Anwar Sadat

Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat in 1980.
3rd President of Egypt
In office
15 October 1970 – 6 October 1981
Vice President Hosni Mubarak
Preceded by Gamal Abdel Nasser
Succeeded by Hosni Mubarak
3rd President of the United Arab Republic
In office
15 October 1970 – 1971
Personal details
Born 25 December 1918(1918-12-25)
Mit Abu al-Kum, Egypt
Died 6 October 1981(1981-10-06) (aged 62)
Cairo, Egypt
Nationality Egyptian
Political party National Democratic Party
Other political
Arab Socialist Union
  • Ehsan Madi
  • Jehan Sadat
Religion Sunni Islam

Muhammad Anwar al-Sadat (Arabic: محمد أنور الساداتMuḥammad Anwar as-Sādāt, Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [mæˈħæmmæd ˈʔɑnwɑɾˤ essæˈdæːt]; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981. In his eleven years as president he changed Egypt's direction, departing from some of the economic and political principles of Nasserism by re-instituting the multi-party system, and launching the Infitah economic policy.

He was a senior member of the Free Officers group that overthrew the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, and a close confidant of President Gamal Abdel Nasser, whom he succeeded as President in 1970. As president he led Egypt in the October War of 1973 to re-acquire Egyptian territory lost to Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War, making him a hero in Egypt and, for a time, the wider Arab World. Afterwards he engaged in negotiations with Israel, culminating in the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty. This won him the Nobel Peace Prize but also made him unpopular among some Arabs, resulting in a temporary suspension of Egypt's membership in the Arab League,[1][2][3][4] and eventually his assassination.


Early life

Anwar Sadat was born on 25 December 1918 in Mit Abu al-Kum, al-Minufiyah, Egypt to a poor family, one of 13 brothers and sisters. His father was Nubian Egyptian, and his mother was Nubian Sudanese.[5] He spent his early childhood under the care of his grandmother, who told him stories revolving around resistance to the British occupation and drawing on contemporary history.[6]

During Sadat’s childhood, he admired and was influenced greatly by four individuals. The first of his childhood heroes was Zahran, the alleged hero of the Denshawai incident, who resisted the British occupation in a farmer protest. According to the story, a British soldier was killed, and Zahran was the first Egyptian hanged in retribution. Stories like the Ballad of Zahran introduced Sadat to Egyptian nationalism, a value he held throughout his life.[6]

The second individual was Kemal Ataturk, who was the leader of contemporary Turkey. Sadat admired his ability to overthrow the foreign influence and his many social reforms. He also idolized Mahatma Gandhi and his belief of nonviolence when facing injustice. As Egypt was under the occupation of the United Kingdom, Sadat was fascinated by Hitler’s Nazi German army for their quick ability to become a strategic threat to Britain.[6]

He graduated from the Royal Military Academy in Cairo in 1938 and was appointed to the Signal Corps. He entered the army as a second lieutenant and was posted to Sudan (Egypt and Sudan were one country at the time). There, he met Gamal Abdel Nasser, and along with several other junior officers they formed the secret Free Officers Movement committed to freeing Egypt from British domination and royal corruption.

During the Second World War he was imprisoned by the British for his efforts to obtain help from the Axis Powers in expelling the occupying British forces. Along with his fellow Free Officers, Sadat participated in the military coup that launched the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 which overthrew King Farouk I on 23 July of that year. Sadat was assigned to announce the news of the revolution to the Egyptian people over the radio networks.

During Nasser's presidency

During the presidency of Gamal Abdel Nasser, Sadat was appointed Minister of State in 1954. In 1959, he assumed the position of Secretary to the National Union. Sadat was the President of the National Assembly (1960–1968) and then Vice President and member of the Presidential Council in 1964. He was reappointed as Vice President again in December 1969.


Some of the major events of the Sadat's presidency were his Corrective revolution to consolidate power, the break with the Egypt's long-time ally and aid-giver the USSR, the 1973 October War with Israel, the Camp David peace treaty with Israel, the "opening up" (or Infitah) of Egypt's economy, and finally his assassination in 1981.

