an attempt was made to expressly provide for an end to the use of English, but it was met with protests from states such as Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Karnataka, Puducherry and Andhra Pradesh. Some of these protests also turned violent.[17] As a result, the proposal was dropped,[18][19] and the Act itself was amended in 1967 to provide that the use of English would not be ended until a resolution to that effect was passed by the legislature of every state that had not adopted Hindi as its official language, and by each house of the Indian Parliament.[20]

The current position is thus that the Union government may continue to use English in addition to Hindi for its official purposes[21] as a "subsidiary official language,"[22] but is also required to prepare and execute a programme to progressively increase its use of Hindi.[23] The exact extent to which, and the areas in which, the Union government uses Hindi and English, respectively, is determined by the provisions of the Constitution, the Official Languages Act, 1963, the Official Languages Rules, 1976, and statutory instruments made by the Department of Official Language under these laws.

Parliamentary proceedings and laws

The Indian constitution draws a distinction between the language to be used in Parliamentary proceedings, and the language in which laws are to be made. Parliamentary business, according to the Constitution, may be conducted in either Hindi or English.[24] The use of English in parliamentary proceedings was to be phased out at the end of fifteen years unless Parliament chose to extend its use,[25] which Parliament did through the Official Languages Act, 1963.[26] In addition, the constitution permits a person who is unable to express himself in either Hindi or English to, with the permission of the Speaker of the relevant House, address the House in his mother tongue.[27]

In contrast, the constitution requires the authoritative text of all laws, including Parliamentary enactments and statutory instruments, to be in English, until Parliament decides otherwise.[28] Parliament has not exercised its power to so decide, instead merely requiring that all such laws and instruments, and all bills brought before it, also be translated into Hindi, though the English text remains authoritative.[29]

Judiciary

The constitution provides that all proceedings in the Supreme Court of India, the country's highest court and the High Courts, shall be in English.[30] Parliament has the power to alter this by law, but has not done so.[31]

Administration

The Union government is required by law to progressively increase the use of Hindi in its official work,[23] which it has sought to do through "persuasion, incentive and goodwill."[32]

The Official Language Act provides that the Union government shall use both Hindi and English in most administrative documents that are intended for the public.[33] The Official Languages Rules, in contrast, provide for a higher degree of use of Hindi in communications between offices of the central government (other than offices in Tamil Nadu, to which the rules do not apply[34]). Communications between different departments within the central government may be in either Hindi or English, although a translation into the other language must be provided if required.[35] Communications within offices of the same department, however, must be in Hindi if the offices are in Hindi-speaking states,[36] and in either Hindi or English otherwise with Hindi being used in proportion to the percentage of staff in the receiving office who have a working knowledge of Hindi.[37] Notes and memos in files may be in either Hindi or English, with the Government having a duty to provide a translation into the other language if required.[38]

In addition, every person submitting a petition for the redress of a grievance to a government officer or authority has a constitutional right to submit it in any language used in India.[39]

Implementation

Various steps have been taken by the Indian government to implement the use and familiarisation of Hindi extensively. Regional Hindi implementation offices at Bangalore, Thiruvananthapuram(Trivandrum), Mumbai, Kolkata, Guwahati, Bhopal, Delhi and Ghaziabad have been established to monitor the implementation of Hindi in Central government offices and PSUs. A Kerala Hindi Prachara Sabha was also constituted and headquartered in the capital city of Trivandrum for the same in Kerala. Similarly, Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha was formed to spread Hindi in South Indian states.

Annual targets are set by the Department of Official Language regarding the amount of correspondence being carried out in Hindi. A Parliament Committee on Official Language constituted in 1976 periodically reviews the progress in the use of Hindi and submits a report to the President. The governmental body which makes policy decisions and established guidelines for promotion of Hindi is the Kendriya Hindi Samiti (est. 1967). In every city that has more than ten central Government offices, a Town Official Language Implementation Committee is established and cash awards are given to government employees who write books in Hindi. All Central government offices and PSUs are to establish Hindi Cells for implementation of Hindi in their offices.[40]

State level

The Indian constitution does not specify the official languages to be used by the states for the conduct of their official functions, and leaves each state free to, through its legislature, adopt Hindi or any language used in its territory as its official language or languages.[41] The language need not be one of those listed in the Eighth Schedule, and several states have adopted official languages which are not so listed. Examples include Kokborok in Tripura; Mizo in Mizoram; Khasi and Garo in Meghalaya; and French in Puducherry.

