Kimigayo

君が代
English: His Majesty's Reign
Kimigayo
Kimigayo.score.svg
Score of Kimigayo

National anthem of
 Japan

Lyrics Waka poem, Heian period (794-1185)
Music Yoshiisa Oku, Akimori Hayashi and Franz Eckert, 1880
Adopted 13 August 1999
Music sample
Kimigayo (Instrumental)

"Kimigayo" (君が代?) is the national anthem of post-1868 Japan. It is also one of the world's shortest national anthems in current use, with a length of 11 measures and 32 characters.[1][2][3] Its lyrics are based on a Waka poem written in the Heian period (794-1185), sung to a melody written in the imperial period (1868–1945). The current melody was chosen in 1880, replacing an unpopular melody composed eleven years earlier. While the title Kimigayo is usually translated as His Majesty's Reign, no official translation of the title nor lyrics has ever been established by law.[4]

Prior to 1945, "Kimigayo" was the official national anthem of the Japanese Empire. When the Empire of Japan (imperial period) fell and its successor state, the State of Japan (democratic period) replaced it in 1945, the polity therefore changed from absolutism to democracy. However, just as Emperor Hirohito was not dethroned, so too was "Kimigayo" retained as the de facto national anthem, becoming legally recognized as such in 1999 with the passage of Act on National Flag and Anthem.

Since the democratic period began, there has been controversy over the performance of the anthem at public ceremonies. Along with the Hinomaru flag, "Kimigayo" has been claimed to be a symbol of Japanese nationalism, imperialism and militarism,[1] with debate over whether "Kimigayo", as a remnant of Japan's imperial past, is compatible with Japanese democracy. Thus, essential points of controversies to the Hinomaru and "Kimigayo" are whether they express praise or condemnation to the Empire of Japan and whether the Empire of Japan (pre-1945) and the State of Japan (post-1945) are the same states or different states.

Contents

Etymology

Since the Heian period or earlier, the word "kimi" has been used either as a noun to indicate an emperor or one's lord (i.e., master);[5][6] as an honorific noun or suffix to indicate a person[5] or most commonly as a friendly, informal word for "you"[7] For example, the protagonist Hikaru Genji (光源氏?) of the Tale of Genji is also called "Hikaru no Kimi" or "Hikaru-gimi" (光の君 or 光君?).

Before the Japanese defeat in World War II, Kimigayo was understood to mean the long reign of the emperor. With the adoption of the Constitution of Japan in 1947, the emperor became no longer a sovereign that ruled by divine right, but a human who is a symbol of the state and of the unity of the people.[8] The Ministry of Education did not give any new meanings for "Kimigayo" after the war; this allowed the song to mean the Japanese people. The Ministry also did not formally renounce the pre-war meaning of Kimigayo.[9]

In 1999, during the deliberations of the Act on National Flag and Anthem, the official definition of Kimi or Kimi-ga-yo was questioned repeatedly. The first suggestion was given by Chief Cabinet Secretary Hiromu Nonaka that, due to the new status of emperor as established in Article 1 of the Constitution of Japan, kimi meant the "emperor as the symbol of Japan," and the entire lyrics wish for the peace and properity of Japan.[10] Then Prime Minister Keizō Obuchi confirmed this meaning with a statement on June 29, 1999:

"Kimi" indicates the Emperor, who is the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people, and whose position is derived from the consensus-based will of Japanese citizens, with whom sovereign power resides. And, the phrase "Kimigayo" indicates our State, Japan, which has the Emperor enthroned as the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people by the consensus-based will of Japanese citizens. And it is reasonable to take the lyric of Kimigayo to mean the wish for the lasting prosperity and peace of such country of ours.[10][11]

Parties opposed to the Liberal Democratic Party, which was in control of the government at the time Obuchi was prime minister, they strongly objected to the government's meaning of kimi and Kimigayo. From the Democratic Party of Japan, members objected due to the lack of any historical ties to the meaning. The harshest critic was Kazuo Shii, the chairman of the Communist Party of Japan, who strongly believed that "Japan" could not be derived from Kimigayo because the lyrics only mention wishing for the emperor for a long reign. Shii also objected to the use of the song as the national anthem because for a democratic nation, a song about the emperor is not appropriate.[10]

History

Empire of Japan (1868-1945)

Sazare-Ishi pebbles are believed to grow into boulders in some legends. A photo taken at Shimogamo Shrine in Kyōto.