Early years

Sadat with US President Ronald Reagan, 1981

Sadat succeeded Nasser as president after the latter's death in 1970. Sadat's presidency was widely expected to be short-lived. Viewing him as having been little more than a puppet of the former president, Nasser's supporters in government settled on Sadat as someone they could manipulate easily. Sadat surprised everyone with a series of astute political moves by which he was able to retain the presidency and emerge as a leader in his own right.[7] On 15 May 1971[8] Sadat announced his Corrective Revolution, purging the government, political and security establishments of the most ardent Nasserists. Sadat encouraged the emergence of an Islamist movement which had been suppressed by Nasser. Believing Islamists to be socially conservative he gave them" considerable cultural and ideological autonomy" in exchange for political support.[9]

In 1971, three years into the War of Attrition in the Suez Canal zone, Sadat endorsed in a letter the peace proposals of UN negotiator Gunnar Jarring which seemed to lead to a full peace with Israel on the basis of Israel's withdrawal to its pre-war borders. This peace initiative failed as neither Israel nor the United States of America accepted the terms as discussed then.

Sadat likely perceived that Israel's desire to negotiate was directly correlated to how much of a military threat they perceived from Egypt, which, after the Six-Day War of 1967, was at an all time low. Israel also viewed the most substantial part of the Egyptian threat as the presence of Soviet equipment and personnel (in the thousands at this time). It was for those reasons that Sadat expelled the Soviet military advisers from Egypt and proceeded to whip his army into shape for a renewed confrontation with Israel. During this time, Egypt was suffering greatly from economic problems caused by the Six-Day War and the Soviet relationship also declined due to their unreliability and refusal of Sadat’s requests for more military support.[6]

Yom Kippur War, 1973

On 6 October 1973, in conjunction with Hafez al-Assad of Syria, Sadat launched the October War, also known as the Yom Kippur War (and less commonly as the Ramadan War), a surprise attack against the Israeli forces occupying the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula and the Syrian Golan Heights in an attempt to retake the territory captured by Israel six years earlier. The Egyptian and Syrian performance in the initial stages of the war (Operation Badr, also known as The Crossing) astonished both Israel and the Arab World. The most striking achievement was the Egyptian military's advance approximately 15 km into the occupied Sinai Peninsula after penetrating and largely destroying the Bar Lev Line. This line was popularly thought to have been an impregnable defensive chain.

As the war progressed, three divisions of the Israeli army (IDF) led by General Ariel Sharon had crossed the Suez Canal, trying to encircle first the Egyptian Second Army and when it failed, the Egyptian Third Army. Prompted by an agreement between the United States of America and Egypt's Soviet allies, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 338 on 22 October 1973, calling for an immediate ceasefire.[10] Although agreed upon, the ceasefire was immediately broken.[11] Alexei Kosygin, the Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, cancelled an official meeting with Danish Prime Minister Anker Jørgensen to travel to Egypt where he tried to persuade Sadat to sign a peace treaty. During Kosygin's two-day long stay it's unknown if he and Sadat ever met in person.[12] The IDF then continued their drive to encircle the Egyptian army. The encirclement was completed on 25 October, three days after the ceasefire was broken. This development prompted superpower tension, but a second ceasefire was imposed cooperatively on October 25 to end the war. At the conclusion of hostilities, Israeli forces were 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Damascus and 101 kilometres (63 mi) from Cairo.

Beginning of the peace process

The initial Egyptian and Syrian victories in the war restored popular morale throughout Egypt and the Arab World and, for many years after, Sadat was known as the "Hero of the Crossing". Israel recognized Egypt as a formidable foe, and Egypt's renewed political significance eventually led to regaining and reopening the Suez Canal through the peace process. His new peace policy led to the conclusion of two agreements on disengagement of forces with the Israeli government. The first of these agreements was signed on 18 January 1974, and the second on September 4, 1975.

