- Pre-Columbian art
Pre-Columbian Art is the art of
Mexico, Central and South Americain the time prior to the arrival of European colonizers in the 16th century. Pre-Columbianart thrived over a wide timescale, from 1800 BC to AD 1500. Despite the great range and variety of artwork, certain characteristics were repeated throughout the region, namely a preference for angular, linear patterns, and three-dimensional ceramics.
Most of the now known artworks made in Central and South America before the voyage of
Christopher Columbushave been found in tombs. Enormous amounts of time, energy and materials were spent to properly equip the societies' leaders and elitefor their after-death journeys. Pre-Columbiancultures viewed reality as a multilayered universewith various divisions, attended by numerous deitieswhose activities and relationships metaphorically expressed the forces of nature and cosmos. Death was considered a transition and journey from one realm of existence to another. The elaborate preparation and offerings associated with burying the dead reflect the importance of equipping a soulfor transition from one realm to another.
Mesoamerica and Central America
The Mesoamerican cultures are generally divided into three periods (see
*Pre-classic (up to AD 200)
*Classic (about AD 200–900)
*Post-classic (about AD 900 to 1580).
The Pre-classic period was dominated by the highly developed
Olmeccivilization, which flourished around 1200–400 BC. The Olmecs produced jadefigurines, and created heavy-featured, colossal heads, up to 2 meters (8 ft) high, that still stand mysteriously in the landscape. The Mesoamerican tradition of building large ceremonial centres appears to have begun under the Olmecs.
During the Classic period the dominant culture was the Maya. Like the Mississippian peoples of North America such as the Choctaw and Natchez, the Maya organized themselves into large, agricultural communities. They practised their own forms of hieroglyphic writing and even advanced
astronomy. Mayan art consequently focuses on rain, agriculture, and fertility, expressing these images mainly in relief and surface decoration, as well as some sculpture. Glyphsand stylized figures were used to decorate architecture such as the pyramid temple of Chichén Itzá. Murals dating from about AD 750 were discovered when the city of Bonampak was excavated in 1946.
The Post-classic period (10th–12th centuries) was dominated by the
Toltecswho made colossal, block-like sculptures such as those employed as free-standing columns at Tula, Mexico. The Mixtecsdeveloped a style of painting known as ‘Mixtec-Puebla’, as seen in their murals and codices (manuscripts), in which all available space is covered by flat figures in geometric designs. The Aztecculture in Mexico produced some dramatically expressive examples of Aztec art, such as the decorated skulls of captives and stone sculpture, of which Tlazolteotl (Woods Bliss Collection, Washington), a goddess in childbirth, is a good example.
Andeanregion of South America (modern-day Peru), the Chavín civilization flourished from around 1000 BC to 300 BC. The Chavín produced small-scale pottery, often human in shape but with animal features such as bird feet, reptilian eyes, or feline fangs. Representations of jaguar are a common theme in Chavín art. The Chavin culture is also noted for the spectacular murals and carvings found its main religious site of Chavin de Huantar; these works include the Raimondi Stela, the Lanzón, and the Tello Obelisk.
Contemporary with the Chavin was the
Paracas cultureof the southern coast of Peru, most noted today for their elaborate textiles. These amazing productions, some of which could measure ninety feet long, were primarily used for as burial wraps for Paracas mummy bundles. Paracas art was greatly influenced by the Chavín cult, and the two styles share many common motifs.