Legislature and administration

The constitutional provisions in relation to use of the official language in legislation at the State level largely mirror those relating to the official language at the central level, with minor variations. State legislatures may conduct their business in their official language, Hindi or (for a transitional period, which the legislature can extend if it so chooses) English, and members who cannot use any of these have the same rights to their mother tongue with the Speaker's permission.[42] The authoritative text of all laws must be in English, unless Parliament passes a law permitting a state to use another language, and if the original text of a law is in a different language, an authoritative English translation of all laws must be prepared.[43]

The state has the right to regulate the use of its official language in public administration, and in general, neither the constitution nor any central enactment imposes any restriction on this right. However, every person submitting a petition for the redress of a grievance to an officer or authority of the state government has a constitutional right to submit it in any language used in that state, regardless of its official status.[39]

In addition, the constitution grants the central government, acting through the President, the power to issue certain directives to the government of a state in relation to the use of minority languages for official purposes. The President may direct a State to officially recognise a language spoken in its territory for specified purposes and in specified regions, if its speakers demand it and satisfy him that a substantial proportion of the State's population desire its use.[44] Similarly, States and local authorities are required to endeavour to provide primary education in the mother tongue for all linguistic minorities, regardless of whether or not their language is official in that State, and the President has the power to issue directions he deems necessary to ensure that they are provided these facilities.[45]

State judiciary

States have significantly less freedom in relation to determine the language in which judicial proceedings in their respective High Courts will be conducted. The constitution gives the power to authorise the use of Hindi, or the state's official language in proceedings of the High Court to the Governor, rather than the state legislature, and requires the Governor to obtain the consent of the President of India,[46] who in these matters acts on the advice of the Government of India. The Official Languages Act gives the Governor a similar power, subject to similar conditions, in relation to the language in which the High Court's judgments will be delivered.[47]

Four states - Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan[48]- have been granted the right to conduct proceedings in their High Courts in their official language, which, for all of them, was Hindi. However, the only non-Hindi state to seek a similar power - Tamil Nadu, which sought the right to conduct proceedings in Tamil in its High Court - had its application rejected by the central government earlier, which said it was advised to do so by the Supreme Court.[49] In 2006, the law ministry said that it would not object to Tamil Nadu state's desire to conduct Madras High Court proceedings in Tamil.[50][51][52][53][54] In 2010, the Chief Justice of the Madras High Court allowed lawyers to argue cases in Tamil.[55]

Indian states and union territories

States

No. State Official Languages Other officially recognised languages
1. Andhra Pradesh Telugu[56] Urdu[57]
2. Arunachal Pradesh English[58][59] None[60]
3. Assam Assamese[61] Bengali,[62] Bodo[61]
4. Bihar Maithili, Hindi[63] Urdu[64]
5. Chhattisgarh Chhattisgarhi,[65] Hindi[66] None[66]
6. Goa Konkani[67]
7. Gujarat Gujarati,[68] Hindi[68]
8. Haryana Hindi[69] Punjabi[69][70]
9. Himachal Pradesh Hindi[71][72] None[72]
10. Jammu and Kashmir Urdu[73] None[74]
11. Jharkhand Hindi, Santali[75] None[75]
12. Karnataka Kannada[76][77] None[78]
13. Kerala Malayalam,[79] English[79]
14. Madhya Pradesh Hindi[80]
15. Maharashtra Marathi[81][82]
16. Manipur Meiteilon (Manipuri)[83] None[84]
17. Meghalaya English[85] Khasi, Garo,[86]
18. Mizoram Mizo[87] None[87]
19. Nagaland English[88] None[88]
20. Orissa (Odisha) Oriya (Odia),[89] None[90]
21. Punjab Punjabi[91] None[91]
22. Rajasthan Hindi[92] Rajasthani[92]
23. Sikkim Nepali[93][94] None[95]
24. Tamil Nadu Tamil[96] None
25. Tripura Bengali, Kokborok, English[97] None[97]
26 Uttarakhand English, Hindi[98] Urdu,[98] Sanskrit[99]
27. Uttar Pradesh Hindi[100] Urdu[100]
28. West Bengal Bengali, English[101] Urdu, Punjabi, Nepali, Santali, Oriya and Hindi[102]