One major aspect of Sadat's peace policy was to gain some religious support for his efforts. Already during his visit to the US in October–November 1975, he invited Evangelical pastor Billy Graham for an official visit, which was held few days following Sadat's visit.[13] In addition to cultivating relations with Evangelical Christians in the US, he also built some cooperation with the Vatican. On 8 April 1976, he visited for the first time at the Vatican, and got a message of support from Pope Paul VI regarding achieving peace with Israel, to include a just solution to the Palestinian issue.[14] Sadat, on his part, extended to the Pope a public invitation to visit Cairo.[15]

Sadat also used the media to promote his purposes. In an interview he gave to the Lebanese paper El Hawadeth in early February 1976, he claimed he had secret commitment from the US government to put pressure on the Israeli government for a major withdrawal in Sinai and the Golan Heights.[16] This statement caused some concern to the Israeli government, but Kissinger denied such a promise was ever made.[17]

On November 20, 1977, Sadat became the first Arab leader to visit Israel officially when he met with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, and spoke before the Knesset in Jerusalem about his views on how to achieve a comprehensive peace to the Arab-Israeli conflict, which included the full implementation of UN Resolutions 242 and 338. He said during his visit that he hopes "that we can keep the momentum in Geneva, and may God guide the steps of Premier Begin and Knesset, because there is a great need for hard and drastic decision."[18]

The Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty

Left to Right: Queen Farah Diba of Persia, President Anwar Sadat of Egypt, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Persia (Iran), Tehran, 1975.
Sadat (left) shaking hands with Israeli Defense Minister Ezer Weizman, 1978
President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin acknowledge applause during joint session of Congress in Washington, D.C., during which President Jimmy Carter announced the results of the Camp David Accords, 18 September 1978

The Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty was signed by Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin in Washington, DC, United States, on 26 March 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978), a series of meetings between Egypt and Israel facilitated by US President Jimmy Carter. Both Sadat and Begin were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for creating the treaty. In his acceptance speech, Sadat referred to the long awaited peace desired by both Arabs and Israelis.

“Let us put an end to wars, let us reshape life on the solid basis of equity and truth. And it is this call, which reflected the will of the Egyptian people, of the great majority of the Arab and Israeli peoples, and indeed of millions of men, women, and children around the world that you are today honoring. And these hundreds of millions will judge to what extent every responsible leader in the Middle East has responded to the hopes of mankind”[19]

The main features of the agreement were the mutual recognition of each country by the other, the cessation of the state of war that had existed since the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, and the complete withdrawal by Israel of its armed forces and civilians from the rest of the Sinai Peninsula which Israel had captured during the 1967 Six-Day War.

The agreement also provided for the free passage of Israeli ships through the Suez Canal and recognition of the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba as international waterways. The agreement notably made Egypt the first Arab country to officially recognize Israel. The peace agreement between Egypt and Israel has remained in effect since the treaty was signed.

President Jimmy Carter shaking hands with Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin at the signing of the Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty on the grounds of the White House, 1979

The treaty, which gained wide support among Egyptians, was extremely unpopular in the Arab World and the wider Muslim World.[20] His predecessor Nasser had made Egypt an icon of Arab nationalism, an ideology that appeared to be sidelined by an Egyptian orientation following the 1973 war (see Egypt). By signing the accords, many non-Egyptian Arabs believed Sadat had put Egypt's interests ahead of Arab unity, betraying Nasser's pan-Arabism, and destroyed the vision of a united "Arab front" and elimination of the "Zionist Entity". However, Sadat realized early on that peace is the solution.[21][22] Sadat's shift towards a strategic relationship with the US was also seen as a betrayal by many Arabs. In the United States his peace moves gained him popularity among some Evangelical circles. He was awarded the Prince of Peace Award by Pat Robertson.[23]

In 1979, the Arab League expelled Egypt in the wake of the Egyptian–Israel peace agreement, and the League moved its headquarters from Cairo to Tunis. Arab League member states believed in the elimination of the "Zionist Entity" and Israel at that time. It was not until 1989 that the League re-admitted Egypt as a member and returned its headquarters to Cairo. As part of the peace deal, Israel withdrew from the Sinai peninsula in phases, returning the entire area to Egypt on 25 April 1982.[21]

Sadat's relationship with the Shah of Iran

Before the Islamic revolution of Iran in 1979, the relationship between Cairo and Tehran was so friendly that the Shah of Iran (Persia), Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, called Sadat his "dear brother". The Shah's first wife was Princess Fawzia of Egypt. She was the eldest daughter of Sultan Fuad I of Egypt and Sudan (later King Fuad I) and his second wife Nazli Sabri.