The lyrics first appeared in a poem anthology, Kokin Wakashū, as an anonymous poem. The poem was included in many anthologies, and was used in a later period as a celebration song of a long life by people of all social statures. Unlike the form used for the current national anthem, the poem originally began with "Waga Kimi wa" ('you, my lord') instead of "Kimiga Yo wa" ('your reign').[12] The first lyrics were changed during the Kamakura period, while the rest of the lyrics stayed the same. Because the lyrics were sung on formal occasions, such as birthdays, there was no sheet music for it until 1800s.[10]

In 1869, John William Fenton, a visiting Irish military band leader, realized there was no national anthem in Japan, and suggested to Iwao Ōyama, an officer of the Satsuma Clan, that one be created. Ōyama agreed, and selected the lyrics.[13] The lyrics may have been chosen for their similarity to the British national anthem, due to Fenton's influence.[14] After selecting the anthem's lyrics, Ōyama then asked Fenton to create the melody. After being given just two[15] to three weeks to compose the melody and only a few days to rehearse, Fenton debuted the anthem before the Japanese Emperor in 1870.[14] This was the first version of Kimigayo, which was discarded because the melody "lacked solemnity."[16] However, this version is still performed annually at the Myōkōji Shrine in Yokohama, where Fenton served as a military band leader. Myōkōji serves as a memorial to him.[13]

In 1880, the Imperial Household Agency adopted a new melody composed by Yoshiisa Oku and Akimori Hayashi. The composer is often listed as Hiromori Hayashi, who was their supervisor and Akimori's father. Akimori was also one of Fenton's pupils.[14] Although the melody is based on a traditional mode of Japanese court music, it is composed in a mixed style influenced by Western hymns, and uses some elements of the Fenton arrangement.[17] The German musician Franz Eckert applied the melody with Western style harmony, creating the second and current version of Kimigayo. The government formally adopted Kimigayo as the national anthem in 1888 and had copies of the music and lyrics sent overseas for diplomatic ceremonies.[18] By 1893, Kimigayo was included in public school ceremonies due to the efforts of the then Ministry of Education.[10]

At the turn of the century, Kimigayo was beginning to be closely associated with the idea of honoring the Emperor. It was also associated as a part of Japanese education. However, opinions expressed in an Osaka paper in 1904 calls Kimigayo a song for the imperial family and not the state as a whole.[19] Uchimura Kanzo, a Christian leader in Japan, stated at the turn of the century that Kimigayo is not the anthem of Japan by saying the song's purpose is to praise the emperor. According to Kanzo, a national anthem should express the feelings of the people.[20] The Japanese were not familiar with Kimigayo as the anthem until there was a surge of celebrations after victories in the First Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese Wars. Previously, papers were critical of fellow Japanese who could not sing Kimigayo properly at ceremonies overseas.[18]

State of Japan (1945-present)

1945 to 1999

During the American occupation of Japan, there were no directives by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers to restrict the use of Kimigayo by the Japanese government. This was different from the regulations issued that restricted the use of the Hinomaru flag.[21] Along with the encouragement to use Kimigayo in the schools to promote defense education and patriotism, the national broadcaster NHK began to use the song to announce the start and ending of its programming.[22]

Since 1999

A page with Asian characters and a black-and-white version of the Japanese flag left above
Act on National Flag and Anthem as it appears in the Official Gazette on August 15, 1999