Union Territories

No. Union Territory Official Languages Other officially recognised languages
1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands Hindi, English[103]
2. Chandigarh Punjabi, Hindi, English
3. Dadra and Nagar Haveli Marathi, Gujarati
4. Daman and Diu Gujarati, English Marathi[67]
5. Delhi Hindi, English Urdu,[104] Punjabi[104]
6. Lakshadweep Malayalam
7. Puducherry French, Tamil and English[105][106] Malayalam (for Mahe), Telugu (for Yanam)[105]

Eighth Schedule to the Constitution

The Eighth Schedule to the Indian Constitution contains a list of 22 scheduled languages. At the time the constitution was enacted, inclusion in this list meant that the language was entitled to representation on the Official Languages Commission,[107] and that the language would be one of the bases that would be drawn upon to enrich Hindi, the official language of the Union.[108] The list has since, however, acquired further significance. The Government of India is now under an obligation to take measures for the development of these languages, such that "they grow rapidly in richness and become effective means of communicating modern knowledge."[109] In addition, a candidate appearing in an examination conducted for public service at a higher level is entitled to use any of these languages as the medium in which he or she answers the paper.[110]

Via the 92nd Constitutional amendment 2003, 4 new languages – Bodo, Maithili, Dogri, and Santali – were added to the 8th Schedule of the Indian Constitution.[111]

The following table lists the languages set out in the eighth schedule as of May 2007, together with the regions where they are used:[112]

Language Family Speakers (2001, in millions)[113] State(s)
Assamese/Axomiya Indo-Aryan, Eastern 13 Assam, Arunachal Pradesh
Bengali Indo-Aryan, Eastern 83 in India West Bengal, Tripura, Andaman & Nicobar Islands and also few regions of Assam, Jharkhand
Bodo Tibeto-Burman 1.4 Assam
Dogri Indo-Aryan, Northwestern 2.3 Jammu and Kashmir
Gujarati Indo-Aryan, Western 46 Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Gujarat
Hindi Indo-Aryan, Central 258-422[114] Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, the national capital territory of Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand
Kannada Dravidian 38 Karnataka
Kashmiri Indo-Aryan, Dardic 5.5 Jammu and Kashmir
Konkani Indo-Aryan, Southern 2.5 (7.6 per Ethnologue) Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Kerala
Maithili Indo-Aryan, Eastern 12 (32 in India in 2000 per Ethnologue) Bihar
Malayalam Dravidian 33 Kerala, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Puducherry
Manipuri (also Meitei or Meithei) Tibeto-Burman 1.5 Manipur
Marathi Indo-Aryan, Southern 72 Maharashtra, Goa, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka
Nepali Indo-Aryan, Northern 2.9 in India Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam
Oriya Indo-Aryan, Eastern 33 Orissa
Punjabi Indo-Aryan, Northwestern 29 in India Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Punjab
Sanskrit Indo-Aryan 0.01 non-regional
Santhali Munda 6.5 Santhal tribals of the Chota Nagpur Plateau (comprising the states of Bihar, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa)
Sindhi Indo-Aryan, Northwestern 2.5 in India non-regional
Tamil Dravidian 61 in India Tamil Nadu, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Puducherry
Telugu Dravidian 74 Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Puducherry
Urdu Indo-Aryan, Central 52 in India Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand


Since 2003, a government committee has been looking into the feasibility of treating all languages in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution as "Official Languages of the Union".[115]

Union-State and interstate communication

The language in which communications between different states, or from the union government to a state or a person in a state, shall be sent is regulated by the Official Languages Act and, for states other than Tamil Nadu, by the Official Languages Rules. Communication between states who use Hindi as their official language is required to be in Hindi, whereas communication between a state whose official language is Hindi and one whose is not is required to be in English, or in Hindi with an accompanying English translation (unless the receiving state agrees to dispense with the translation).[21]

