Automotive industry in the United States
The American automobile industry began in the 1890s and rapidly evolved into the largest automotive producer in the world through the use of mass-production. The United States was the world's leader amongst motor vehicles main manufacturers many dozens years. US lost a leadership to Japan since 1980s (and then to China since 2009) and currently is the third largest manufacturer in the world. In 2010, 7,761,443 motor vehicles were manufactured in US only, although former production were up to 13—15 million per year sometimes in 1970s—2000s.
The motor vehicle industry began with hundreds of manufacturers, but by the end of the 1920s it became dominated by three large companies - General Motors, Ford and Chrysler. After the Great Depression and World War II, these companies continued to prosper. However, beginning in the 1970s, a combination of high oil prices, increased competition from foreign auto manufacturers, and increasing government regulation severely affected the companies. In the ensuing years, the companies periodically bounced back, but by 2008 the industry was in turmoil. As a result General Motors and Chrysler filed bankruptcy reorganization and were bailed out with loans and investments from the federal government.
Prior to the 1980s, most of the plants were owned by domestic manufacturers of the Big Three (GM, Ford, Chrysler) and AMC. However that has dropped steadily since with auto transplants, factories established in the US by foreign-owned car companies.
The history of the American automobile industry
The early years
The automobile in America evolved from the horse-powered buggy and initial efforts consisted of attaching an engine to an existing buggy. The first American automobiles were developed in the 1890s. The American automobile market began its early years with hundreds of auto makers and a variety of technologies. Internal combustion engines, battery-powered electric engines, and steam engines were used. Electric cars were popular in cities, where the short range of their batteries were less of a concern, and charging stations were available. Steam cars were also initially popular, despite the long starting time in cold weather. Gasoline powered internal combustion engines were initially deemed too unreliable, noisy, dirty, hard to start, and difficult to shift. The popularity of steam and electric cars lasted for about the first decade of the 1900s, after which the gasoline powered cars predominated due to the invention of the electric starter in 1911 and the lower production costs of gasoline powered cars.
John William Lambert's Buckeye gasoline buggy, made in 1891, is considered the first practical gasoline-powered automobile made in the United States. Charles Duryea and J. Frank Duryea are generally acknowledged as the first U.S. car makers to build more than one automobile. In 1893, they produced a one-cylinder two-stroke gasoline-powered car. They were followed soon after by Elwood Haynes and Alexander Winton. By the end of the 1800s, the biggest auto manufacturer was Albert Augustus Pope, who through a series of companies sold mostly steam and electric automobiles. The first mass production automobile was made by Ransom E. Olds with the Oldsmobile Curved Dash in 1901. Sales climbed and in 1903 he sold 3,750 of the vehicles.
Development of the American road system
The practicality of the automobile was initially limited because of the lack of suitable roads. Travel between cities was mostly done by railroad or waterways. Roads were mostly dirt and hard to travel, especially in bad weather. The Federal Aid Road Act of 1916 allocated $75 million for building roads, and the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921 provided additional funding for road construction. By 1924 there were 31,000 miles of paved road in the U.S.
The Birth of the Big Three Automakers
Henry Ford began building cars in 1896 and started his own company in 1903. The Ford Motor Company improved mass-production with the first conveyor belt-based assembly line in 1913, producing the Model T (which had been introduced in 1908). These assembly lines significantly reduced costs. The first models were priced at $850, but by 1924 had dropped to $290. The Model T sold extremely well and Ford became the largest automobile company in the U.S. By the time it was retired in 1927, more than 15 million Model Ts had been sold. Ford introduced the Model A in 1927 (after a six-month production stoppage to convert from the Model T), and produced it through 1931. However, while the Model A was successful, Ford lost ground to GM and eventually Chrysler, as auto buyers looked to more upscale cars and newer styling. Ford was also a pioneer in establishing foreign manufacturing facilities, with production in England in 1911, and Germany and Australia in 1925. Ford purchased the luxury Lincoln automaker in 1922 and established the Mercury division in 1938.