After his overthrow, the deposed Shah spent the last days of his life in exile in Egypt. When the Shah died, Sadat ordered that he be given a state funeral and be interred at the Al-Rifa'i Mosque in Cairo, the resting place of Egyptian Khedive Isma'il Pasha, his mother Khushyar Hanim, and numerous other members of the royal family of Egypt and Sudan.[24]

Unpopularity and conspiracy theories

The last years of Sadat's presidency were marked by turmoil and there were several allegations of corruption against him and his family.[25] It has been said that he was assassinated "at the peak" of his unpopularity.[26] In January 1977, a series of 'Bread Riots' protested Sadat's economic liberalization and specifically a government decree lifting price controls on basic necessities like bread. The riots lasted for two days and included hundreds of thousands in Cairo. 120 buses and hundreds of buildings were destroyed in Cairo alone.[27] The riots ended with the deployment of the army and the re-institution of the subsidies/price controls.[28][29]

Earlier in his reign Islamists had benefited from the `rectification revolution` and the release from prison of activists jailed under Nasser[30] but Sadat's Sinai treaty with Israel enraged Islamists, particularly the radical Egyptian Islamic Jihad. According to interviews and information gathered by journalist Lawrence Wright, the group was recruiting military officers and accumulating weapons, waiting for the right moment to launch "a complete overthrow of the existing order" in Egypt. Chief strategist of El-Jihad was Abbud al-Zumar, a colonel in the military intelligence whose "plan was to kill the main leaders of the country, capture the headquarters of the army and State Security, the telephone exchange building, and of course the radio and television building, where news of the Islamic revolution would then be broadcast, unleashing - he expected - a popular uprising against secular authority all over the country."[31]

In February 1981, Egyptian authorities were alerted to El-Jihad's plan by the arrest of an operative carrying crucial information. In September, Sadat ordered a highly unpopular roundup of more than 1500 people, including many Jihad members, but also the Coptic Pope and other Coptic clergy, intellectuals and activists of all ideological stripes.[32] All non-government press was banned as well.[33] The round up missed a Jihad cell in the military led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli, who would succeed in assassinating Anwar Sadat that October.[34]

According to Tala'at Qasim, ex-head of the Gama'a Islamiyya interviewed in Middle East Report, it was not Islamic Jihad but the Islamic Group (al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya) that organized the assassination and recruited the assassin (Islambouli). Members of the Group's 'Maglis el-Shura' ('Consultative Council') – headed by the famed 'blind shaykh' – were arrested two weeks before the killing, but they did not disclose the existing plans and Islambouli succeeded in assassinating Sadat.[35]


On 6 October 1981, Sadat was assassinated during the annual victory parade held in Cairo to celebrate Egypt's crossing of the Suez Canal.[36] In addition to Sadat, eleven others were killed, including the Cuban ambassador, an Omani general, and a Coptic Orthodox bishop. Twenty-eight were wounded, including Vice President Hosni Mubarak, Irish Defence Minister James Tully, and four US military liaison officers.

The assassination squad was led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli after a fatwā approving the assassination had been obtained from Omar Abdel-Rahman. Islambouli was tried, found guilty, sentenced to death, and executed in April 1982.


Sadat was succeeded by his vice president Hosni Mubarak, whose hand was injured during the attack. Sadat's funeral was attended by a record number of dignitaries from around the world, including a rare simultaneous attendance by three former US presidents: Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter and Richard Nixon. Sudan's President Gaafar Nimeiry was the only Arab head of state to attend the funeral. Only 3 of 24 states in the Arab LeagueOman, Somalia and Sudan – sent representatives at all.[37] Sadat was buried in the unknown soldier memorial in Cairo, across the street from the stand where he was assassinated.