Communication between the union and states which use Hindi as their official language (classified by the Official Language Rules as "the states in Region A"), and with persons who live in those states, is in Hindi, except in exceptional cases.[116] Communication with a second category of states, which do not use Hindi as their official language but are willing to communicate with the union in Hindi (currently Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab and Chandigarh[117]) is usually in Hindi, whilst communications sent to an individual in those states may be in either Hindi or English.[118] Communication with all other states, and with persons living in them, is in English.[119]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b 1. Schwartzberg, Joseph E., 2007. Encyclopedia Britannica, India—Linguistic Composition. Quote: "By far the most widely spoken is Hindi, the country's official language, with more than 300 million speakers." 2. Oldenburg, Phillip. (1997-2007) Encarta Encyclopedia "India: Official Languages." Quote: "Hindi is the main language of more than 40 percent of the population. No single language other than Hindi can claim speakers among even 10 percent of the total population. Hindi was therefore made India’s official language in 1965. English, which was associated with British rule, was retained as an option for official use because some non-Hindi speakers, particularly in Tamil Nādu, opposed the official use of Hindi." 3. United Kingdom, Foreign and Commonwealth Office: India—Country Profile. Quote: "The official language of India is Hindi written in the Devanagari script and spoken by some 30% of the population as a first language. Since 1965 English has been recognised as an 'associated language'." 4. UNESCO: Education for All—The Nine Largest Countries Quote: "Hindi is the language of 30% of the population and the official language of India." 5. United States Library of Congress, Federal Research Division, Country Profile: India Quote: "Languages: Hindi is the official language and the most commonly spoken, but not all dialects are mutually comprehensible. English also has official status and is widely used in business and politics, although knowledge of English varies widely from fluency to knowledge of just a few words." 6 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Country Profile: India Quote: "Hindi is constitutionally designated as the official language of India, with English as an associate official language."
  2. ^ There's no national language in India: Gujarat High Court
  3. ^ Part XVII of the Constitution of India.
  4. ^ Article 343 of the Constitution of India.
  5. ^ Article 345 of the Constitution of India.
  6. ^ Article 346 of the Constitution of India.
  7. ^ Mollin, Sandra (2006). Euro-English: assessing variety status. Gunter Narr Verlag. pp. 17. ISBN 9783823362500. http://books.google.com/books?id=qPhULmMmqJMC&pg=PA17. 
  8. ^ Kanchan Chandra, “Ethnic Bargains, Group Instability, and Social Choice Theory,” Politics and Society 29, 3: 337-62.
  9. ^ Article 343(1).
  10. ^ Articles 343(2) and (3).
  11. ^ DOL
  12. ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities
  13. ^ Language in India
  14. ^ THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGES ACT, 1963
  15. ^ National Portal of India : Know India : Profile
  16. ^ Committee of Parliament on Official Language report
  17. ^ Hardgrave, Robert L. (August 1965). "The Riots in Tamilnad: Problems and Prospects of India's Language Crisis". Asian Survey (University of California Press)
  18. ^ "The force of words", Time, 1965-02-19, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,940936,00.html, retrieved 2007-06-05 
  19. ^ Forrester, Duncan B. (Spring — Summer 1966), "The Madras Anti-Hindi Agitation, 1965: Political Protest and its Effects on Language Policy in India", Pacific Affairs 39 (1/2): 19–36, doi:10.2307/2755179 .
  20. ^ Official Languages Act, 1963, S. 3(5).
  21. ^ a b Official Languages Act, 1963, S. 3(1).
  22. ^ Notification No. 2/8/60-O.L. (Ministry of Home Affairs), dated 27th April, 1960.
  23. ^ a b Official Languages Resolution, 1968, para. 1.
  24. ^ Article 120(1).
  25. ^ Article 120(2).
  26. ^ Official Languages Act, 1963, S. 3(1)(b).
  27. ^ Article 120(1) first proviso.
  28. ^ Article 348(1).
  29. ^ Official Languages Act, 1963, Ss. 5(1) and (2).
  30. ^ Article 348(1)(a).
  31. ^ Article 348(1), leading text.
  32. ^ "Official language policy of the Union."
  33. ^ S. 3(3) names, amongst others, resolutions, general orders, rules, notifications, administrative or other reports or press communiques issued by a government department, agency or corporation; administrative and other reports and official papers laid before a House or the Houses of Parliament; and contracts and agreements executed, and licences, permits, notices and forms of tender issued by or on behalf of the government (including government companies).