General Motors Corporation, the company that would soon become the world's largest automaker, was founded in 1908 by William Durant. Durant had previously been a carriage maker, and had taken control of Buick in 1904. The company initially acquired Buick, Oldsmobile and Oakland (later to become Pontiac) in 1908. The next year GM acquired Cadillac, along with a number of other car companies and parts suppliers. Durant also was interested in acquiring Ford, but after initial merger talks, Henry Ford decided to keep his company independent. In 1910, Durant lost control of GM after over-extending the company with its acquisitions. A group of banks took over control of GM and ousted Durant. Durant and Louis Chevrolet founded Chevrolet in 1913 and it quickly became very successful. Durant began acquiring stock in GM and by 1915 had majority control. Chevrolet was acquired by GM in 1917 and Durant was back in charge of GM. In 1921, Durant was again forced out of the company. During the late 1920s, General Motors became the largest automaker, overtaking Ford. Under the leadership of Alfred Sloan, General Motors instituted decentralized management and separate divisions for each price class. They also introduced annual model changes. GM also became an innovator in technology under the leadership of Charles Kettering. GM followed Ford by expanding overseas, including purchasing England's Vauxhall Motors in 1925, Germany's Opel in 1929, and Australia's Holden in 1931.
Walter Chrysler was formerly president of Buick and an executive of GM. After leaving GM in 1920 he took control of the Maxwell Motor Company, revitalized the company and in 1925 reorganized it into Chrysler Corporation. He then acquired Dodge Brothers in 1927. The acquisition of Dodge gave Chrysler the manufacturing facilities and dealer network that it needed to significantly expand production and sales. In 1928, Chrysler introduced the Plymouth and DeSoto brands. Chrysler also overtook Ford to become the second largest auto maker by the 1930s, following similar strategies as General Motors.
The Great Depression and World War II
The 1930s saw the demise of many auto makers due to the economic effects of the Great Depression, stiff competition from the Big Three, and/or mismanagement. Luxury carmakers were particularly affected by the economy, with companies like Stutz Motor Car Company, Pierce-Arrow Motor Car Company, and the Marmon Motor Car Company going out of business. The decade also saw several companies with innovative engineering, such as the Doble Steam Motors Corporation (advanced steam engines) and Franklin Automobile Company (air-cooled aluminum engines) going out of business. Errett Lobban Cord, who controlled the Auburn Automobile Company (which also sold the Cord) and the Duesenberg Motor Company, was under investigation by the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Internal Revenue Service. His auto empire collapsed in 1937 and production ceased.
Major technological innovations were introduced or were adopted widely during the 1930s, such as synchromesh manual transmissions, semi-automatic transmissions, automatic transmissions, hydraulic brakes, independent front suspension, and overhead-valve engines. The Cord 810 used front-wheel drive, had hidden headlights, and was offered with a supercharger. Exterior styling designs were more flowing, as shown most noticeably on the Auburn Speedster and the Cord 810. Radical air-streamed design was introduced on the Chrysler Airflow, a sales flop, and the Lincoln Zephyr (both of which used unit-body construction).
When the U.S. entered World War II, all domestic passenger automobile production ceased by February 1942. All factories were converted to produce war materiel such as armaments, aircraft and military vehicles. These factories produced an astonishing amount of materiel, including 5.9 million weapons, 2.8 million tanks and trucks, and 27,000 aircraft. This production was a major factor in the victory of the allies.
Unionization of the auto manufacturers workforce
Due to the difficult working conditions in the auto production plants, auto workers began to seek representation to help improve conditions and ensure fair pay. The United Auto Workers union won recognition from GM and Chrysler in 1937, and Ford in 1941. In 1950, the automakers granted workers a company-paid pension to those 65 years old and with 30 years seniority. In the mid-1950s, the automakers agreed to set up a trust fund for unemployed auto workers. In 1973 the automakers agreed to offer pensions to any worker with 30 years seniority, regardless of age. By then the automakers had also agreed to cover the entire health insurance bill for its employees, survivors and retirees.