Over three hundred Islamic radicals were indicted in the trial of assassin Khalid Islambouli, including Ayman al-Zawahiri, Omar Abdel-Rahman and Abd al-Hamid Kishk. The trial was covered by the international press and Zawahiri's knowledge of English made him the de facto spokesman for the defendants. Zawahiri was released from prison in 1984. His brother Mohammed al-Zawahri was imprisoned from 2000 until 17 March 2011, and then re-arrested on 20 March 2011.[38] Abboud al-Zomor and Tareq al-Zomor, two Islamic Jihad leaders imprisoned in connected with the assassination, were released on 11 March 2011.[39]

Despite these facts, the nephew of the late president, Talaat al-Sadat, claimed that the assassination was an international conspiracy. On 31 October 2006, he was sentenced to a year in prison for defaming Egypt's armed forces, less than a month after he gave the interview accusing Egyptian generals of masterminding his uncle's assassination. In an interview with a Saudi television channel, he also claimed both the United States and Israel were involved: "No one from the special personal protection group of the late president fired a single shot during the killing, and not one of them has been put on trial," he said.[40]

Media portrayals of Anwar Sadat

In 1983, Sadat, a miniseries based on the life of Anwar Sadat, aired on US television with Oscar-winning actor Louis Gossett, Jr. in the title role. The film was promptly banned by the Egyptian government, as were all other movies produced and distributed by Columbia Pictures, over allegations of historical inaccuracies. A civil lawsuit was brought by Egypt's artists' and film unions against Columbia Pictures and the film's directors, producers and scriptwriters before a court in Cairo, but was dismissed; the court held that "the distortions and the slanders found in the film took place outside the country," so that "the crimes were not within the Egyptian courts' jurisdiction."[41]

Western authors attributed the film's poor reception to racism — Gossett being African American — in the Egyptian government or Egypt in general.[42] Either way, one Western source wrote that Sadat's portrayal by Gossett "bothered race-conscious Egyptians and wouldn't have pleased [the deceased] Sadat."[43] – The two-part series earned Gossett an Emmy nomination in the United States. The first Egyptian depiction of Sadat's life came in 2001, when Ayyam El Sadat (English: Days of Sadat) was released in Egyptian cinemas. This movie, by contrast, was a major success in Egypt, and was hailed as Ahmed Zaki's greatest performance to date.[44]

The BBC also produced a film on Sadat called "Why Was Cairo Calm?". Film director and blogger Adam Curtis summarizes the documentary: "It tells the story of Sadat's presidency - and how the American TV networks created a fantasy vision of him as a wise democratic leader who had opened up the Egyptian economy to the free market, and was loved by his people for making peace for Israel. As the film shows - this was a complete illusion."


  • Sadat, Anwar (1954) (in Arabic). قصة الثورة كاملة (The Full Story of the Revolution). Cairo: Dar el-Hilal. OCLC 23485697. 
  • Sadat, Anwar (1955) (in Arabic). صفحات مجهولة (Unknown Pages of the Revolution). Cairo: دار التحرير للطبع والنشر،. OCLC 10739895. 
  • Sadat, Anwar (1957). Revolt on the Nile. New York: J. Day Co. OCLC 1226176. 
  • Sadat, Anwar (1958). Son, This Is Your Uncle Gamal - Memoirs of Anwar el-Sadat. Beirut: Maktabat al-ʻIrfān. OCLC 27919901. 
  • Sadat, Anwar (1978). In Search of Identity: An Autobiography. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0060137428. 