The Act on National Flag and Anthem was passed in 1999, choosing both the Hinomaru and Kimigayo as Japan's national symbols. The passage of the law stemmed from a suicide of a school principal in Hiroshima who could not resolve a dispute between his school board and his teachers over the use of the Hinomaru and Kimigayo.[23]

Prime Minister Keizō Obuchi of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) decided to draft legislation to make the Hinomaru and Kimigayo official symbols of Japan in 2000. His Chief Cabinet Secretary, Hiromu Nonaka, wanted the legislation to be completed by the 10th anniversary of the coronation of Akihito as Emperor.[24] This is not the first time legislation was considered for establishing both symbols as official. In 1974, with the backdrop of the 1972 return of Okinawa to Japan and the 1973 oil crisis, Prime Minister Tanaka Kakuei hinted at a law being passed legalizing both symbols.[25]

Main supporters of the bill were the LDP and the Komeito (CGP), while the opposition included the Social Democratic Party (SDPJ) and Communist Party (CPJ), who cited the connotations both symbols had with the war era. The CPJ was further opposed for not allowing the issue to be decided by the public. Meanwhile, the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) could not develop party consensus on it. President of the DPJ, Naoto Kan stated that the DPJ must support the bill because the party already recognized both symbols as the symbols of Japan.[26] Deputy Secretary General and future prime minister Yukio Hatoyama thought that this bill would cause further divisions among society and the public schools.[24]

Before the vote, there were calls for the bills to separated at the Diet. Waseda University professor Norihiro Kato stated that Kimigayo is a separate issue more complex than the Hinomaru flag.[27] Attempts to designate only the Hinomaru as the national flag by the DPJ and other parties during the vote of the bill were rejected by the Diet.[28] The House of Representatives passed the bill on July 22, 1999, by a 403 to 86 vote.[29] The legislation was sent to the House of Councilors on July 28 and was passed on August 9. It was enacted into law on August 13.[30]

Protocol

Kimigayo played at a volleyball tournament in Ōsaka.

The lyrics and musical notation of the anthem are given in the second appendix of the Act on National Flag and Anthem. As for the sheet music itself, it displays a vocal arrangement with no mention of tempo and all of the lyrics in hiragana. The anthem is composed in 4/4 (common time) in the key of C major.[1][31] The Act on National Flag and Anthem does not detail how one should show respect during performances of Kimigayo. In a statement made by Prime Minister Obuchi, the legislation will not impose new regulations on the Japanese people when it comes to respecting the flag or anthem.[32] However, local government bodies and private organizations sometimes suggest or demand certain protocols be followed. For example, an October 2003 directive by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government required teachers to stand during the national anthem at graduation ceremonies. While standing, the teachers are required to sing Kimigayo while facing the Hinomaru.[33] United States military personnel in Japan, even when in civilian dress, are required by regulations to place their right hand over their heart when Kimigayo, The Star-Spangled Banner, or any other national anthem is performed.[34] The Act on National Flag and Anthem also does not dictate when or where Kimigayo should be played. The anthem, however, is commonly played at sporting events inside of Japan, or at international sporting events where Japan has a competing team. At sumō tournaments, Kimigayo is played before the awards ceremony.[16]

Public schools

A group of people facing a man and woman on a stage. Two flags are above the stage.
A Hokkaido Prefecture graduation ceremony with both the Hinomaru and the Hokkaido Prefecture flags

Since the end of World War II, the Ministry of Education has issued statements and regulations to promote the usage of both the Hinomaru and Kimigayo at schools under their jurisdiction. The first of these statements was released in 1950, stating that it was desirable, but not required, to use both symbols. This desire was later expanded to include both symbols on national holidays and during ceremonial events to encourage students on what national holidays are and to promote defense education. The Ministry not only took great measures to explain that both symbols are not formally established by law, they also referred to Kimigayo as a song and refused to call it the national anthem. It was not until 1977 that the Ministry referred to Kimigayo as the national anthem (国歌, kokka) of Japan.[35] In a 1989 reform of the education guidelines, the LDP-controlled government first demanded that the Hinomaru flag must be used in school ceremonies and that proper respect must be given to it and to Kimigayo.[36] Punishments for school officials who did not follow this order were also enacted with the 1989 reforms.[35]