The decline of the independent automakers
The only major auto companies to survive the Great Depression were General Motors Corporation, Ford Motor Company, Chrysler Corporation, Hudson Motor Car Company, Nash-Kelvinator Corporation, Packard Motor Car Company, Studebaker Corporation and Crosley Motors. The former three companies, known as the Big Three, enjoyed significant advantages over the smaller independent auto companies due to their financial strength which gave them a big edge in marketing, production and technological innovation. Most of the Big Three's competitors ended production by the 1960s, and their last major domestic competitor was acquired in the 1980s.
Crosley Motors ceased auto production in 1952. Packard Motor Car Company and Studebaker Corporation merged in 1954, but ended production of Packard branded cars in 1958 and ceased all auto production in 1966.
Kaiser-Frazer Corporation was started in 1945 and acquired Willys-Overland Motors (maker of the Jeep) in 1953. Production of passenger cars was discontinued in 1955. In 1970, the company was sold to American Motors Corporation.
In 1954, Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and Hudson Motor Car Company merged to form American Motors Corporation (AMC). The company was unable to compete successfully with the big three and struggled financially. The French auto maker Renault took control of AMC in the early 1980s, but financial difficulties continued and AMC was sold to Chrysler Corporation in 1987.
The post-war years
Initial auto production after the war was slowed by the retooling process, shortages of materials and labor unrest. However, the American auto industry reflected the post-war prosperity of the late-1940s and the 1950s. Cars grew in overall size, as well as engine size during the 1950s. The Overhead valve V-8 engine developed by GM in the late-1940s proved to be very successful and helped ignite the horsepower race, the second salvo of which was Chrysler's 1951 Hemi engine. Longer, lower and wider tended to be the general trend. Exterior styling was influenced by jets and rockets as the space-age dawned. Rear fins were popular and continued to grow larger, and front bumpers and taillights were sometimes designed in the shape of rockets. Chrome plating was very popular. The most extreme version of these styling trends were found in the 1959 Cadillac Eldorado and Chrysler Corporation's 1957 Imperial. The Chevrolet Corvette and the Ford Thunderbird, introduced in 1953 and 1955 respectively, were designed to capture the sports car market. However, the Thunderbird grew in size in 1958 and evolved into a personal luxury car. The 1950s were also noted for perhaps one of the biggest miscues in auto marketing with the Ford Edsel, which was the result of unpopular styling and being introduced during an economic recession.
Big changes were taking place in automobile development in the 1960s, with the Big Three dominating the industry. Meanwhile, with the passage of the $33 billion Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, a network of regional and interstate roads continued to enhance transportation. As urban areas became more congested, more families migrated to the suburbs. In fact, between 1960 and 1970, 70 percent of the population's growth occurred in the suburbs.
Imports grew during the 1950s, with the Volkswagen Beetle being the biggest seller. In response to this the domestic auto makers developed compact cars, such as the Ford Falcon, the Chevrolet Corvair, the Studebaker Lark and the Plymouth Valiant. (The compact AMC Rambler had been around since the early 1950s.) While initially successful in sales, they mostly took sales away from larger cars within their companies.
Pony cars were introduced with the Ford Mustang in 1964 This car combined sporty looks with a long hood, small rear deck and a small rear seat. The car proved highly successful and imitators soon arose, such as the Chevrolet Camaro, Pontiac Firebird, Dodge Challenger, Plymouth Barracuda (actually introduced two weeks prior to the Mustang), Mercury Cougar and AMC Javelin. Muscle cars were also introduced in 1964 with the Pontiac GTO. This car combined an intermediate-sized body with a large high-output engine. Competitors were also quickly introduced, including the Chevrolet Chevelle SS, Dodge R/T (Coronet and Charger), Plymouth Road Runner / GTX, Ford Torino and AMC AMX. Muscle cars reached their zenith in the late 1960s, but soon fell out of favor due to high insurance premiums along with the combination of emission controls and high gas prices in the early 1970s.
While the pony and muscle cars got most of the attention, the full sized cars formed the bulk of auto sales in the 1960s, helped by low oil prices. The styling excesses and technological gimmicks (such as the retractable hardtop and the pushbutton automatic transmission) of the 1950s were de-emphasized. The rear fins were downsized and largely gone by the mid-1960s, as was the excessive chrome.
