Starstreak (missile)

Starstreak redirects here. For the Marvel comics superheroine named Starstreak, see Julie Power.
Starstreak
Starstreak.JPG
Starstreak missile on display at the Africa Aerospace & Defence exposition, September 2006
Type Manportable/Vehicle mounted surface-to-air missile
Place of origin United Kingdom UK
Service history
In service 1997 - Present
Used by See Operators
Production history
Designed 1980s
Manufacturer Thales Air Defence
Produced November 1986
Number built 7,000
Variants See Variants
Specifications (Starstreak High Velocity Missile)
Weight 16.82 kg (37.1 lb)
Length 1.397 m (4 ft 7 in)
Diameter 13 cm (5.1 in)
Crew 1

Effective range 0.3–7 km (0.19–4.3 mi)
Warhead Three explosive sub-munitions ("darts")
Warhead weight 0.9 kg (2 lb)
Detonation
mechanism
Impact Delay

Engine First stage: Royal Ordnance 'Brambling' cast double-based propellant blip rocket motor.
Second stage: Royal Ordnance 'Titus' cast double-based propellant
Speed Mach 3.5 at second stage burnout
Guidance
system
SACLOS system

Starstreak is a British short range surface-to-air missile manufactured by Thales Air Defence (formerly Shorts Missile Systems), in Belfast. It is also known as Starstreak HVM where HVM stands for "High Velocity Missile". After launch the missile accelerates to approximately Mach 3.5, at which point it launches three laser beam riding submunitions. The use of three submunitions increases the likelihood of a successful hit on the target. Starstreak has been in service with the British Army since 1997.

Contents

Development

Development on the missile began in the early 1980s after a study into a weapon system to supplement the Rapier missile system showed that a high velocity missile system was the best solution to the problem. A General Staff Requirement (GSR 3979) [1] was drawn up with the requirements of the system, specifying the requirement of 3 launch platforms for the missile:

  • A self-propelled launcher.[1]
  • A three round light weight launcher.[1]
  • A man portable launcher.[1]

In 1984 the British Ministry of Defence awarded development contracts to British Aerospace (BAe) and Shorts Missile Systems. The BAe missile was known as Thunderbolt. Shorts won the competition and were awarded the £356 million. Further development and a production contract materialized in November 1986, and the missile was officially accepted into service in September 1997. The missile is intended to replace the Javelin surface-to-air missile in British service.[1] The LML and shoulder-launched versions have been in use since 2000.[1]

In July 2001, Thales received a contract for a Successor Identification friend or foe system for Starstreak.[1]

In mid-2007 Thales UK in Northern Ireland revealed that it had developed Starstreak II, a much improved successor to the Starstreak missile. Some of the advantages included in this new missile are an improved range of 7 kilometres, an improved targeting system and the ability to operate it at much higher altitudes.[2]

Description

The Starstreak missile is transported in a sealed launch tube. This tube is attached to an aiming unit for firing. The operator tracks the target using the aiming unit's optically stabilized sight. The process of tracking the target allows the aiming unit to compute the right trajectory to bring the missile together with the target. The operator can indicate wind direction to the unit, and in the case of a long range target provide super elevation. When the initial tracking is complete, the operator fires the missile by pressing a button.[1]

The missile then fires the first stage rocket motor, which launches the missile from the tube — but burns out before leaving the tube to protect the operator. When the missile is a safe distance from the operator the second stage fires, which rapidly accelerates the missile to burn out velocity of about Mach 3.5 four hundred meters away from the operator. As the second stage burns out the three dart sub-munitions are released. The darts are each 396 millimetres (15.6 in) long with a diameter of 22 millimetres (0.87 in) and weigh about 900 grams (32 oz). Each dart consists of a rotating fore-body with two canard fins attached to a non-rotating rear assembly which has four fins. The rear assembly also houses the electronics that guide the missile. The dart housing is made from a tungsten alloy, and contains approximately 450 g (16 oz) of explosive with a delayed impact activated fuze.[1]

The missiles are guided by two laser beams projected into a two dimensional matrix by the aiming unit. The laser is modulated according to its position in the projected matrix, this modulation is detected by each sub-munition and allows it to determine any steering correction. The sub-munitions steer by briefly decelerating the rotating fore-body with a clutch. The front wings then steer the missile in the appropriate direction. The three sub-munitions fly in a formation about 1.5 meters in radius, and have enough kinetic energy to maneuver to meet a target evading at 9G at 7,000 meters.[1]

On impact with the target a delayed action fuze is triggered. This gives time for the projectile to penetrate the target before the explosive warhead detonates. The tungsten housing is designed to fragment and produce maximum damage inside the target.[1]

A demonstration was conducted in September 1999 that showed the missile being used against an FV432 armoured personnel carrier, showing the missile's effectiveness as surface-to-surface weapon.[1] Each sub-munition dart travelling at 1,250 meters per second (2,800 mph) has comparable kinetic energy to a shell from a Bofors 40 mm gun and probably has sufficient energy to penetrate the front armour of an infantry fighting vehicle. However it lacks the armour penetration capabilities of a purpose-built anti-tank guided missile or a dual purpose missile such as Air Defence Anti-Tank System.