The 1999 curriculum guideline issued by the Ministry of Education after the passage of the Law Regarding the National Flag and Anthem decrees that "on entrance and graduation ceremonies, schools must raise the flag of Japan and instruct students to sing the "Kimigayo" (national anthem), given the significance of the flag and the song."[37] Additionally, the ministry's commentary on the 1999 curriculum guideline for elementary schools note that "given the advance of internationalization, along with fostering patriotism and awareness of being Japanese, it is important to nurture school children's respectful attitude toward the flag of Japan and Kimigayo as they grow up to be respected Japanese citizens in an internationalized society."[38] The ministry also stated that if Japanese students cannot respect their own symbols, then they will not be able to respect the symbols of other nations.[39]

Schools have been the center of controversy over both the anthem and the national flag.[40] The Tokyo Board of Education requires the use of both the anthem and flag at events under their jurisdiction. The order requires school teachers to respect both symbols or risk losing their jobs.[41] Some have protested that such rules violate the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the "freedom of thought, belief and conscience" clause in the Constitution of Japan,[42] but the Board has argued that since schools are government agencies, their employees have an obligation to teach their students how to be good Japanese citizens.[1] Teachers have unsuccessfully brought criminal complaints against Tokyo Governor Shintarō Ishihara and senior officials for ordering teachers to honor the Hinomaru and Kimigayo.[43] After earlier opposition, the Japan Teachers Union accepts the use of both the flag and anthem; the smaller All Japan Teachers and Staffs Union still opposes both symbols and their use inside the school system.[44]

In 2006 Katsuhisa Fujita, a retired teacher in Tokyo, was threatened with imprisonment, and fined 200,000 yen (roughly 2,000 US dollars), after he was accused of disturbing a graduation ceremony at Itabashi High School by urging the attendees to remain seated during the playing of the anthem.[45] At the time of Fujita's sentence, 345 teachers had been punished for refusing to take part in anthem related events, though Fujita is the only man to have been convicted in relation to it.[46] On September 21, 2006, the Tokyo District Court ordered the Tokyo Metropolitan Government to pay compensation to the teachers who had been subjected to punishment under the directive of the Tokyo Board of Education. The then Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi commented, "It is a natural idea to treat the national anthem importantly". The ruling has been appealed by the Metropolitan Government.[47] Since October 23, 2003, 410 teachers and school workers have been punished for refusing to stand and sing the anthem as ordered by school principals.[48] Teachers can also be punished if their students do not stand while Kimigayo is played during school ceremonies.[42]

On 30 May and 6 June 2011, two panels of the Supreme Court of Japan ruled that it was constitutional to require teachers to stand in front of the Hinomaru and sing the Kimigayo during school ceremonies. In making the ruling, the panels ratified the decision of the Tokyo High Court in ruling against 13 teachers who had asked for court relief after being disciplined between 2003 and 2005 for refusing to stand and sing the anthem.[49]

Present-day perception

According to polls conduced by mainstream media, most Japanese people had perceived Kimigayo as the national anthem even before the passage of the Act on National Flag and Anthem in 1999.[50] Despite this, controversies surrounding the use of the anthem in school events or media still remain. For example, liberal newspapers such as Asahi Shimbun and Mainichi Shimbun often feature articles critical of the flag of Japan, reflecting their readerships' political spectrum.[51]

