Wall-roosting Mouse-eared Bat

Wall-roosting Mouse-eared Bat
Myotis muricola
from Kuningan, West Java
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Chiroptera
Family: Vespertilionidae
Genus: Myotis
Species: M. muricola
Binomial name
Myotis muricola
(Gray, 1846)

Wall-roosting Mouse-eared Bat, or Nepalese Whiskered Myotis (Myotis muricola) is a species of vesper bat in the Vespertilionidae family. The type locality of M.muricola is Nepal.

Contents

Taxonomic notes

Previously,M.muricola known as a subspecies of Myotis mystacinus but the genetic studies indicate that bats currently referred to M.muricola represent a complex of species.

Evolution

The greatest evolutionary success of bats is the acquisition of powered flight (Cooper & Tabin, 2008). They have hand wings ( Chiroptera )which is a highly modified tetrapod limb structure (Cooper & Tabin, 2008) that consists of a membrane of skin stretched between dramatically elongated third, fourth, and fifth forelimb digits. (Sears, Behringer, Rasweiler, & Niswander, 2006). The first bat fossil discovered approximately 50 million years ago and it show no differ than modern bats (Richardson, 1993). However, there is at least a 14-million-year gap in the existing fossil record (Cooper & Tabin, 2008). Thus, no intermediate stages in the bats’ family tree have been identified (Richardson, 1993). A studies led by Sears, Behringer, Rasweiler, & Niswander (2006), suggests that the evolution of bat wings was due not to changes in the bone genes themselves but to a change in the gene that regulates the expression of these bone genes. The development of the bat embryo are compared to the development of the mouse embryo to find gene might have been involved. A gene that coded a certain protein (called Bmp2) responsible for bone growth and found that the expression of this gene was indeed 30% higher in the developing forelimbs of bats than it was in mice. This indicated that probably happened around 50 million years ago, has caused an abnormal growth of the forelimbs digits in bats and use their overdeveloped fingers as wings, and eventually became some of the most successful mammals on Earth.

Morphology

The color of upper parts of M.muricola are brown to gray with dark bases and the under parts with dark bases ,light brown tips. The ears are moderately long, well-developed slender tragus, bent forwards and bluntly pointed (Francis C. M., 2008) . M.muricola have small feet with wing membrane attached at base of toes. The tail is long, completely enclosed in the interfemoral membrane. Its have 3 pairs of premolars which upper canine much longer than third premolar. Second premolar is small and slightly intruded from the tooth row. (Yasuma, Andau, Apin, Tuh Yit Yu, & Kimsui, 2003).

Distributions

M.muricola is found in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam(Simmons,2005.).

Ecology

M.muricola is a nocturnal and insectivorous bat. Though certain insects are not active all night but a lot are flying in the first two hours after sunset and before dawn (Richardson, 1993). M.muricola tends to feed at these active times by using ultrasonic echo-location. 'M.muricola' catch insect in flight, perched on foliage or the ground, or from a water surface. The small insects usually caught directly in the mouth. Larger ones be scooped out of the air by tail membrane and flip it to the mouth, or slapped the prey to the mouth with wing tips (Bonaccooso, 1998) . They do drink by obtaining moisture from the juicy insides of insects, swooping low over the surface of water and droplets of water from the roof of tunnel or caves whilst roosting (Richardson, 1993).

They do emit high pitched sound that humans cannot hear called echolocation. This ability enables M.muricola to find their way around in the dark and foraging. Bats are social animals and like to colonize together, sometime roosting singly (Richardson, 1993).

Habitat

They roosting different site for differ needs. M.muricola can be found roosting in curled-up banana leaves (Francis C. M., 2008). They even roosting in limestone forest (Abdullah,M.T, Azlan,Mohd. & J., NEUCHLOS,2005),hollow trees,rock shelters,artificial caves in the form of mines and tunnels,old building such as old house and church (Richardson, 1993).

Conservation status

According to 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species,M.muricola is at least concern.

References

  • Abdullah, M.T., Azlan, Mohd., Neuchlos, J. (2005). "Diversity of Chiropterans in limestone forest area, Bau, Sarawak". Malays. Appl. Biol. 34 (1): 59–64. 
  • Bonaccooso, F.J. (1998). Bats of Papua New Guinea. Washington DC: Conservation International. 
  • Francis, C.M., Guillén, A., Robinson, M.F. (1999). Order Chiroptera: Bats. Wildlife of Lao PDR: 1999 Status Report .
  • Khan, M.M. (1992) (in Malay). Mamalia Semenanjung Malaysia. OCLC 34640593. 
  • Payne, J., Francis, C.M., Phillipps, K. (1994). A Field guide to the Mammals of Borneo. Petaling Jaya: The Sabah Society. 
  • Richardson, P. (1993). Bats. London: Whittet Books. 
  • Simmons, N.B. (2005). "Order Chiroptera". In Wilson, D.E., Reeder, D.M.. Mammal species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press.. 
  • Yasuma, S., Andau, M., Apin, L., Tuh Yit Yu, F., Kimsui, L. (2003). Identification keys to the mammals of Borneo. Sabah: BBEC Publication. 
  • IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Retrieved on 27 January 2009.

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