  34. ^ Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) Rules, 1976, paragraph 1(ii)
  35. ^ Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) Rules, 1976, paragraph 4(a)
  36. ^ Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) Rules, 1976, paragraphs 4(b) and (c)
  37. ^ Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) Rules, 1976, paragraph 4(d)
  38. ^ Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) Rules, 1976, paragraph 8
  39. ^ a b Constitution of India, Article 350.
  40. ^ "Official Language - Constitutional/Statutory Provisions". Government of India. http://india.gov.in/knowindia/official_language.php. 
  41. ^ Constitution of India, Article 345
  42. ^ Constitution of India, Article 210.
  43. ^ Articles 348(1) and (3).
  44. ^ Constitution of India, Article 347.
  45. ^ Constitution of India, Article 350A.
  46. ^ Constitution of India, Article 348(2).
  47. ^ S. 7
  48. ^ Language in Courts - a bridge or a barrier?
  49. ^ Special Correspondent (12 March 2007), "Karunanidhi stands firm on Tamil in High Court", The Hindu: 1, http://www.hindu.com/2007/03/12/stories/2007031205180100.htm .
  50. ^ The Hindu : Tamil Nadu / Thanjavur News : No objection to Tamil as court language: A.P. Shah
  51. ^ Silobreaker: Make Tamil the language of Madras High Court: Karu
  52. ^ The Hindu : Tamil Nadu News : Karunanidhi hopeful of Centre’s announcement
  53. ^ indianexpress.com
  54. ^ Tamil Nadu government press release
  55. ^ "Advocate argues in Tamil in High Court". The New Indian Express. 23 June 2010. http://expressbuzz.com/cities/chennai/advocate-argues-in-tamil-in-high-court/183847.html. Retrieved 27 June 2010. 
  56. ^ The Andhra Pradesh Official Language Act, 1966, declares Telugu to be the official language. This enactment was implemented by GO Ms No 420 in 2005. Rao, M. Malleswara (September 18, 2005), "Telugu declared official language", The Hindu (Online edition), http://www.hindu.com/2005/09/18/stories/2005091803740600.htm, retrieved 2007-07-16 
  57. ^ Urdu is used as a second official language in certain districts for certain specific purposes. Fatihi, A.R. (April 2003), "Urdu in Andhra Pradesh", Language in India 3 (4), ISSN: 1930-2940, http://www.languageinindia.com/april2003/urduinap.html, retrieved 2007-07-16 
  58. ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 2.4, http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved 2007-07-16 .
  59. ^ The official language of the state is English and Hindi is taught as a second language in school.Das, Varsha. "Production of Literacy Materials in Minor Languages". National Book Trust of India. http://www.accu.or.jp/litdbase/pub/dlperson/94srw/94SRW_03.pdf. Retrieved 21 May 2011. 
  60. ^ Five languages spoken by the principal tribes in Arunachal Pradesh - Adi, Apatani, Bhoti, Khampti and Nishi are offered to students in state schools, however English is the language of administration and recruitment. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 2.3–2.4, http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved 2007-07-16 .
  61. ^ a b Assamese is the official language of the State. Bodo is used as an associate official language for specific purposes in the districts of Kokrajhar and Nalbari and in the Udalguri sub division. Bengali is used for administrative and other official purposes in the districts of the Barak valley.Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 3.5, archived from the original on 2007-10-08, http://web.archive.org/web/20071008113359/http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/35.htm, retrieved 2007-06-06 . See also Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 3.4, http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved 2007-07-16 .
  62. ^ In three districts of Barak Valley in Assam
  63. ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 20.5, http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved 2007-07-16 .
  64. ^ Urdu is recognised as an additional official language for seven specific purposes, namely, receiving and replying to representations from the public; receiving documents in government offices; publishing rules, regulations and notices; issuing important letters and orders; publishing important advertisements; publishing government gazettes; and signboards at important places and offices.Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 20.5, http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved 2007-07-16 .
