Pharnaces I of Pontus

Pharnaces I (in Greek Φαρνάκης; lived 2nd century BC), fifth king of Pontus, was the son of Mithridates III, who he succeeded on the throne.rf|1|just_38.5_6. The date of his accession cannot be fixed with certainty; but it is certain, at least, that he was on the throne before 183 BC, in which year he succeeded in reducing the important city of Sinope, which had been long an object of ambition to the kings of Pontus. The Rhodians sent an embassy to Rome to complain of this aggression, but without effect.rf|2|poly_23.9_strab_12.3_liv_40.2 About the same time Pharnaces became involved in disputes with his neighbour, Eumenes II, king of Pergamon, which led to repeated embassies from both monarchs to Rome, as well as to partial hostilities. But in the spring of 181, without waiting for the return of his ambassadors, Pharnaces suddenly attacked both Eumenes II and Ariarathes IV, and invaded Galatia with a large force. Eumenes opposed him at the head of an army: but hostilities were soon suspended by the arrival of the Roman deputies, appointed by the senate to inquire into the matters in dispute. Negoiations were accordingly opened at Pergamon but led to no result, the demands of Pharnaces being rejected by the Romans as unreasonable; and the war was in consequence renewed. It continued, apparently with various interruptions, until the summer of 179 BC, when Pharnaces, finding himself unable to cope with the combined forces of Eumenes and Ariarathes, was compelled to purchase peace by the cession of all his conquests in Galatia and Paphlagonia, with the exception of Sinope.rf|3|poly_24.1_5_8_9_25.2_liv_40.20_diod_29 How long he continued to reign after this we know not; but it appears, from an incidental notice, that he was still on the throne in 170 BC, while he was certainly dead in 154, when his brother Mithridates IV is mentioned as king.rf|4|poly_27.17 Polybius accuses him of having an arrogant and violent character, siding with the opinion of Eumenes and the Romans.

References

*Smith, William (editor); "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology", [http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/2574.html "Pharnaces I"] , Boston, (1867)

Notes

ent|1|just_38.5_6 Justin, "Epitome of Pompeius Trogus", [http://www.attalus.org/translate/justin6.html#38.5 xxxviii. 5] , [http://www.attalus.org/translate/justin6.html#38.6 6] ent|2|poly_23.9_strab_12.3_liv_40.2 Polybius, "Histories", [http://perseus.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0234;query=chapter%3D%23989;layout=;loc=23.10 xxiii. 9] ; Strabo, "Geography", [http://perseus.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0239;query=chapter%3D%2371;layout=;loc=12.4.1 xii. 3] ; Livy, "Ab urbe condita", [http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=Liv6His.sgm&
] ent|3|poly_24.1_5_8_9_25.2_liv_40.20_diod_29 Polybius, [http://perseus.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0234;query=chapter%3D%23999;layout=;loc=24.2 xxiv. 1] , [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0234&query=chapter%3D%231003&layout=&loc=24.6 5] , [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0234;query=chapter%3D%231006;layout=;loc=24.7 8] , [http://perseus.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0234;query=chapter%3D%231007;layout=;loc=24.10 9] [http://perseus.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0234;query=chapter%3D%231015;layout=;loc=25.1 xxv. 2] ; Livy, [http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=Liv6His.sgm&
] ; Diodorus Siculus, "Bibliotheca", xxix ent|4|poly_27.17 Polybius, [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0234;query=chapter%3D%231037;layout=;loc=27.16 xxvii. 17] ----


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