On the south coast, the Paracas were immediately succeeded by a flowering of artistic production around the
Nazcariver valley. The Nazcaperiod is divided into eight ceramic phases, each one depicting increasingly abstract animal and human motifs. These period range from Phase 1, beginning around 200 CE, to Phase 8, which declined in the middle of the eighth cetnruy. The Nasca people are most famous for the Nazca lines, though they are usually regarded as making some of the most beautiful polychrome ceramics in the Andes.On the north coast, the Mochesucceeded the Chavin. The Moche flourished about AD 100–800, and were among the best artisans of the Pre-Columbian world, producing delightful portrait vases (Moche ware), which, while realistic, are steeped in religious references, the significance of which is now lost. For the Moche, ceramics functioned as a primary way of disseminating information and cultural ideas. The Moche made ceramic vessels that depicted and re-created a plethora of objects: fruits, plants, animals, human portrais, gods, demons, as well as graphic depictions of sexual acts. The Moche are also noted for their metallurgy (such as that found in the tomb of the Lord of Sípan), as well as their architectural prowess, such as the Huaca de la Lunaand the Huaca del Solin the Moche River valley.
Following the decline of the Moche, two large co-existing empires emerged in the Andes region. In the north, the
Wari(or Huari) Empire, basedin their capital city of the same name. The Wari are noted for their stone architecture and sculpture accomplishments, but their greatest proficiency was ceramic. The Wari produced magnificent large ceramics, many of which depicted images of the Staff God, an important deity in the Andes which during the Wari period had become specifically associated with the Lake Titicacaregion on the modern Peru-Bolivia border. Similarly, the Wari's contemporaries of the Tiwanakuempire, also centered around a capital city of the same name, held the Staff Godin similar esteem. Tiwanaku's empire began to expand out of Titicaca around 400 BCE, but its "Classic Period" of artistic production and poltiical power occurred between 375 and 700 CE. Tiwanaku is currently known for its magnificent imperial city on the southern side of Lake Titicaca, now in modern-day Bolivia. Especially famous is the Gate of the Sun, which depicts a large image of the Staff God flanked by other religious symbols which may have functioned as a calendar.
Following the decline of the Wari Empire in the late first millennium, the
Chimúpeople, centered out of their capital city of Chimorbegan to build their empire on the north and central coasts of Peru. The Chimú were preceded by a simple ceramic style known as Sicán(700-900 CE) which became increasingly decorative until it became recognizable as Chimú in the early second millennium. The Chimú produced excellent portrait and decorative works in metal, notably gold but especially silver. The Chimú also are noted for their featherwork, having produced many standards and headdresses made of a variety of tropical feathers which were fashioned into bired and fish designs, both of which were held in high esteem by the Chimú. The Chimú are best known for their magnificent palatial complex of Chan Chanjust south of modern-day Trujillo, Peru; now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Chimú went into decline very quickly due to outside pressures and conquest from the expanding Inca Empirein the mid-1400s.
At the time of the Spanish conquest, the
Inca Empire(Tawantinsuyu in Quechua, the "Land of the Four Quarters") was the largest and wealthiest empire in the world, and this was depicted in their art. Most Inca sculpture was melted down by the invading Spanish, so most of what remains today is in the form of architecture, textiles, and ceramics. The Inca valued gold among all other metals, and equated it with the sun god Inti. Some Inca buildings in the capital of Cuscowere literally covered in gold, and most contained many gold and silver sculptures. Most Inca art, however, was abstract in nature. Inca ceramics were primarily large vessels covered in geometric designs. Inca tunics and textiles contained similar motifs, often checkerboard patterns reserved for the Inca elite and the Inca army. Today, due to the unpopularity of abstract art and the lack of Inca gold and silver sculpture, the Inca are best known for the architecture - specifically the complex of Machu Picchujust northwest of Cusco. Inca architecture makes use of large stone blocks, each one cut specifically to fit around the other blocks in a wall. These stones were cut with such precision that the Incas did not need to make use of mortar to hold their buildings together. Even without mortar, Inca buildings still stand today; they form many of the foundations for even modern-day buildings in Cusco and the surrounding area. The Incas produced thousand of large stone structures, among them forts, temples, and palaces, even though the Inca Empire lasted for only ninety-five years.
* [http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/precolumbionart5.htm "Pre-Colombian Art and Architecture"]
* [http://www.anthroposgallery.com Anthropos]
* [http://www.teachers.ocps.net/moa/ "A Virtual Reality Tour of Pre Columbian Art"]
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