  65. ^ The The Chhattisgarh Official Language (Amendment) Act, 2007 added "Chhattisgarhi" as an official language of the state, in addition to Hindi."The Chhattisgarh Official Language (Amendment) Act, 2007". Government of India. http://www.lawsofindia.org/statelaw/2885/TheChhattisgarhOfficialLanguageAmendmentAct2007.html. Retrieved 21 May 2011. 
  66. ^ a b Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 39th report: July 2000 - June 2001, p. section 6, archived from the original on 2007-10-08, http://web.archive.org/web/20071008113648/http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/4.zip, retrieved 2007-07-16 
  67. ^ a b The Goa, Daman and Diu Official Language Act, 1987 makes Konkani the sole official language, but provides that Marathi may also be used for "for all or any of the official purposes". The Government also has a policy of replying in Marathi to correspondence received in Marathi. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 11.3, archived from the original on 2007-10-08, http://web.archive.org/web/20071008113359/http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/35.htm, retrieved 2007-06-06  A petition is pending before the Supreme Court demanding official language status to Marathi as well. UNI (May 30, 2007), Marathi vs Konkani debate continues in Goa, http://www.rediff.com/news/2007/may/30goa.htm, retrieved 2007-06-06 
  68. ^ a b Fatihi, A.R. (September 9, 2003), "Urdu in Gujarat", Language in India 3, http://www.languageinindia.com/sep2003/urduingujarat.html, retrieved 2007-07-16 
  69. ^ a b Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 28.3, archived from the original on 2007-10-08, http://web.archive.org/web/20071008113359/http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/35.htm, retrieved 2007-07-16 
  70. ^ Punjabi is officially designated as the "second language" of Haryana in March 2010. Before that, Tamil was the official second language.Punjabi edges out Tamil in Haryana
  71. ^ Himachal Pradesh adopted Hindi as the sole official language in 2008.Hindi to be official language of H.P.
  72. ^ a b Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 29.7, archived from the original on 2007-10-08, http://web.archive.org/web/20071008113359/http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/35.htm, retrieved 2007-07-16 
  73. ^ Article 145 of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir makes Urdu the official language of the state, but provides for the continued use of English for all official purposes.
  74. ^ Article 146 of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir, read together with the sixth schedule thereto, requires the government of the state to establish an academy to develop eight regional languages, namely Kashmiri, Dogri, Balti, Dardi, Punjabi, Pahari, Ladakhi and Gojri. None of these, however, are official.
  75. ^ a b Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 41st report: July 2002 - June 2003, p. para 15.3, archived from the original on 2007-02-24, http://web.archive.org/web/20070224124226/http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/23.htm, retrieved 2007-07-16 .
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  79. ^ a b "Malayalam, How to Arrest its Withering Away?", M. K. Chand Raj, Ph.D. on Language in India (Central Institute of Indian Languages,Mysore), http://www.languageinindia.com/feb2005/malayalamdevelopmentchandraj1.html, retrieved 2007-07-16 
  80. ^ "Language and Literature", Official website of Government of Madhya Pradesh (Government of Madhya Pradesh), http://www.mpgovt.nic.in/culture/language.htm, retrieved 2007-07-16 
  81. ^ "Maharashtra Tourism: Trivia", Official website of Maharashtra Tourism (Government of Maharashtra), http://www.maharashtratourism.gov.in/MTDC/HTML/MaharashtraTourism/Trivia.html, retrieved 2007-07-16 
  82. ^ Palkar, A.B (2007) (PDF), Report of One Man Commission Justice A.B.Palkar: Shri Bhaurao Dagadu Paralkar & Others V/s State of Maharashtra, I, pp. 41, http://www.maharashtra.gov.in/pdf/VOLUME-I.pdf, retrieved 2007-07-16 
  83. ^ Section 2(f) of the Manipur Official Language Act, 1979 states that the official language of Manipur is the Manipuri language (an older English name for the Meitei language) written in the Bengali script. The Sangai Express, Mayek body threatens to stall proceeding, http://www.e-pao.net/epRelatedNews.asp?heading=9&src=290703, retrieved 2007-07-16 .
  84. ^ Nine tribal languages are recognised for the purpose of education, but have no other official status. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, p. para 22.4, http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved 2007-07-16 .
  85. ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 25.5, archived from the original on 2007-10-08, http://web.archive.org/web/20071008113359/http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/35.htm, retrieved 2007-07-16 