  1. ^ "Middle East Peace Talks: Israel, Palestinian Negotiations More Hopeless Than Ever". Huffington Post. 2010-08-21. Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  2. ^ Vatikiotis, P.J. (1992). The History of Modern Egypt (4th edition ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University. p. 443.
  3. ^ "The Failure at Camp David - Part III Possibilities and pitfalls for further negotiations". Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  4. ^ "Egypt and Israel Sign Formal Treaty, Ending a State of War After 30 Years; Sadat and Begin Praise Carter's Role". The New York Times. 
  5. ^ Finklestone, Joseph (1996). Anwar Sadat: Visionary Who Dared. Routledge. pp. 5–7, 31. ISBN 0714634875. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Anwar Sadat". Retrieved 2009-01-22. 
  7. ^ "Egypt Corrective Revolution 1971". 2000-12-16. Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  8. ^ Le Prophete et Pharaon by Kepel, p.74
  9. ^ Jihad: the trail of political Islam. By Gilles Kepel, p.83
  10. ^ Mary Ann Fay (December 1990). "A Country Study". The Library of Congress. pp. Chapter 1, Egypt: The Aftermath of War: October 1973 War. Retrieved 2008-02-13. 
  11. ^ U.S. State Dept. Mideast Task Force, Situation Report 57, October 23, 1973
  12. ^ Golan, Galia (1990). Soviet Policies in the Middle East: From World War Two to Gorbachev. Cambridge University Press Archive. p. 89. ISBN 978– 0521358590. 
  13. ^ "Text of diplomatic cable regarding Graham's visit to Egypt (US government website)". Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  14. ^ "Text of Pope's message to Sadat". Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  15. ^ "John Anthony Volpe (US Ambassador to Italy), cable describing Sadat's visit to the Vatican". Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  16. ^ "Sadat interview to El Hawadeth" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  17. ^ "Telephone conversation between Kissinger and Rabin, February 5, 1976" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  18. ^ "Sadat Visits Israel: 1977 Year in Review.". Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  19. ^ "Anwar Al-Sadat". Retrieved 2009-01-22. 
  20. ^ Vatikiotis, P.J. (1992). The History of Modern Egypt (Fourth Edition ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University. p. 443. ISBN 080184214X. 
  21. ^ a b "Anwar el-Sadat, the Daring Arab Pioneer of Peace with Israel". The New York Times. 
  22. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1978 - Presentation Speech". Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  23. ^ "". Retrieved 2011-02-02. 
  24. ^ An Ideology of Martyrdom - TIME
  25. ^ reference needed
  26. ^ Le Prophete et Pharaon by Kepel, p.192
  27. ^ Portrait of Egypt, by Mary Ann Weaver, p.25
  28. ^ Olivier, Roy (1994). Failure of Political Islam. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p. 56. ISBN 0674291409. 
  29. ^ Weaver, Mary Ann (1999). Portrait of Egypt. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 25. ISBN 0374235422. 
  30. ^ Le Prophete et Pharaon by Kepel, p.74
  31. ^ Wright, 2006, p.49
  32. ^ 'Cracking Down', Time Magazine, September 14, 1981
  33. ^ Le Prophete et Pharaon by Kepel, p.103-4
  34. ^ Wright, 2006, p.50
  35. ^ For an account that uses this version of events, look at Middle East Report's January–March 1996 issue, specifically Hisham Mubarak's interview with ? On pages 42-43 Qasim deals specifically with rumors of Jihad Group involvement in the assassination, and denies them entirely.
  36. ^ 1981 Year in Review: Anwar Sadat Killed-
  37. ^ Tuhoy, William (October 11, 1981). Most of Arab world ignores Sadat funeral. The Spokesman-Review.
  38. ^ Brother of Al-Qaeda's Zawahri re-arrested, Sherif Tarek, Ahram Online, 20 Mar 2011
  39. ^ Egypt Releases Brother of Al Qaeda’s No. 2, Liam Stack, The New York Times, 17 March 2011
  40. ^ Sadat nephew in court appearance. BBC News. October 18, 2006.
  41. ^ Reuters (1984). Suit Over Film 'Sadat' Is Dismissed in Cairo New York Times . Retrieved 7 Januar 2009.
  42. ^ Benjamin P. Bowser, Racism and Anti-Racism in World Perspective (Sage Series on Race and Ethnic Relations, Volume 13), (Sage Publications, Inc: 1995), p.108
    Upset by 'Sadat,' Egypt Bars Columbia Films
  43. ^ Walter M. Ulloth, Dana Brasch, The Press and the State: Sociohistorical and Contemporary Studies, (University Press of America: 1987), p.483
  44. ^ Adel Darwish (2005-03-31). "Ahmed Zaki: 'Black Tiger' of Egyptian film". The Middle East Internet News Network. Retrieved 2008-02-13. 

Further reading

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Abdul Latif El-Bughadi
President of the People's Assembly of Egypt
1960 – 1968
Succeeded by
Dr. Mohamed Labib Skokeir
Preceded by
Gamal Abdel Nasser
President of Egypt
1970 – 1981
Succeeded by
Sufi Abu Taleb acting
Preceded by
Aziz Sedki
Prime Minister of Egypt
1973 – 1974
Succeeded by
Abdelaziz Muhammad Hejazi
Preceded by
Mustafa Khalil
Prime Minister of Egypt
1980 – 1981
Succeeded by
Hosni Mubarak
Party political offices
Preceded by
Chairman of the National Democratic Party
1978 – 1981
Succeeded by
Hosni Mubarak

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