Federal regulation of the auto industry
Safety and environmental issues during the 1960s led to stricter government regulation of the auto industry. This resulted in higher costs and eventually to weaker performance for cars in the 1970s. Seat lap belts were mandated by many states effective in 1962. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards initiated in 1968 required shoulder belts for front passengers, front head restraints, energy-absorbing steering columns, ignition-key warning systems, anti-theft steering column/transmission locks, side marker lights and padded interiors. Beginning in 1972, bumpers were required to be reinforced to meet 5-mph impact standards. With the Clean Air Act, emission controls began being instituted in 1968. The use of leaded gasoline began being curtailed in the early 1970s, which resulted in lower-compression engines being used, and thus reducing horsepower and performance. Catalytic converters began being widely used by the mid-1970s.
The 1970s and 1980s
By 1969, imports had increased their share of the U.S. auto market, with Volkswagen selling 548,904 vehicles, followed by Toyota with 127,018 vehicles. In response to this, the domestic auto makers introduced new compact and sub-compact cars, such as the Ford Pinto and Maverick, the Chevrolet Vega, and the AMC Gremlin, Hornet and Pacer. However, design and manufacturing problems inflicted a number of these cars and led to unfavorable perceptions of the cars.
The auto industry was severely affected by the 1973 oil crisis Arab embargo. Small fuel-efficient cars from foreign automakers took a sharply higher share of the U.S. auto sales market. The federal government initiated fuel efficiency standards (known as Corporate Average Fuel Economy, or CAFE) in 1975, effective as of 1978 for passenger cars, and as of 1979 for light trucks. For passenger cars, the initial standard was 18 miles per gallon (mpg), and increased to 27.5 mpg by 1985.
General Motors began responding first to the high gas prices, by downsizing most of their models by 1977. In 1979, the second oil price spike occurred, precipitated by political events in Iran, resulting in the 1979 energy crisis. By 1980, the economy slid into turmoil, with high inflation, high unemployment, and high interest rates. The automakers suffered large operating losses. Chrysler was hurt most severely and in 1979 received a bailout from the federal government in the form of $1.5 billion in loan guarantees, one quick fix was a Detroit-built version of their then-new French (Simca) economy car, the Horizon.
As bold and confident as the Big Three automakers were in the 1950s and 1960s, the American auto makers in the 1970s and 1980s stumbled badly, going from one engineering, manufacturing or marketing disaster to another. Ford reaped a public relations nightmare when it was revealed that the Pinto's gas tank was vulnerable to exploding when hit from behind. Ford knew about this vulnerability but did not design any safeguards in order to save a few dollars per vehicle. They rationalized that the cost of lawsuits would be less than the cost of redesigning the car. GM had a string of miscues starting with the Chevrolet Vega, which developed a reputation for rapidly rusting and having major problems with the aluminum engine. Cadillac damaged their reputation when the four-cylinder Cadillac Cimarron was introduced in 1981 (a gussied-up Chevrolet Cavalier at twice the price) and the "V8-6-4" engine didn't work as advertised. GM's reputation was also damaged when it revealed in 1977 that they were installing Chevrolet engines in Oldsmobiles, and lawsuits from aggrieved Oldsmobile owners followed. Likewise litigation ensued when a trio of diesel engines, designed from gasoline engines and used in GM cars from 1978 to 1985 suffered major problems. Class action lawsuits and efforts from the Federal Trade Commission resulted in buybacks of the cars from GM. Chrysler also suffered damage to its reputation when its compact cars, the Plymouth Volaré and Dodge Aspen, were developed quickly and suffered from massive recalls and poor quality.