  86. ^ The 43rd report of the National Commission of Linguistic Minorities reports that, from a date to be determined, Khasi will have the status of an associate official language in the districts of the East Khasi Hills, West Khasi Hills, Jaintia Hills and Ri Bhoi. Garo will have a similar status in the districts of the East Garo Hills, West Garo Hills and South Garo Hills. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, p. para 25.1, http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved 2007-07-16 . On the 21st of March 2006, the Chief Minister of Meghalaya stated in the State Assembly that a notification to this effect had been issued. Meghalaya Legislative Assembly, Budget session: Starred Questions and Answers - Tuesday, the 21st March 2006., http://megassembly.gov.in/questions/2006/21-03-2006s.htm, retrieved 2007-07-16 .
  87. ^ a b Mizo is the sole official language under the Official Languages Act. However, this statute does not apply to autonomous regions of Mizoram.Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 41st report: July 2002 - June 2003, p. paras 28.4, 28.9, archived from the original on 2007-02-24, http://web.archive.org/web/20070224124226/http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/23.htm, retrieved 2007-07-16 .
  88. ^ a b Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, p. para 17.4, http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved 2007-07-16 .
  89. ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 5.4, archived from the original on 2007-10-08, http://web.archive.org/web/20071008113359/http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/35.htm, retrieved 2007-07-16 .
  90. ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 5.4, archived from the original on 2007-10-08, http://web.archive.org/web/20071008113359/http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/35.htm, retrieved 2007-07-16 .
  91. ^ a b Punjabi is the official language of the state. Section 8 of Punjab's Official Language Act requires the state Government to "take suitable steps to develop the Hindi language in the State" but does not give Hindi any official status. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 19.6, archived from the original on 2007-10-08, http://web.archive.org/web/20071008113359/http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/35.htm, retrieved 2007-06-06 .
  92. ^ a b Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 26.4, archived from the original on 2007-10-08, http://web.archive.org/web/20071008113359/http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/35.htm, retrieved 2007-07-16 .
  93. ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 27.3, http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved 2007-07-16 .
  94. ^ Government of Sikkim, Introduction to Sikkim, http://sikkim.nic.in/sws/home_int.htm, retrieved 2007-07-16 .
  95. ^ Eleven other languages — Bhutia, Lepcha, Limboo, Newari, Gurung, Mangar, Mukhia, Rai, Sherpa and Tamang - are termed "official", but only for the purposes of the preservation of culture and tradition. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. paras 27.3–27.4, http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved 2007-07-16 . See also Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 41st report: July 2002 - June 2003, p. paras 28.4, 28.9, archived from the original on 2007-02-24, http://web.archive.org/web/20070224124226/http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/23.htm, retrieved 2007-07-16 .
  96. ^ Whilst Tamil is the only official language, important communications are published in minority languages, and electoral rolls are published in Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam in areas where they are widely used. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 15.4, archived from the original on 2007-10-08, http://web.archive.org/web/20071008113359/http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/35.htm, retrieved 2007-07-16 .
  97. ^ a b Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 41st report: July 2002 - June 2003, p. para 17.3, archived from the original on 2007-02-24, http://web.archive.org/web/20070224124226/http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/23.htm, retrieved 2007-06-16 .
  98. ^ a b English, Hindi, and Urdu are the official languages of the state, although the purposes for which Urdu is used have not been fully described. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 7.3, http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved 2007-07-16 .
  99. ^ Sanskrit to be promoted with priority: Nishank Nishank, Sanskrit made official language, http://www.garhwalpost.com/index.php?mod=article&cat=Uttarakhand&article=5051, retrieved 2009-12-28 