Outside of the school system, there was a controversy regarding Kimigayo soon after the passage of the 1999 law. A month after the law's passage, a record containing a performance of Kimigayo by Japanese rocker Kiyoshiro Imawano was removed by Polydor records for his next album Fuyu no Jujika. Polydor did not want a record to stir up emotion in the Japanese; in response, Imawano re-released the album through an independent label with the track in question.[52]

Lyrics

Official[31] Hiragana[31] Rōmaji[16] English translation[53]

君が代は
千代に八千代に
さざれ石の
いわおとなりて
こけの生すまで

きみがよは
ちよにやちよに
さざれいしの
いわおとなりて
こけのむすまで

Kimigayo wa
Chiyo ni yachiyo ni
Sazare-ishi no
Iwao to narite
Koke no musu made

May your reign
Continue for a thousand, eight thousand generations,
Until the pebbles
Grow into boulders
Lush with moss

Poetic English translation by English professor Basil Hall Chamberlain[54]

Thousands of years of happy reign be thine;
Rule on, my lord, till what are pebbles now
By ages united to mighty rocks shall grow
Whose venerable sides the moss doth line.

Other versions

  • The Slovenian band Laibach recorded an arrangement of Kimigayo for their album Volk.[55]
  • As a way to avoid that type of punishment, teachers who are opposed to the compulsory singing of the anthem have tried to expand various English-language parody lyrics across Japan and through the Internet.[56] The parodies take the Japanese syllables and replace them with English phonetic equivalents (for example, in one of the more popular versions, "Kimi ga yo wa" becomes "Kiss me girl, your old one"), allowing those who sing the new version to remain undetected in a crowd. Japanese conservatives deride what they describe as 'sabotage'. There is also a political significance to some of the alternative English lyrics as they can allude to comfort women.[57]