In 1981, Japanese automakers entered into a so-called "Voluntary restraint agreement" limiting the number of autos that they could import to the U.S. to 1.68 million per year. One side effect of this quota was that the Japanese car companies began developing luxury cars that had higher profit margins, such as Toyota's Lexus, Honda's Acura,and Nissan's Infiniti divisions. Another consequence was that the Japanese car makers began opening auto production plants in the U.S., with the three largest Japanese auto manufacturers all opening production facilities by 1985. These facilities were opened primarily in the southern U.S., in states that were not union friendly. Although the U.A.W. made substantial union -organizing efforts at these plants, they remained non-union. The Big Three also began investing in and/or developing joint manufacturing facilities with several of the Japanese automakers. Ford invested in Mazda as well as setting up a joint facility with them called AutoAlliance International. Chrysler bought stock in Mitsubishi Motors and established a joint facility with them called Diamond-Star Motors. GM invested in Suzuki and Isuzu, and set up a joint manufacturing facility with Toyota under the name of Nummi.
Despite the financial and marketing upheavals during the 1970s and 1980s, the decades led to technological innovations and/or widespread use of such improvements as disc brakes, fuel injection, electronic engine control units, and electronic ignition. Front-wheel drive became the standard drive system.
By the mid-1980s, oil prices had fallen sharply, helping lead to the revitalization of the American auto industry. Under the leadership of Lee Iacocca, Chrysler Corporation mounted a comeback after its flirtation with bankruptcy in 1979. The Minivan was introduced in 1984 by Chrysler with the Plymouth Voyager and Dodge Caravan, and proved very popular. These vehicles were built on a passenger-car chassis and seated up to seven people as well as being able to hold bulky loads. Chrysler also introduced their "K-cars" in the 1980s, which came with front-wheel drive and fuel-efficient OHC engines. In 1987 Chrysler bought American Motors, which produced the Jeep. This proved to be excellent timing to take advantage of the Sport utility vehicle boom. Ford also began a comeback after losses of $3.3 billion in the early 1980s. The company introduced the very successful aerodynamic Taurus in 1985. General Motors, under the leadership of Roger Smith, was not as successful as its competitors in turning itself around and its market share fell significantly. While Ford and Chrysler were cutting production costs, GM was investing heavily in new technology. The company's attempts at overhauling its management structure and using increased technology for manufacturing production were not successful. Several large acquisitions (Electronic Data Systems and Hughes Aircraft Company) also diverted management attention away from their main industry. (Ford and Chrysler also joined in the acquisition and diversification trend, with Ford buying Jaguar Cars, Aston Martin, The Associates (a finance company), and First Nationwide Financial Corp. (a savings and loan). Chrysler purchased Lamborghini, an interest in Maserati, and Gulfstream Aerospace jets.) GM started the Saturn Corporation brand in the late 1980s as a way to gain sales from imported cars. While initially receiving a positive reception, GM later neglected to provide it much support. Around this time GM also began development on the General Motors EV1 electric car, which debuted in 1996.
The 1990s and 2000s
The 1990s began the decade in a recession, which resulted in weak auto sales and operating losses. In addition, the Invasion of Kuwait by Iraq caused a temporary jump in oil prices. However, the automakers recovered fairly quickly. In the mid-1990s, light truck sales (which included Sport utility vehicles, Pickup trucks and Minivans) began to rise sharply. Due to the CAFE standards differentiating between passenger cars and light trucks, the automakers were able to sell large and heavy vehicles without fear of the CAFE fines. Low oil prices also gave incentives for consumers to buy these gas-guzzling vehicles. The American automakers sold combined, and even separately, millions of pickup trucks and body on frame SUVs during this period. Imports such as the Toyota 4Runner, Land Cruiser, Tacoma, and Nissan Pathfinder and Frontier were also hugely popular during this time period.
The automakers also continued their trend of purchasing or investing in foreign automakers. GM purchased a controlling interest in Saab in 1990 and Daewoo Motors in 2001, and invested in Subaru in 1999 and Fiat in 2000. They also purchased the Hummer name from AM General in 1998. Ford purchased Volvo in 1999 and Land Rover in 2000. GM and Ford also established joint ventures with Chinese auto companies during this period. GM's joint ventures are with Shanghai GM, SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile, and FAW-GM Light Duty Commercial Vehicle Co Ltd. Ford's joint ventures are with Chang'an Ford and Jiangling Ford.