  100. ^ a b Hindi is the official language, and Urdu is used for seven specific purposes, similar to those for which it is used in Bihar. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. paras 6.1–6.2, http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved 2007-07-16 .
  101. ^ Bengali is the official language of West Bengal. Nepali is recognised as an additional official language in Darjeeling district. In addition, the government has a policy of replying to representations received in minority languages in those languages. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 18.4, http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203, retrieved 2007-07-16 .
  102. ^ Bengal will now have as many as six "second official" languages..... English and Bengali are the two official (presumably, first official) languages of the state. To these will be added Urdu, Gurmukhi, Nepali, Santali, Oriya and Hindi. Roy, Anirban (27 May 2011). "West Bengal to have six more languages for official use". India Today. http://indiatoday.intoday.in/site/story/west-bengal-mamata-banerjee-recognizes-six-non-bengali-languages/1/139450.html. Retrieved 1 July 2011. 
  103. ^ "Most of Indian languages are spoken in Andaman and Nicobar Islands because of its cosmopolitan nature. The common language is Hindi whereas English and Hindi are used in official correspondence." Andaman District Administration, Profile, http://andamandt.nic.in/profile.htm, retrieved 2007-06-06 
  104. ^ a b Urdu and Punjabi are the second official languages of Delhi under the Delhi Official Language Bill, 2000 Punjabi, Urdu made official languages in Delhi, The Times of India, 2003-06-25, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/43388.cms, retrieved 2007-07-17 
  105. ^ a b Three languages are used for official purposes - Tamil, Telugu, and Malayalam. However, English and French are also reorganized for official purpose as per the official language policy. The official language policy of the union territory states that the Tamil language should be used for all or any of the official purposes of the union territory. In case of Mahe and Yanam, Malayalam and Telugu may be respectively used for official purpose. The English language may also be used for all or any of the official purposes. The French language shall remain the official language of the establishments so long as the elected representatives of the people shall not decide otherwise (ACT 28, Gazetteer, Pondicherry Vol. 1, P. II)Multilingualism and second language acquisition and learning in Pondicherry
  106. ^ Office of the Chief Electoral Officer, Puducherry, General Information on Puducherry, http://www.ceopondicherry.nic.in/Bkground/GeneralInfo.htm, retrieved 2007-06-06 [dead link]
  107. ^ Constitution of India, Article 344(1).
  108. ^ Constitution of India, Article 351.
  109. ^ Official Languages Resolution, 1968, para. 2.
  110. ^ Official Languages Resolution, 1968, para. 4.
  111. ^ National Portal of India : Government : Constitution of India
  112. ^ Constitution of India, page 330, EIGHTH SCHEDULE, Articles 344 (1) and 351]. Languages.
  113. ^ Official 2001 census data
  114. ^ The 2001 census records two figures, of 258 million and 422 million "Hindi" speakers. However, both figures include languages other than Standard Hindi, such as Rajasthani (ca. 80 million in independent estimates), Bhojpuri (40 million), Awadhi (38 million), Chhattisgarhi (18 million), and dozens of other languages with a million to over ten million speakers apiece. The figure of 422 million specifically includes all such people, whereas the figure of 258 depends on speaker identification as recorded in the census. For example, of the estimated 38 million Awadhi speakers, only 2½ million gave their language as "Awadhi", with the rest apparently giving it as "Hindi"[citation needed] , and of the approximately 80 million Rajasthani speakers, only 18 million were counted separately[citation needed]. Maithili, listed as a separate language in the 2001 census but previously considered a dialect of Hindi, also appeared to be severely undercounted.[citation needed]
  115. ^ "A Committee has been constituted under the Chairmanship of Shri Sita Kant Mohapatra to make recommendation, inter-alia on the feasibility of treating all languages in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution, including Tamil, as Official Languages of the Union. The Government will consider the recommendations of the Committee and take a suitable decision in the matter."Indian parliament
  116. ^ Official Languages Rules, 1976, para. 3(1).
  117. ^ Official Languages Rules, 1976, para. 2(g).
  118. ^ Official Languages Rules, 1976, para. 3(2).
  119. ^ Official Languages Rules, 1976, para. 3(3).

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