Variants

  • ATASK (Air To Air Starstreak): Fired from a helicopter. This was developed in combination with McDonnell-Douglas and Lockheed-Martin electronics between 1995 and 1998 specifically for use with the AH-64 Apache. It has yet to enter service.[1]
  • LML: Fired from a Lightweight Multiple Launcher (LML) which holds three missiles ready for firing and can be used as either a stationary launch unit or mounted on a light vehicle such as a Land Rover or HMMWV (Humvee). This practice was first used with the Javelin system.[1]
  • Seastreak: Two versions of a naval mounting have been demonstrated—a one-man mount similar to the LML but carrying a total of six missiles, and a close in weapon system mounting holding 24 missiles.
  • SP HVM: Carried on an Alvis Stormer AFV with a roof mounted eight round launcher with internal stowage for a further 12 missiles.[1]
  • Starstreak Avenger: Built to a U.S. Army requirement in the early 1990s this system integrated the Starstreak missile on the Boeing Avenger vehicle, replacing 1 pod of Stinger missiles with 1 pod of 4 Starstreak and modifying the fire control system accordingly.
  • Starstreak Mark II: Upgrade to the Starstreak.
  • THOR/Multi Mission System (MMS): A four missile turret mounted on a Pinzgauer (6x6) cross-country chassis,[3] unveiled by Thales UK in 2005.[4]

Performance

The Starstreak has never been used in combat, so its operational effectiveness is unknown.

Advantages

Starstreak has a number of advantages over infrared guided, radar guided, and radio command MCLOS/SACLOS (Blowpipe or Javelin) missiles:

  • It cannot be jammed by infrared countermeasures or radar/radio countermeasures.[5]
  • It cannot be suppressed with anti-radar missiles.[5]
  • Its high speed makes it more likely to be able to intercept a fast moving aircraft.
  • Three submunitions increase the size of the lethal area, increasing the probability that the target will be hit by at least one submunition. This is partially reduced by the missile's attack pattern (see disadvantages).
  • Its high speed reduces the amount of time for effective usage of any potential countermeasure, such as the beam manoeuvring or illuminating the guidance laser source with a dazzling battlefield laser.

Disadvantages

  • The major disadvantage is the submunitions, having no proximity fuze, must collide with the target in order to harm it.
  • The guidance laser may be detected after the missile is fired, if the target aircraft is equipped with a suitable passive laser warning system. In contrast, to detect a passively guided Infrared homing missile requires MAWS detectors with significant disadvantages: radar-based closure-detecting style MAWS radiate an easily-detectable signal which both reveals the aircraft and may be used as an auxiliary homing signal by AA missiles, and Infrared launch signature detector-based MAWS tend to be subject to a high false alarm rate which reduces attention paid them by the pilot.
  • Battlefield obscurants such as smoke can degrade the ability of the missile operator to see the target, and could potentially interfere with the guidance laser.
  • The training level of the operator is critical since, unlike infrared guided missiles, the operator has to track the target exactly with the sighting unit aimpoint (SACLOS). If the aircraft detects the targeting laser, it has the whole period of the missile flight time to engage in avoidance maneuvers, which adds additional challenge to the missile operator's target-tracking task.

Operators

A Starstreak used in training on Dartmoor, England
 United Kingdom
  • LML - 135 systems
  • SP HVM - 150 systems (approx)
 South Africa
  • LML 8 systems

See also

Notes

References

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Starstreak missile — Disambiguation: Starstreak redirects here. For the Marvel comics superheroine named Starstreak see Julie Power. Infobox Weapon name= Starstreak caption= Starstreak missile on display at the Africa Aerospace Defence exposition, September 2006… …   Wikipedia

  • Starstreak HVM — Starstreak Allgemeine Angaben Typ …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Starstreak — Grunddaten Funktion Flugabwehrrakete Hersteller Shorts Missile …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Starstreak (ПЗРК) — Starstreak ракета Starstreak на выставке Africa Aerospace Defence, сентябрь 2006 года …   Википедия

  • Missile Surface-Air — Batterie de missiles Crotale sur la frégate Tourville de la Marine nationale française Un missile surface air, ou missile anti aérien, est un missile destiné à atteindre une cible aérienne en étant tiré depuis le sol (missiles sol air) ou la mer… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Missile anti-aérien — Missile surface air Batterie de missiles Crotale sur la frégate Tourville de la Marine nationale française Un missile surface air, ou missile anti aérien, est un missile destiné à atteindre une cible aérienne en étant tiré depuis le sol (missiles …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Missile mer-air — Missile surface air Batterie de missiles Crotale sur la frégate Tourville de la Marine nationale française Un missile surface air, ou missile anti aérien, est un missile destiné à atteindre une cible aérienne en étant tiré depuis le sol (missiles …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Missile sol-air — Missile surface air Batterie de missiles Crotale sur la frégate Tourville de la Marine nationale française Un missile surface air, ou missile anti aérien, est un missile destiné à atteindre une cible aérienne en étant tiré depuis le sol (missiles …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Missile surface-air — Batterie de missiles Crotale sur la frégate Tourville de la Marine nationale française Un missile surface air, ou missile anti aérien, est un missile destiné à atteindre une cible aérienne en étant tiré depuis le sol (missiles sol air) ou la mer… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Blowpipe missile — Infobox Weapon name= Blowpipe caption= A Canadian missile detachment of 129th Airfield Air Defense Battery, RCA, with Blowpipe during NATO Exercise Cornet Phaser. The men are wearing Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) protective gear. origin …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.