While the American automakers were investing in or buying foreign competitors, the foreign automakers continued to establish more production facilities in the United States. In the 1990s, BMW and Daimler-Benz opened SUV factories in Spartanburg County, South Carolina and Tuscaloosa County, Alabama, respectively. In the 2000s, Hyundai and Kia opened plants in Montgomery, Alabama and West Point, Georgia. Also, several of the Japanese auto manufacturers expanded or opened additional plants during this period.
In 1998, Chrysler and the German automaker Daimler-Benz entered into a "merger of equals" although in reality it turned out be an acquisition by Daimler-Benz. Thus the Big Three American-owned automakers turned into the Big Two automakers. However, a culture clash emerged between the two divisions, and there was an exodus of engineering and manufacturing management from the Chrysler division. The Chrysler division struggled financially, with only a brief recovery when the Chrysler 300 was introduced. In 2007 Daimler-Benz sold the company to a private equity firm, Cerberus Capital Management, thus again making it American-owned.
The 2000s began with a recession in early 2001 and the effects of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, significantly affecting auto industry sales and profitability. The stock market decline affected the pension fund levels of the automakers, requiring significant contributions to the funds by the automakers (with GM financing these contributions by raising debt).
In 2005, oil prices began rising and peaked in 2008. With the American automakers heavily dependent upon the gas-guzzling light truck sales for their profits, their sales fell sharply. In addition, during the 2000s, the finance subsidiaries of the Big Three became of increasing importance to their overall profitability (and their eventual downfall). General Motors Acceptance Corporation, the GM finance division, began making home mortgage loans, especially subprime loans. With the subsequent collapse of the subprime mortgage industry, GM suffered heavy losses.
By 2008 the Big Three were in weak financial condition and the beginning of an economic recession and the financial crisis resulted in the automakers looking to the federal government for help. Ford was in the best position, as under new CEO Alan Mulally they had fortuitously raised $23 billion in cash in 2006 by mortgaging most of their assets. Chrysler, purchased in 2007 by a private equity firm, had weak financial backing, was the most heavily dependent on light truck sales, and had few new products in their pipeline. General Motors was highly leveraged, also heavily dependent on light truck sales, and burdened by high health care costs.
The CEOs of the Big Three requested government aid in November 2008, but sentiment in Congress was against the automakers, especially after it was revealed that they had flown to Washington D.C. on their private corporate jets. In December 2008, President Bush gave $17.4 billion to GM and Chrysler from the Troubled Asset Relief Program program as temporary relief for their cashflow problems. Several months later, President Obama formed the Automotive Task Force to decide how to handle GM and Chrysler. Chrysler received a total of $12.5 billion in TARP funds and entered Chapter 11 bankruptcy in April 2009. Automaker Fiat was given management control and a 20% ownership stake (adjusted to 35% under certain conditions), the U.S. and Canadian governments were given a 10% holding, and the remaining ownership was given to a Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association (VEBA), which was a trust fund established to administer employee health care benefits. The Automotive Task Force requested that GM CEO Rick Wagoner resign (although he was replaced by another long-time GM executive, Frederick Henderson). GM received a total of $49.5 billion in TARP finds and entered Chapter 11 bankruptcy in June 2009. The U.S. and Canadian governments received a 72.5% ownership stake, a VEBA received 17.5%, and the unsecured creditors received 10%. As part of the bailout GM and Chrysler closed numerous production plants, and eliminated hundreds of dealerships and thousands of jobs. They also required a number of major labor union concessions. GM also sold or eliminated four of their brands: Pontiac, Hummer, Saturn Corporation, and Saab. In addition to the $62 billion that the automakers received from TARP, their financing arms, GMAC and Chrysler Financial received an additional $17.8 billion.
Ford did not request any government assistance, but as part of their downsizing sold Volvo in 2010. (They had previously sold Aston Martin in 2007, and Land Rover and Jaguar Cars in 2008). Under the Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing Loan Program Ford borrowed $5.9 billion to help their vehicles meet higher mileage requirements.