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ a b c d Hongo, Jun. Hinomaru, 'Kimigayo' express conflicts both past and future. The Japan Times Online. 2007-07-17 [cited 2008-01-11]. The Japan Times.
  2. ^ "イギリス生活情報週刊誌-英国ニュースダイジェスト". http://www.news-digest.co.uk/news/content/view/2457/161/. Retrieved 2008-10-16. 
  3. ^ NAITO, T. (1999-10). "「歌唱(ウタ)」を忘れた「君が代」論争". Bungeishunjū. http://www.ongen-music.com/kimigayo/kokka.html. Retrieved 2008-10-16. 
  4. ^ "Elementary schools face new mandate: Patriotism, 'Kimigayo'". The Japan Times Online (Kyodo News). 2008-03-29. http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20080329a3.html. Retrieved 2011-08-20. 
  5. ^ a b 新村出記念財団(1998). A dictionary of Japanese 『広辞苑』 ("Kōjien"), 5th edition. Published by Iwanami Shoten, Publishers.
  6. ^ "君が代の源流 (in Japanese)". http://www.furutasigaku.jp/jfuruta/jwagakim/jwagaki1.html.  "Inside "Kimigayo" (in English)". Furuta's Historical Science Association. http://www.furutasigaku.jp/efuruta/ewagakim/ewagaki.html. Retrieved 2008-05-10. 
  7. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=g8-BGRKwWXoC&pg=PA144&dq=Kimi+informal&hl=en&ei=1760TPnoLMH58Aas6NWaCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDgQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Kimi%20informal&f=false
  8. ^ Michael (2003). Graham Humphrys. ed. Citizenship Education and Lifelong Learning: Power and Place. Nova Biomedical Books. p. 126. ISBN 978-1590338636. http://books.google.com/?id=FrwMHKDPUzQC&pg=PA126&dq=kimigayo#v=onepage&q=kimigayo&f=false. Retrieved 2010-10-13. 
  9. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=gUjNKxTrju4C&pg=PA1905&dq=kimigayo&hl=en&ei=vry0TOmmKYL_8Aa0tujxCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCoQ6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q=kimigayo&f=false
  10. ^ a b c d e Itoh, Mayumi (2001-07). "Japan's Neo-Nationalism: The Role of the Hinomaru and Kimigayo Legislation". Japan Policy Research Institute Working Paper 79. http://www.jpri.org/publications/workingpapers/wp79.html. Retrieved 2010-10-13. 
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  12. ^ Goodman, Neary 1996, pp. 78.
  13. ^ a b Aura Sabadus (2006-03-14). "Japan searches for Scot who modernised nation". The Scotsman. Published by Johnston Press Digital Publishing. http://thescotsman.scotsman.com/index.cfm?id=379822006. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  14. ^ a b c Colin Joyce (2005-08-30). "Briton who gave Japan its anthem". Telegraph.co.uk. Published by Telegraph Media Group Limited. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2005/08/30/wjapan30.xml. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  15. ^ Boyd, Richard; Tak-Wing Ngo (2006). State Making in Asia. Routledge. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-415-34611-5. http://books.google.com/?id=WF-ucX4oywIC&pg=PA40&dq=kimigayo&cd=27#v=onepage&q=kimigayo&f=false. 
  16. ^ a b c "National Flag and Anthem" (PDF). Web Japan. Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2000. http://web-japan.org/factsheet/en/pdf/11NFlagAnthem.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-11. 
  17. ^ Hermann Gottschewski: "Hoiku shōka and the melody of the Japanese national anthem Kimi ga yo", in: Journal of the Society for Research in Asiatic Music (東洋音楽研究), No. 68 (2003), pp. (1)-(17). Published by The society for Research in Asiatic Music.
  18. ^ a b Boyd, Richard; Ngo, Tak-Wing (2006). State Making in Asia. Routledge. p. 36. ISBN 978-0415346115. http://books.google.com/?id=r8IDxzZ4SQIC&pg=PA36&dq=kimigayo#v=onepage&q=kimigayo&f=false. Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  19. ^ Goodman, Neary 1996, pp. 79.
  20. ^ Shields Jr., James J. (1989). Japanese Schooling: Patterns of Socialization, Equality, and Political Control. Penn State University Press. p. 241. ISBN 978-0271023403. http://books.google.com/?id=ssHlZQvhOA4C&pg=PA241&dq=kimigayo+Kakuei#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  21. ^ Goodman, Neary 1996, pp. 81.
  22. ^ Goodman, Neary 1996, pp. 82.
  23. ^ Aspinall 2001, pp. 126.
  24. ^ a b Itoh 2003, pp. 209–210
  25. ^ Goodman, Neary 1996, pp. 82–83.
  26. ^ Democratic Party of Japan. 国旗国歌法制化についての民主党の考え方 [The DPJ Asks For A Talk About the Flag and Anthem Law]; 1999-07-21 [cited 2010-01-17]. (Japanese).