Automobile production in the United States
General Motors (2005) Total motor vehicles Passenger cars Light commercial vehicles Heavy trucks 3 382 314 1 215 677 2 127 062 39 576
Ford-Autoalliance (2005) Total motor vehicles Passenger cars Light commercial vehicles Heavy trucks 2 965 872 783 053 2 132 223 50 596 Daimler-Chrysler (2005) Total motor vehicles Passenger cars Light commercial vehicles Heavy trucks Bus and Coaches 1 652 703 325 632 1 327 071 Daimler-Chrysler (2005) Total motor vehicles Passenger cars Light commercial vehicles Heavy trucks Bus and Coaches 251 147 95 559 13 873 16 854 BMW (2005) Total motor vehicles Passenger cars Light commercial vehicles Heavy trucks 125 086 125 086 Navistar (2005) Total motor vehicles Heavy trucks Bus and Coaches 84 678 70 735 13 943 Paccar-DAF (2005) Total motor vehicles Heavy trucks Kenworth 33 282 33 282 Peterbilt 36 232 36 232 Paccard-DAF (2005) Total motor vehicles Heavy trucks Volvo Trucks 32 256 32 256 Mack Trucks 36 538 36 538 Toyota-NUMMI (2005) Total motor vehicles Passenger cars Light commercial vehicles Heavy trucks 1 283 829 988 362 295 467 Nissan Group Motor Co. LTD (2005) Total motor vehicles Passenger cars Light commercial vehicles Heavy trucks 835 946 494 836 341 110 Honda (2005) Total motor vehicles Passenger cars Light commercial vehicles Heavy trucks 973 290 973 290 Subaru (2005) Total motor vehicles Passenger cars Light commercial vehicles Heavy trucks 122 328 122 328 Mazda-Autoalliance (2005) Total motor vehicles Passenger cars Light commercial vehicles Heavy trucks 75 200 75 200 Mitsubishi (2005) Total motor vehicles Passenger cars Light commercial vehicles Heavy trucks 88 003 88 003 Isuzu (2005) Total motor vehicles Passenger cars Light commercial vehicles Heavy trucks 4 681 4 681
- Automotive industry
- Automotive market
- Big Three automobile manufacturers
- Effects of the 2008-2010 automotive industry crisis on the United States
- Presidential Task Force on the Auto Industry
- U.S. Automobile Production Figures
- Automotive industry crisis of 2008-2009
- Big Three (automobile manufacturers)
- History of Chrysler
- History of General Motors
- History of Ford
- List of U.S. cars
- ^ http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Ford-Motor-Company-Company-History.html
- ^ http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/General-Motors-Corporation-Company-History.html
- ^ http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/DaimlerChrysler-AG-Company-History.html
- ^ "U.S. Auto Plants are Cleared for War". Life: pp. 19. http://books.google.com/books?id=QU4EAAAAMBAJ&lpg=PA2&pg=PA19#v=onepage&q&f=true. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
- ^ 1960s: Developing Critical Mass
- ^ Chrysler loan agreement
- ^ http://www.engineering.com/Library/ArticlesPage/tabid/85/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/166/Ford-Pinto.aspx
- ^ http://www.popularmechanics.com/cars/news/vintage-speed/how-the-chevy-vega-almost-destroyed-gm
- ^ http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/article/0,28804,1658545_1658533_1658526,00.html
- ^ http://bulk.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F2/594/594.F2d.1106.78-2036.html
- ^ http://www.nytimes.com/1983/03/27/business/the-saga-of-the-gm-diesel-lemons-lawsuits-and-soon-an-ftc-decision.html
- ^ http://www.popularmechanics.com/cars/news/industry/4345725-5#fbIndex5
- ^ Voluntary restraint agreement
- ^ http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2001/07/02/the-unstoppable-suv.html
- ^ http://www.heraldtribune.com/article/20081026/ARTICLE/810260345
The Automobile James Lincoln Collier Marshall Cavendish Benchmark Tarrytown NY 2006
Birth of a Giant Richard Crabb Chilton Book Company Philadelphia, PA 1969
America On Wheels Frank Coffey & Joseph Layden General Publishing Group, Inc. Santa Monica, CA 1996
The American Automobile Nick Georgano Smithmark Publishers New York, NY 1992
Classic American Automobiles David Burgess Wise Galahad Books New York, NY 1980
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