  27. ^ Calichman, Richard (2005). Contemporary Japanese Thought. Columbia University Press. p. 211. ISBN 978-0231136204. http://books.google.com/?id=Y8Paxm86ONwC&pg=PA211&dq=kimigayo#v=onepage&q=kimigayo&f=false. Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  28. ^ Democratic Party of Japan. 国旗・国歌法案、衆院で可決 民主党は自主投票 [Flag and Anthem Law Passed by the House, DPJ Free Vote]; 1999-07-22 [cited 2010-01-18]. (Japanese).
  29. ^ National Diet Library. 第145回国会 本会議 第47号; 1999-07-22 [cited 2010-01-17]. (Japanese).
  30. ^ House of Representatives. 議案審議経過情報: 国旗及び国歌に関する法律案; 1999-08-13 [cited 2010-01-17]. (Japanese).
  31. ^ a b c 国旗及び国歌に関する法律
  32. ^ "Statement of Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 1999-08-09. http://www.mofa.go.jp/announce/announce/1999/8/809.html. Retrieved 2010-05-17. 
  33. ^ Editorial staff (2004-04-07). "EDITORIAL: Coercion can't foster respect". The Japan Times Online. The Japan Times. http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/ed20040407a1.html. Retrieved 2007-12-19. 
  34. ^ Trevor M. Carlee (2005-02-18). "Corps places hand over heart for national anthem". Okinawa Marine. From United States Marine Corps. Archived from the original on 2008-04-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20080411211730/http://www.okinawa.usmc.mil/public+affairs+info/Archive+News+Pages/2005/050218-heart.html. Retrieved 2007-12-19. 
  35. ^ a b Goodman, Neary 1996, pp. 81–83.
  36. ^ Trevor 2001, pp. 78.
  37. ^ Hiroshima Prefectural Board of Education Secretariat. 学習指導要領における国旗及び国歌の取扱い [Handling of the flag and anthem in the National Curriculum]; 2001-09-11 [cited 2009-12-08]. (Japanese).
  38. ^ Ministry of Education. 小学校学習指導要領解説社会編,音楽編,特別活動編 [National Curriculum Guide: Elementary social notes, Chapter music Chapter Special Activities]; 1999. (Japanese).
  39. ^ Aspinall 2001, pp. 125.
  40. ^ Weisman, Steven R. For Japanese, Flag and Anthem Sometimes Divide. The New York Times. 1990-04-29 [cited 2010-01-02].
  41. ^ McCurry, Justin. A touchy subject. Guardian Unlimited. 2006-06-05 [cited 2008-01-14]. The Guardian.
  42. ^ a b Grossman; Lee, Wing On; Kennedy, Kerry (2008). Citizenship Curriculum in Asia and the Pacific. Springer. p. 85. ISBN 978-1402087448. http://books.google.com/?id=btkuYUgXLRIC&pg=PA85&dq=kimigayo#v=onepage&q=kimigayo&f=false. Retrieved 2010-10-12. 
  43. ^ The Japan Times. Ishihara's Hinomaru order called legit; 2006-01-05 [cited 2007-12-04].
  44. ^ Heenan 1998, pp. 206.
  45. ^ Kyodo News (2006-05-24). "FEATURE: Upcoming verdict on retired teacher draws attention". KYODO NEWS ON THE WEB. Published by Kyodo News. http://home.kyodo.co.jp/modules/fstStory/index.php?storyid=248658. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  46. ^ "Japanese teacher fined for anthem protest". The Taipei Times (AFP). 2006-05-31. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/world/archives/2006/05/31/2003310932. Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  47. ^ "City Hall to appeal 'Kimigayo' ruling". The Japan Times Online. The Japan Times. 2006-09-23. http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20060923a2.html. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  48. ^ "2 teachers punished for refusing to stand up, recite 'Kimigayo'". Kyodo News (Japan Today). 2008-05-24. http://www.japantoday.com/category/national/view/2-teachers-punished-for-refusing-to-stand-up-recite-kimigayo. Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  49. ^ Kyodo News. "Top court again backs 'Kimigayo' orders". The Japan Times Online. The Japan Times. http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20110608b1.html. Retrieved 15 October 2011. 
  50. ^ Asahi Research. TV Asahi. 国旗・国歌法制化について [About the Law of the Flag and Anthem]; 1999-07-18 [archived 2008-05-23; cited 2008-03-11]. (Japanese).
  51. ^ Hoso Bunka Foundation. テレビニュースの多様化により、異なる番組の固定視聴者間に生じる意見の差 [Diversity of television news, viewers differences of opinion arise between different programs] [PDF]; 2002. (Japanese).
  52. ^ McClure, Steve (1999-09-25). "Polydor Censors Japanese Rocker". Billboard Magazine (Billboard): p. 73. http://books.google.com/books?id=cAgEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA73&dq=Kimigayo&lr=&as_brr=1&client=firefox-a#v=onepage&q=Kimigayo&f=false. Retrieved 2009-08-25. 
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Bibliography
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